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871. First Declension (α_-stems).—The first part may

a. end in α_ or η (rarely): ἀγορα_-νόμο-ς clerk of the market (ἀγορά_), νι_κη-φόρο-ς bringing victory (νί_κη).

b. end in ο: δικο-γράφο-ς writer of law-speeches (δίκη justice). Here ο is substituted for α_ of the stem by analogy to ο-stems.

N.—Compounds of γῆ earth have γεω- (for γηο- by 34); as γεω-μέτρης surveyor (land-measurer; μετρέω measure). Doric has γα_-μέτρης. Cp. 224 a.

c. lose its vowel before a vowel: κεφαλ-αλγής causing head-ache (κεφαλή head, ἄλγ-ος pain).

872. Second Declension (ο-stems).—The first part may

a. end in ο: λογο-γράφο-ς speech-writer.

b. end in α_ or η (rarely): ἐλαφη-βόλο-ς deer-shooting (ἔλαφος, βάλλω). Here η is due to the analogy of α_-stems.

c. lose ο before a vowel: μόν-αρχο-ς monarch (sole ruler: μόνο-ς alone, ἄρχ-ω rule).

N.—Words of the ‘Attic’ declension may end in ω, as νεω-κόρο-ς custodian of a temple (νεώς).

873. Third Declension (consonant stems).—The first part may

a. show the stem (ι, υ, αυ, ου): μαντι-πόλο-ς inspired (μάντι-ς seer, πέλ-ω, cp. -κολος), ἰχθυ-βόλο-ς catching-fish (ἰχθύ_ς, βάλλω), βου-κόλο-ς ox-herd (βοῦ-ς, -κολο-ς, cp. Lat. colo, and 131).

N.—A few consonant stems retain the consonant: μελάγ-χολος dipped in black bile (μέλα_ς, χολή). See also 876.

b. add ο to the stem: σωματ-ο-φύλαξ body-guard (σῶμα body, φυλάττω guard), μητρ-ό-πολις mother-city, metropolis (μήτηρ, πόλις), φυσι-ο-λόγος natural philosopher (φύσι-ς nature), ἰχθυ-ο-πώλης fishmonger (ἰχθύ_ς, πωλέω sell).

c. add α^ (rarely η): ποδ-ά-νιπτρο-ν water for washing the feet (ποῦς, νίπτω), λαμπαδ-η-δρομία_ torch-race.

874. Compounds of πᾶς all usually show πα^ν-, as πάν-σοφο-ς (and πάσ-σοφος 101 b) all-wise, παρ-ρησία_ frankness (‘all-speaking’); but also παντ- in πάνταρχος all-ruling; and παντ-ο- in παντ-ο-πώλιο-ν bazaar (πωλέω sell).

875. Neuter stems in ματ usually show ματ-ο, as ἀγαλματ-ο-ποιό-ς sculptor (ἄγαλμα statue, ποιέω make). Some have μα, as ὀνομα-κλυτό-ς of famous name; some show μο for ματο, as αἱμο-ρραγία_ hemorrhage (αἷμα, -ατος blood, ῥήγνυ_μι break, 80).

876. Stems in ες (nom. -ης or -ος) usually drop ες and add ο; as ψευδ-ο μαρτυρία_ false testimony (ψευδ-ής); and so stems in ας, as κρεο-φάγο-ς flesh-eating (κρέας, φαγεῖν 529. 5). Some stems in ες and ας retain ες and ας (in poetry), as σακεσ-πάλο-ς wielding a shield (σάκος, πάλλω), σελασ-φόρο-ς light-bringing (σέλας, φέρω); some add ι (for sake of the metre), as ὀρεσ-ί-τροφος mountain-bred (ὄρος, τρέφω); these may belong to 879.

877. Other abbreviations: γαλα-θηνό-ς nurse (γαλακτ- milk, θῆ-σθαι give suck), μελι-ηδής honey-sweet (μελιτ-), κελαι-νεφής black with clouds from κελαινό-ς black (cp. 129 c) and νέφος cloud.

878. Words once beginning with Ϝ or ς.—When the second part consists of a word beginning with digamma, a preceding vowel is often not elided: κακο-εργός (Epic) doing ill (later κακοῦργος) from ϝέργο-ν work; μηνο-ειδής crescent-shaped (μήνη moon, ϝεῖδος shape); τι_μά_-ορος (later τι_μωρός) avenging (τι_μή honour, ϝοράω observe, defend).—Compounds of -οχος, from ἔχω have (orig. σέχω, -σοχος) contract: κληροῦχος holding an allotment of land (κλῆρο-ς lot), πολι-οῦχος protecting a city (for πολι-ο-οχος).

879. Flectional Compounds.—A compound whose first part is a case form, not a stem, is called a flectional compound (cp. sportsman, kinsfolk): (1) nominative: τρεισ-καί-δεκα thirteen; (2) genitive: Διόσ-κουροι Dioscuri (sons of Zeus), Ἑλλήσ-ποντος Helle's sea, Πελοπόν-νησος (for Πελοποσ-νησος, 105 a) Pelops' island; (3) dative: δορί-ληπτος won by the spear; (4) locative: ὁδοι-πόρος wayfarer, Πυλοι-γενής born in Pylus.—From such compounds derivatives may be formed, as Ἑλλησπόντιος of the Hellespont, θεοισεχθρία_ hatred of the gods.

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