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886. Compound Substantives and Adjectives.—The last part of a noun-compound consists of a noun-stem or of a verb-stem with a noun-suffix.

887. Nouns beginning with α^, ε, ο lengthen these vowels (α^ and ε to η, ο to ω) unless they are long by position. στρατ-ηγός army-leading, general (στρατός, ἄγω), εὐ-ήνεμος with fair wind (εὖ well, ἄνεμος), ξεν-ηλασία_ driving out of foreigners (ξένος, ἐλαύνω), ἀν-ώνυμος nameless (ἀν-, ὄνομα), ἀν-ώμαλος uneven (ἀν-, ὁμαλός).

a. Some compounds of ἄγω lead show α_: λοχ-α_γός captain (λόχος company).

b. By analogy to the compound the simple form sometimes assumes a long vowel: ἠνεμόεσσα windy. Cp. 28 D.

c. Lengthening rarely occurs when a preposition or πᾶς precedes: συν-ωμοσία_ conspiracy (ὄμνυ_μι swear), παν-ήγυρις general assembly (ἄγυρις ἀγορά_).

d. The lengthening in 887 is properly the result of early contraction (στρατο ¨ αγος). On the pattern of such contracted forms irrational lengthening occurs when the first part of the compound ends in a consonant, as δυσ-ηλεγής (for δυσ-αλεγής) cruel from ἀλέγω care for.

888. A noun forming the last part of a compound often changes its final syllable.

N. Masculine or feminine nouns of the second or third declensions usually remain unaltered: ἔν-θεος inspired, ἄ-παις childless.

a. -ος, -η, -ον: form compound adjectives from nouns of the first declension, neuters of the second declension, nouns of the third declension, and from many verb-stems. ἄ-τι_μος dishonoured (τι_μή), σύν-δειπνος companion at table (δεῖπνο-ν meal), ἄν-αιμος bloodless (αἷμα, 875), ἑκατόγ-χειρος hundred-handed (χείρ), δασμοφόρος bringing tribute (φέρ-ω), γεω-γράφος geographer 871 b. N. (γράφ-ω), ἰχθυο-φάγος fish-eating (φαγεῖν 529. 5).

b. -ης, -ες: form compound adjectives from nouns of the first and third declensions, and from many verb-stems: ἀ-τυχής unfortunate (τύχη), δεκα-ετής of ten years (ϝέτος), εὐ-ειδής beautiful in form (εἶδος), εὐ-μαθής quick at learning (μανθάνω, μαθ-), ἀ-φανής invisible (φαίνω, φαν-).

c. Other endings are -ης (gen. -ου), -της, -τηρ: γεω-μέτρης surveyor (871 b. N.), νομο-θέτης law-giver (νόμος, τίθημι, θε-), μηλο-βοτήρ shepherd (μῆλον, βό-σκω feed).

d. Neuters in -μα make adjectives in -μων: πρᾶγμα thing, ἀ-πρά_γμων inactive. φρήν mind becomes -φρων: εὔ-φρων well-minded, cheerful.—πατήρ father becomes -πάτωρ: ἀ-πάτωρ fatherless, φιλο-πάτωρ loving his father.

e. Compounds of γῆ land end in -γειος, -γεως: κατά-γειος subterranean, λεπτό-γεως of thin soil.—Compounds of ναῦς ship, κέρας horn, γῆρας old age end in -ως, as περί-νεως supercargo, ὑψί-κερως lofty-antlered (163 a), ἀ-γήρως free from old age.

889. The last member of a compound is often a verbal element that is not used separately: ἀγαλματ-ο-ποιός statue-maker, sculptor, ὑπ-ήκοος subject (ἀκούω hear, ἀκήκοα), λογο-γράφος speech-writer. -φορος bringing, -δομος building, -δρομος running are used separately in the meanings tribute, building, race.

890. An abstract word can enter into composition only by taking a derivative ending (usually -ια_) formed from a real or assumed compound adjective: ναῦ-ς ship, μάχη fight = ναύ-μαχος, whence ναυ-μαχία_ naval battle; εὖ well, βουλή counsel = εὔ-βουλος, whence εὐ-βουλία_ good counsel; ἀν-neg., ἀρχή rule = ἄν-αρχος, whence ἀν-αρχία_ anarchy; εὖ well, πρᾶξις doing = *εὐπρα_ξος, whence εὐ-πρα_ξία_ well-doing. Contrast εὐ-βουλία_ with προ-βουλή forethought, εὐ-λογία_ eulogy with πρό-λογος prologue.

a. Only after a preposition does an abstract word remain unchanged: προβουλή forethought. Exceptions are rare: μισθο-φορά_ receipt of wages (μισθός, φορά_).

891. Compound Verbs.—Verbs can be compounded directly only by prefixing a preposition, as συμ-μάχομαι fight along with.

a. A preposition (πρό-θεσις) derived its name from this use as a prefix. Originally all prepositions were adverbs modifying the verb, and in Homer are partly so used. See 1638, 1639. Cp. upheave and heave up.

892. All compound verbs not compounded with prepositions are denominatives (ending in -εω) and formed from real or assumed compound nouns. From ναῦς ship and μάχη fight comes ναύμαχος fighting in ships, whence ναυμαχέω fight in ships; so οἰκοδομέω build a house from οἰκο-δόμος house-builder (οἶκος, δέμω). Contrast ἀνα-πείθω bring over, convince with ἀ-πιστέω disbelieve (ἄ-πιστος); ἀντι-λέγω speak against with ὁμο-λογέω agree (ὁμόλογος agreeing).—εὖ ἀγγέλλω announce good news cannot form a verb εὐαγγελλω.

a. ἀτι_μάω (ἀτίω) dishonour, δακρυχέω shed tears are exceptions. ἀν-ομοιόω make unlike is not from ἀν- and ὁμοιόω but from ἀν-όμοιος unlike.

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