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517. (I) Presents in -λλω are formed from verb-stems in λ, to which [ιγλιδε] is assimilated (110). Thus, ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-[ιγλιδε]ω), στέλλω send (στελ-[ιγλιδε]ω).

518. (II) Presents in -αινω and -αιρω are formed from verb-stems in -αν and -αρ, the [ιγλιδε] being thrown back to unite with the vowel of the verb-stem (111). Thus, φαίνω show (φαν-[ιγλιδε]ω), ὀνομαίνω name (ὀνομαν-[ιγλιδε]ω), χαίρω rejoice (χαρ-[ιγλιδε]ω).

a. Many verbs add -[ιγλιδε]ω to the weak form of the stem, as ὀνομαίν-ω for ὀνομαν-[ιγλιδε]ω from ὀνομṇ-[ιγλιδε]ω, cp. nomen (35 b).

b. Hom. has κυ_δαίνω and κυ_δάνω honour, μελαίνω blacken and μελάνω grow black. ὀλισθαίνω slip is late for ὀλισθάνω.

c. The ending αινω has been attached, by analogy, in θερμαίνω make hot, etc. (620 III, 866.7). Likewise -υ_νω (519) in poetic ἀρτύ_νω prepare, parallel to ἀρτύ_ω (in composition), by analogy to βαρύ_νω weigh down, ἡδύ_νω sweeten.

519. (III) Presents in -εινω, -ειρω, -ι_νω, -ι_ρω, -υ_νω, and -ι_ρω are formed from stems in εν, ερ, ι^ν, ι^ρ, υ^ν, υ^ρ with [ιγλιδε]όε- added. Here [ιγλιδε] disappears and the vowel preceding ν or ρ is lengthened by compensation (ε to ει; ι to ι_; υ to υ_). See 37 a, 111.

τείνω stretch (τεν-[ιγλιδε]ω), φθείρω destroy (φθερ-), κρί_νω (κριν-), οἰκτί_ρω pity (οἰκτιρ-) generally written οἰκτείρω, ἀμύ_νω ward off (ἀμυν-), μαρτύ_ρομαι call to witness (μαρτυρ-).

a. ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-) owe, am obliged is formed like τείνω, φθείρω in order to distinguish it from ὀφέλλω (ὀφελ-) increase formed regularly. Hom. has usually Aeolic ὀφέλλω in the sense of ὀφείλω. δείρω flay (δερ-[ιγλιδε]ω) is parallel to δέρ-ω (499).

519 D. Aeolic has here -εννω, -ερρω, -ιννω, -ιρρω, -υννω, -υρρω (37 D. 3); for κτείνω, it has κταίνω; cp. Doric φθαίρω for φθείρω.

520. Verb-stems in -αυ- for (α[υγλιδε], -αϜ-.—Two verbs with verb-stems in -αυ have presents in -αιω from -αιϝω out of -αϝ-[ιγλιδε]ω (38 a) : καίω burn (καυ-, καϝ-), fut. καύ-σω; and κλαίω weep (κλαυ-, κλαϝ-), fut. κλαύ-σομαι. Others 624 b.

a. Attic prose often has κά_ω and κλά_ω, derived from αιϝ before ει (κά_εις, and, with α_ extended to the 1 person, κά_ω). Cp. 396.

521. Addition of ε.—The following verbs add ε in one or more tense-stems other than the present: βάλλω throw, καθίζω sit, κλαίω weep, ὄζω smell, ὀφείλω owe, am obliged, χαίρω rejoice.

522. Contracted Verbs and Some Verbs in -ιω, -υω.—a. Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω, which for convenience have been treated under the first class, properly belong here, [ιγλιδε] (y) having been lost between vowels. Thus, τι_μάω from τι_μα-[ιγλιδε]ω (τι_μα_-), οἰκέω dwell from οἰκε-[ιγλιδε]ω (οἰκε- alternate stem to οἰκο-, 229 b), δηλόω from δηλο-[ιγλιδε]ω. So in denominatives, as poetic μηνίω am wroth (μηνι-[ιγλιδε]ω), φι_τύ_ω sow (φι_τυ-[ιγλιδε]ω). Primitives in -ι_ω, -υ_ω are of uncertain origin. Cp. 608, 624.

N.—The rare spellings ἀλυίω, θυίω, μεθυίω, φυίω indicate their origin from -[ιγλιδε]ω.

b. So with stems in long vowels: δρῶ do from δρα_-[ιγλιδε]ω, ζῶ live from ζη-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ζῆθι), χρῶ give oracles from χρη-[ιγλιδε]ω (2 pers. χρῇς, 394).

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