The words or thoughts of a person may be quoted in direct or indirect form after verbs, or other expressions, of saying
In reporting a speech, in making a quotation, or in dialogue, a verb of saying is often repeated (P. Pr. 310b
, 345 c, X. A. 7.6.5
-6). So also in such cases as Πάνθεια εἶπεν, ἀλλὰ θάρρει, ἔφη, ὦ Κῦρε X. C. 7.3.13
(I) Direct Discourse
).—In a direct
quotation the words or thoughts quoted are given at first hand in the exact form used by the original speaker or thinker. Μεγαρέες ἔπεμπον ἐπὶ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων κήρυ_κα, ἀπικόμενος δὲ ὁ κῆρυξ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἔλεγε τάδε: “Μεγαρέες λέγουσι: ‘ἡμεῖς, ἄνδρες σύμμαχοι, οὐ δυνατοί εἰμεν τὴν Περσέων ἵππον δέκεσθαι μοῦνοι
’” the Megarians sent a herald to the generals of the Greeks
, and on his arrival the herald spoke as follows:
“The Megarians say:
, oh allies, are not able to sustain the attack of the Persian cavalry by ourselves
’” Hdt. 9.21
; and often in Hdt. (cp. 3
. 40, 3. 122, 5. 24, 7. 150, 8. 140
Direct quotation may, in prose, be introduced by ὅτι
, which has the value of quotation marks. Thus, οἱ δὲ εἶπον ὅτι ἱκανοί ἐσμεν but they said
) “we are ready
” X. A. 5.4.10
. So usually when the finite verb is omitted; as ἀπεκρί_νατο ὅτι οὔ he answered
” 1. 6. 7. The use of direct speech introduced by ὅτι
is, in general, that of familiar style. The first example is Hdt. 2.115
is very rare (Dinarchus 1. 12, 1. 102
). Cp. “the emperor sends thee this word that
, if thou love thy sons, let Marcus . . ., or any one of you, chop off your hand” Shakesp. Tit. Andr.
3. 1. 151.
(II) Indirect Discourse
). In an indirect
quotation the words or thoughts are given at second hand with certain modifications to indicate that the words or thoughts are reported. a.
The original form may be preserved except that there is a change from the first or second person to the third person: so πάντ᾽ ἐθέλει δόμεναι
H 391 reporting πάντ᾽ ἐθέλω δόμεναι
H 364. In such cases there is no grammatical dependence. b.
The narrator may report in dependent form the words or thoughts of a person from the point of view of that person. This is the common form of indirect discourse. c.
The narrator may report in dependent form the words or thoughts of a person from his own point of view. See 2624
The constructions of indirect discourse are regulated by the character of the leading verb or expression. a.
Verbs of saying take either ὅτι
and a finite verb or the infinitive (2017
Most verbs of thinking and believing take the infinitive (2018
, cp. 2580
Most verbs of knowing, perceiving, hearing, showing take the participle (2106
), but admit the construction with ὅτι
. Some are followed by the infinitive (2123 ff.). d.
On the construction of verbs of hoping, promising , and swearing, see 1868
Indirect discourse is said to be implied
in subordinate clauses dependent on verbs which involve an idea of saying
A speaker may state his own words or thoughts in the form of indirect discourse. Cp. 2614
Clauses standing in indirect discourse are substantive clauses, and usually object
of the leading verb; its subject
, when that verb is passive or intransitive. The infinitive in substantive clauses after verbs of saying and thinking retains the time of the corresponding finite verb of direct discourse.
Indirect questions (2677
) have the constructions of indirect discourse.