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1667. a. For the sake of emphasis or to mark opposition and difference, a preposition is repeated with each noun dependent on the preposition: ““κατά τε πόλεμον καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἄλλην δίαιτανin the pursuit of war and in the other occupations of lifeP. Tim. 18c.

b. A preposition is used with the first noun and omitted with the second when the two nouns (whether similar or dissimilar in meaning) unite to form a complex: περὶ τοῦ δικαίου καὶ ἀρετῆςconcerning the justice of our cause and the honesty of our intentionsT. 3.10.

c. In poetry a preposition may be used only with the second of two nouns dependent on it: ““Δελφῶν κἀ_πὸ Δαυλία_ςfrom Delphi and DauliaS. O. T. 734.

1668. In contrasts or alternatives expressed by , . . . , καὶ . . . καί, etc., the preposition may be repeated or omitted with the second noun: ““καὶ κατὰ γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλαττανboth by land and by seaX. A. 1.1.7, ““πρὸς ἐχθρὸν φίλονto foe or friendD. 21.114.

1669. When prepositions of different meaning are used with the same noun, the noun is repeated; thus neither upon (the earth) nor under the earth is οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ γῆς οὔθ᾽ ὑπὸ γῆς P. Menex. 246d.

1670. In explanatory appositional clauses (988) the preposition may be repeated for the sake of clearness or emphasis; as ““ἐκ τούτων οἱ ὀνομαστοὶ γίγνονται, ἐκ τῶν ἐπιτηδευσάντων ἕκασταthe men of mark come from those who have practised each artP. Lach. 183c, and commonly after demonstratives. The preposition is not repeated when such an appositional clause is closely connected with what precedes: εἰκὸς μηδὲ νομίσαι περὶ ἑνὸς μόνου, δουλεία_ς ἀντ᾽ ἐλευθερία_ς, ἀγωνίζεσθαι nor should you think that you are contending for a single issue alone: to avert slavery instead of maintaining your freedom T. 2.63. A preposition is usually not repeated before descriptive appositional clauses (987): περὶ χρημάτων λαλεῖς, ἀβεβαίου πρά_γματος you are talking about wealth, an unstable thing Com. frag. 3. 38 (No. 128).

1671. Before a relative in the same case as a noun or pronoun dependent on a preposition, the preposition is usually omitted: ““κατὰ ταύτην τὴν ἡλικία_ν ἦν ἣν ἐγὼ νῦνhe was at that age at which I now amD. 21.155, φιλεῖται ὑπὸ ὧν ( = τούτων ὧν) ““φιλεῖταιis loved by whom it is lovedP. Euth. 10c. But the preposition is repeated if the relative precedes: ““πρὸς τις πέφυ_κε, πρὸς τοῦτο ἕνα πρὸς ἓν ἕκαστον ἔργον δεῖ κομίζεινit is necessary to set each individual to some one work to which he is adapted by natureP. R. 423d.

1672. In Plato a preposition is often omitted in replies: ἡττώμενοςὑπὸ τίνος; φήσει. τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, φήσομεν overcome—by what? he will say. By the good, we shall say Pr. 355 c.

1673. The preposition is usually omitted with the main noun or pronoun when it is used in a clause of comparison with ὡς (rarely ὥσπερ) as: ““δεῖ ὡς περὶ μητρὸς καὶ τροφοῦ τῆς χώρα_ς βουλεύεσθαιthey ought to take thought for their country as their mother and nurseP. R. 414e; so, usually, when the two members are closely united: ““ὡς πρὸς εἰδότ᾽ ἐμὲ σὺ τἀ_ληθῆ λέγεspeak the truth to me as to one who knowsAr. Lys. 993. The preposition is often omitted in the clause with ὡς (ὥσπερ) as, than: ““οἳ παρ᾽ οὐδὲν οὕτως ὡς τὸ τοιαῦτα ποιεῖν ἀπολώλα_σινwho owe their ruin to nothing so much as to such a course of actionD. 19.263, ““περὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος μᾶλλον βουλεύεσθαι τοῦ παρόντοςto deliberate about the future rather than the presentT. 3.44.

1674. A preposition with its case may have the function of the subject, or the object, of a sentence; or it may represent the protasis of a condition.

Subject: ““ἔφυγον περὶ ὀκτακοσίουςabout eight hundred took to flightX. H. 6.5.10; (gen. absol.) συνειλεγμένων περὶ ἑπτακοσίους, λαβὼν αὐτοὺς καταβαίνει when about seven hundred had been collected he marched down with them 2. 4. 5. Object: ““διέφθειραν ἐς ὀκτακοσίουςthey killed about eight hundredT. 7.32. Protasis: ““ἐπεὶ διά γ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς αὐτοὺς πάλαι ἂν ἀπωλώλειτεfor had it depended on your selves you would have perished long agoD. 18.49 (cp. 2344).

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