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1735. The passive voice represents the subject as acted on: ἐώθουν, ἐωθοῦντο, ἔπαιον, ἐπαίοντο they pushed, were pushed, they struck, were struck X. C. 7.1.38.

a. The passive has been developed from the middle. With the exception of some futures and the aorist, the middle forms do duty as passives: αἱρεῖται takes for himself, i.e. chooses, and is chosen. (For this development of the passive, cp. the reflexive use in se trouver, sich finden.) So κέχυται has poured itself, has been poured. In Homer there are more perfect middles used passively than any other middle tenses. Cp. 802.

b. Uncompounded ἐσχόμην sometimes retained its use as a passive. ἐσχέθην is late.

1736. The passive may have the sense allow oneself to be, get oneself: ““ἐξάγοντές τε καὶ ἐξαγόυενοιcarrying and allowing ourselves to be carried across the borderP. Cr. 48d, ““ἀπεχθήσει Γοργίᾳyou will incur the hatred of GorgiasP. Phil. 58c.

1737. Many future middle forms are used passively (807 ff.).

1738. The future middle forms in -σομαι are developed from the present stem, and express durative action; the (later) future passives in -ήσομαι, -θήσομαι are developed from the aorists in -ην and -θην, and are aoristic. This difference in kind of action is most marked when the future middle forms are used passively, but it is not always found. τοῖς ἄλλοις ξυμμάχοις παράδειγμα σαφὲς καταστήσατε, ὃς ἂν ἀφίστηται, θανάτῳ ζημιωσόμενον give to the rest of the allies a plain example that whoever revolts shall be punished (in each case) with death T. 3.40, ἐὰ_ν ἁλῷ, θανάτῳ ζημιωθήσεται if he is convicted, he will be punished (a single occurrence) with death D. 23.80, δίκαιος μαστι_γώσεται, στρεβλώσεται, δεδήσεται, ἐκκαυθήσεται τὠφθαλμώ the just man will be scourged, racked, fettered, will have his eyes burnt out P. R. 361e, τι_μήσομαι I shall enjoy honour, τι_μηθήσομαι I shall be honoured (on a definite occasion), ὠφελήσομαι I shall receive lasting benefit, ὠφεληθήσομαι I shall be benefited (on a definite occasion). Cp. 808, 809, 1911.

1739. The second aorist passive was originally a second aorist active (of the -μι form) that was used intransitively to distinguish it from the transitive first aorist, as ἔφηνα showed, ἐφάνην appeared; ἔφθειρα destroyed, ἐφθάρην am destroyed; ἐξέπληξα was terrified, ἐξεπλάγην was alarmed. So ἐδάην learned, ἐρρύην flowed. Cp. ἔστησα placed, ἔστην stood (819).

1740. In Hom. all the second aorist forms in -ην are intransitive except ἐπλήγην and ἐτύπην was struck. Most of the forms in -θην are likewise intransitive in Hom., as ἐφάνθην appeared (in Attic was shown).

1741. The perfect passive in the third singular with the dative of the agent (1488) is often preferred to the perfect active of the first person. Thus πέπρα_κταί μοι it has been done by me is more common than πέπρα_γα or πέπρα_χα I have done.

1742. The passive may be passive of the middle as well as passive of the active: αἱρεῖται is taken or is chosen, βιάζεται does violence or suffers violence (is forced), ᾑρέθη was taken or was chosen, ἐγράφη was written or was indicted (γέγραμμαι is commonly middle). The use of the passive as passive of the middle is post-Homeric.

a. When deponent verbs have a passive force, the future and aorist have the passive form: ἐβιάσθην I suffered violence (was forced), but ἐβιασάμην I did violence. This holds when there was once an active form. Cp. also τι_μωρεῖσθαι, μεταπέμπεσθαι, ψηφίζεσθαι, κυκλεῖσθαι.

b. The aorist passive may have a middle sense (814).

1743. The direct object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive: ἐπιστολὴ ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου γράφεται the letter is written by the teacher (active διδάσκαλος γράφει τὴν ἐπιστολήν).

1744. The cognate accusative may become the subject of the passive: ““πόλεμος ἐπολεμήθηwar was wagedP. Menex. 243e (πόλεμον πολεμεῖν, 1564).

1745. Active or middle verbs governing the genitive or dative may form (unlike the Latin use) a personal passive, the genitive or dative (especially if either denotes a person) becoming the subject of the passive.

a. With the genitive: ἄρχειν, ἡγεμονεύειν, καταφρονεῖν, καταγελᾶν, καταψηφίζειν (καταψηφίζεσθαι), ἀμελεῖν.

b. With the dative: ἀπειλεῖν, ἀπιστεῖν, ἐγκαλεῖν, ἐπιβουλεύειν, ἐπιτι_μᾶν, ὀνειδίζειν, πιστεύειν, πολεμεῖν, φθονεῖν.

c. Examples: ““οὐκ ἠξίουν οὗτοι ἡγεμονεύεσθαι ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶνthey did not think it right to be governed by usT. 3.61, ““ἐκεῖνος κατεψηφίσθηhe was condemnedX. H. 5.2.36, but ““θάνατος αὐτῶν κατεγνώσθηthe penalty of death was pronounced against themL. 13.39 (pass. of καταγνῶναι θάνατον αὐτῶν), ““ὥρα_ ἡμῖν βουλεύεσθαι ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν αὐτῶν μὴ καταφρονηθῶμενit is time for us to take counsel for ourselves that we may not be brought into contemptX. A. 5.7.12, ““πολεμοῦνται μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν τὴν χώρα_ν αὐτῶν περιοικούντων, ἀπιστοῦνται δ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ἁπάντωνthey are warred against by those who dwell around their country, and are distrusted by allI. 5.49, πῶς ἂν ἐπεβούλευσά τι αὐτῷ, τι μὴ καὶ ἐπεβουλεύθην ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ; how could I have plotted against him, unless I had been plotted against by him? Ant. 4. β. 5, ““φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοὖ Οδυσσέωςenvied by OdysseusX. M. 4.2.33 (contrast Lat. invidetur mihi ab aliquo).

N.—The above principle does not hold when the accusative of an external object intervenes between the verb and the dative.

1746. A verb governing an oblique case rarely forms in Greek (unlike Latin) an impersonal passive: ““ἐμοὶ βεβοήθηται τῷ τε τεθνεῶτι καὶ τῷ νόμῳmy aid has been given to the deceased and to the lawAnt. 1.31. The tense used is one from the perfect stem.

1747. An active verb followed by two accusatives, one of a person, the other of a thing, retains, when transferred to the passive, the accusative of the thing, while the accusative of the person becomes the nominative subject of the passive. Examples 1621, 1625, 1627, 1632.

1748. An active verb followed by an accusative of the direct object (a thing) and an oblique case of a person, retains, when transferred to the passive, the accusative of the direct object, while the indirect object becomes the nominative subject of the passive. Cp. I have been willed a large estate.

a. With verbs signifying to enjoin, entrust: ““οἱ Βοιωτοὶ ταῦτα ἐπεσταλμένοι ἀνεχώρουνthe Boeotians having received these instructions withdrewT. 5.37 (pass. of ἐπιστέλλειν ταῦτα τοῖς Βοιωτοῖς), ἄλλο τι μεῖζον ἐπιταχθήσεσθε you will have some greater command laid upon you 1. 140 (pass. of ἐπιτάττειν ἄλλο τι μεῖζον ὑ_μῖν). Both accusatives are internal; and so, in ““οἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἐπιτετραμμένοι τὴν φυλακήνthose of the Athenians who had been entrusted with the watchT. 1.126, φυλακήν is equivalent to an internal accusative. The nominative of the thing and the dative of the person sometimes occur (““Ἴωνες, τοῖσι ἐπετέτραπτο φυλακήthe Ionians to whom the guard had been entrustedHdt. 7.10). The dative is common when an inf. is used with the pass. verb: ““ἐπετέτακτο τοῖς σκευοφόροις ἰέναιthe baggage-carriers had been commanded to goX. C. 6.3.3.

b. With other verbs: ἀποτμηθέντες τὰ_ς κεφαλά_ς having been decapitated (had their heads cut off) X. A. 2.6.1 (pass. of ἀποτέμνειν τὰ_ς κεφαλά_ς τισι or τινων).

1749. A passive may be formed in the case of verbs ordinarily intransitive but allowing a cognate accusative in the active: ““ἱκανὰ τοῖς πολεμίοις ηὐτύχηταιthe enemy has had enough good fortuneT. 7.77 (εὐτυχεῖν ἱκανά, 1573), ““κεκινδυ_νεύσεταιthe risk will have been runAnt. 5.75. See 1746. This is common with neuter passive participles: ““τὰ ἠσεβημένα αὐτῷthe impious acts committed by himL. 6.5, ““τὰ σοὶ κἀ_μοὶ βεβιωμέναthe life led by you and by meD. 18.265, τὰ πεπολι_τευμένα αὐτοῖς their political acts 1. 28, ““ἁμαρτηθένταerrors committedX. A. 5.8.20.

a. Some verbs describing the action of the weather may be used in the passive: ““νειφόμενοι ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὸ ἄστυthey returned to the city covered with snowX. H. 2.4.3.

1750. The cognate subject may be implied, as in the case of impersonal passives, in the perfect and tenses derived from the perfect. Thus, ““ἐπειδὴ αὐτοῖς παρεσκεύαστοwhen their preparations were completeT. 1.46. λέγεται it is said, ἐδηλώθη it was made known, followed by the logical subject are not impersonal: ““ἐδηλώθη τῷ τρόπῳ ἀπωλώλει τὰ χρήματαit was shown how the money had been lostAnt. 5.70. See 935.

1751. Greek uses impersonals from intransitives (corresponding to Lat. ambulatur, itur, curritur) only when the active is itself intransitive; as δέδοκται it has seemed good (cp. δοκεῖ).

1752. The active or the middle deponent of a transitive verb used transitively or of an intransitive verb may replace the passive of a transitive verb.

ἀκούειν (poet. κλύειν) be called; be well (εὖ, καλῶς) or ill (κακῶς) spoken of, = pass. of λέγειν: ““νῦν κόλακες ἀκούουσινnow they are called flatterersD. 18.46, τίς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ κακῶς ἀκήκοεν πέπονθε; who has been ill spoken of or suffered at my hands? L. 8.3. Cp. bene, male audire; Milton: “England hears ill abroad.”

ἁλίσκεσθαι be caught = pass. of αἱρεῖν, as ““ἐὰ_ν ἁλῷς τοῦτο πρά_ττωνif you are caught doing thisP. A. 29c.

ἀποθνήσκειν (die) be killed = pass. of ἀποκτείνειν, as ““ἀπέθνῃσκον ὑπὸ ἱππέωνthey were killed by the cavalryX. C. 7.1.48. But not in the perfect, where the uncompounded τέθνηκα is used.

γίγνεσθαι be born = pass. of τίκτειν beget, bring forth: ““παῖδες αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐγίγνοντο ἐκ ταύτηςhe had no children by herX. H. 6.4.37.

δίκην δοῦναι be punished = pass. of ζημιοῦν, as ““ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν τούτων δίκην ἔδοσανthey were punished by these very menX. C. 1.6.45.

ἡττᾶσθαι be defeated = pass. of νι_κᾶν conquer, as ““ὑπὸ τῶν συμμάχων ἡττώμενοιworsted by their alliesAnd. 4.28.

κατιέναι (κατέρχεσθαι) return from exile = pass. of κατάγειν restore from exile, as ““ὑπ ὀλιγαρχία_ς κατελθεῖνto be restored by an oligarchyT. 8.68.

κεῖσθαι (lie) be placed = pass. of the perfect of τιθέναι: ““πείθου τοῖς νόμοις τοῖς ὑπὸ τῶν βασιλέων κειμένοιςobey the laws established by kingsI. 1.36.

λαγχάνειν (obtain by lot) be drawn by lot = pass. of κληροῦν: ““ἔλαχον ἱερεύςI became priest by lotD. 57.47.

πάσχειν (suffer) be treated well (εὖ) or ill (κακῶς) = pass. of ποιεῖν (εὖ, κακῶς): ““εὖ παθόντες ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶνwell treated by themP. G. 519c.

πί_πτειν in ἐκπί_πτειν (fall out) be expelled = pass. of ἐκβάλλειν: οἱ ἐκπεπτωκότες <*> τοῦ δήμου those who had been expelled by the people X. H. 4.8.20.

φεύγειν (flee) be prosecuted = pass. of διώκειν (be indicted = γράφεσθαι passive); <*>iled = pass. of ἐκβάλλειν. So ἀποφεύγειν be acquitted = pass. of ἀπολύ_ειν. Thus. ““ἀσεβεία_ς φεύγων ὑπὸ Μελήτουprosecuted for impiety by MeletusP. A. 35d.

1753. Other equivalents of passive forms are ἔχειν, τυγχάνειν, λαμβάνειν, used with a substantive of like meaning with the active verb: ὄνομα ἔχειν ὀνο<*>σθαι, συγγνώμην ἔχειν or συγγνώμης τυγχάνειν συγγιγνώσκεσθαι, ἔπαινον λαμβά<*> or ἐπαίνου τυγχάνειν ἐπαινεῖσθαι. So with middle deponents: αἰτία_ν ἔχειν <*>τιᾶσθαι.

1754. The passive of the periphrasis with ποιεῖσθαι (1722) is made with <*>εσθαι: so εἰρήνη γίγνεται peace is made.

1755. The agent of the passive is regularly expressed by ὑπό and the genitive; sometimes by ἀπό, διά, ἐκ, παρά, πρός with the genitive, or by ὑπό with the dative (in poetry). See 1678.

1756. The instrument of an action, when regarded as the agent, is personified, and may be expressed by ὑπό with the genitive: α<*>λίσκεται ὑπὸ τριήρους he is captured by a trireme D. 53.6.

1757. The dative, or a prepositional phrase, is regularly used with the passive to denote the instrument, means, or cause (1506). The agent may be viewed as the instrument: in prose, when persons are regarded as instruments, the dative is usually that of military accompaniment (1526).

1758. The dative of the agent used with the perfect passive and verbal adjective is a dative of interest (1488); on ὑπό with the genitive used instead of the dative, see 1493, 1494.

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