FIRST AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (542）
All vowel and consonant ω-
verbs inflect the first aorist alike.
.—The secondary endings of the first aorist active were originally added to the stem ending in -σ-
; thus, ἐλυ_ςṃ, ἐλυ_σ-ς, ἐλυ_σ-τ, ἐλυ_σ-μεν, ἐλυ_σ-τε, ἐλυ_σ-ντ
. From ἐλυ_ςṃ
(by 35 c), the α
of which spread to the other forms except in the 3 sing., where ε
was borrowed from the perfect. a.
In the middle the secondary endings are added to the stem ending in -σα-
. For the loss of ς
, see 465 b.
.—In the subjunctive the long thematic vowel -ώη-
is substituted for the α
of the indicative, and these forms are inflected like the present subjunctive: λύ_σω λύ_σωμαι, φήνω φήνωμαι
. For the loss of ς
see 465 a.
[*] 667 D.
Hom. has forms with the short thematic vowel, as ἐρύσσομεν, ἀλγήσετε, νεμεσήσετε; μυ_θήσομαι, ἐφάψεαι, ἱ_λασόμεσθα, δηλήσεται
. In such forms aorist subjunctive and future indicative are alike (532
). Pindar has βά_σομεν, αὐδά_σομεν
.—To the stem ending in α
the mood-suffix ι_
is added, making αι
, to which the same endings are affixed as in the present: λύ_σα-ι_-μι ῀ λύ_σαιμι, λυ_σα-ί_-μην ῀ λυ_σαίμην, φήνα-ι_-μι ῀ φήναιμι
. The inflection in the middle is like that of the present. For the loss of ς
see 465 b.—In the active -ειας, -ειε, -ειαν
are more common than -αις, -αι, -αιεν
[*] 668 D.
Hom. has both sets of endings, but that in αι
is rarer. In the drama -ειας
is very much commoner than -αις. -αις
is most frequent in Plato and Xenophon, less common in poetry, and very rare in the orators. Neither Thuc. nor Hdt. has -αις. -αι
is rare in prose, most examples being in Plato and Demosthenes. Hdt. has no case. In Aristotle -αι
is as common as -ειε. -αῖεν
is very rare in poetry, in Thuc. and Hdt., but slightly better represented in Xenophon and the orators. -ειαν
is probably the regular form in the drama.—The forms in -ειας, -ειε, -ειαν
are called “Aeolic,” but do not occur in the remains of that dialect.
.—The regular endings (462
) are added to the stem in -σα
in liquid verbs) except in the active and middle 2 sing., in which -ον
take the place of -α
: λῦσον λυ_σάτω, λῦσαι λυ_σάσθω, φῆνον φηνάτω, φῆναι φηνάσθω
.—The aorist active infinitive ends in -αι
, which is an old dative: the middle ends in -σθαι
: λῦσαι λύ_σα-σθαι, φῆναι φήνα-σθαι, πλέξαι πλέξα-σθαι
.—The active participle adds -ντ
like the present: masc. λύ_σα_ς
, fem. λύσα_σα
, neut. λῦσαν
). See 301
. The middle ends in -μενος
: λυ_σά-μενος, φηνά-μενος
[*] 671 D.
Aeolic has -αις, -αισα, -αν
(37 D. 3).