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2168. The term parataxis (παράταξις arranging side by side), as here employed, is restricted to the arrangement of two independent sentences side by side, though one is in thought subordinate to the other.

a. In Greek, παράταξις means simply coördination in general, as ὑπόταξις means subordination.

2169. In many cases parataxis is a common form of expression not only in the earlier language of Homer, but also in Attic prose and poetry.

So frequently in Attic prose with καί, τὲ . . . καί, ἅμα . . . καί, εὐθὺς . . . καί, and with δέ meaning for. Thus, ἤδη δὲ ἦν ὀψὲ . . . καὶ οἱ Κορίνθιοι πρύμναν ἐκρούοντο it was already late and (for when) the Corinthians started to row astern T. 1.50, καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν περὶ πλήθουσαν ἀγορὰ_ν καὶ ἔρχονται . . . κήρυ_κες and it was already about the time when the market-place fills and ( = when) heralds arrived X. A. 2.1.7, ““καὶ ἅμα ταῦτ᾽ ἔλεγε καὶ ἀπῄειand as soon as he said this, he departedX. H. 7.1.28, ἐπίστασθε μόνοι τῶν Ἑλλήνων τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἄνδρας τι_μᾶν: εὑρήσετε δὲ . . . παρ᾽ ὑ_μῖν στρατηγοὺς ἀγαθοὺς (ἀνακειμένους) you alone among the Greeks know how to honour men of merit; for you will find statues of brave generals set up among you Lyc. 51. Cp. σκέψασθε δέ T. 1.143.

a. Temporal conjunctions, as ἡνίκα, are rarely used to introduce such clauses, which often indicate a sudden or decisive occurrence or simultaneous action.

b. Thucydides is especially fond of καί or τέ to coördinate two ideas, one of which is subordinate to the other.

2170. Parataxis often occurs when a thought naturally subordinate is made independent for the sake of emphasis or liveliness. Such rhetorical parataxis occurs chiefly in the orators and in Pindar. So especially when μέν and δέ are used to coördinate two contrasted clauses, the former of which is logically subordinate and inserted to heighten the force of the latter. Here English uses whereas, while. Thus, ““αἰσχρόν ἐστι, εἰ ἐγὼ μὲν τὰ ἔργα τῶν ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν πόνων ὑπέμεινα, ὑ_μεῖς δὲ μηδὲ τοὺς λόγους αὐτῶν ἀνέξεσθεit is a shame that, whereas I have undergone the toil of exertions in your cause, you will not endure even their recitalD. 18.160.

2171. There exist many traces in Greek of the use of the older coördination in place of which some form of subordination was adopted, either entirely or in part, in the later language.

a. Thus several relative pronouns and adverbs were originally demonstrative, and as such pointed either to the earlier or the later clause. So , , τό (1105, cp. 1114): τεύχεα δ᾽ ἐξενάριζε, τά οἱ πόρε χάλκεος Ἄρης (H 146) meant originally he stripped him of his arms; these brazen Ares had given him. τέως so long is properly demonstrative, but has acquired a relative function in ““καὶ τέως ἐστὶ καιρός, ἀντιλάβεσθε τῶν πρα_γμάτωνand while there is time, take our policy in handD. 1.20.

2172. Homer often places two thoughts in juxtaposition without any regard for logical connection. This is especially common with δέ, τέ, καί, αὐτάρ, ἀλλά. Thus, πολὺς δ᾽ ὀρυμαγδὸς ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἀνδρῶν ἠδὲ κυνῶν, ἀπό τέ σφισιν (for οἶς) ““ὕπνος ὄλωλενand there is loud clamour around him of men and of dogs, and sleep is gone from themΚ 185.

a. So also in clauses preceded by a relative word; as εἷος ταῦθ᾽ ὥρμαινε . . ., ἐκ δ᾽ Ἑλένη θαλάμοιο . . . ἤλυθεν while he was pondering on this, (but) Helen came forth from her chamber δ 120, ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ᾽ ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ whoever obeys the gods, (and) him they hear Α 218.

b. This use appears even in Attic prose; as οἰκου̂ͅσι δ᾽ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν νήσων οὐ μεγάλῃ, καλεῖται δὲ (for καλεῖται) Λιπάρα_ they dwell in one of the islands that is not large, and it (which) is called Lipara T. 3.88. Cp. also 2837.

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