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1600. To verbs denoting a state, and to adjectives, an accusative may be added to denote a thing in respect to which the verb or adjective is limited.

a. The accusative usually expresses a local relation or the instrument. The word restricted by the accusative usually denotes like or similar to, good or better, bad or worse, a physical or a mental quality, or an emotion.

1601. The accusative of respect is employed

a. Of the parts of the body: ““ ἄνθρωπος τὸν δάκτυλον ἀλγεῖthe man has a pain in his fingerP. R. 462d, ““τυφλὸς τά τ᾽ ὦτα τόν τε νοῦν τά τ᾽ ὄμματ᾽ εἶblind art thou in ears, and mind, and eyesS. O. T. 371, πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς Hom.

N.—The accusative of the part in apposition to the whole (985) belongs here, as is seen by the passive. Cp. ““τὸν πλῆξ᾽ αὐχέναhim he smote on the neckΛ 240 (βάλε θοῦρον Ἄρηα κατ᾽ αὐχένα Φ 406) with βέβληαι κενεῶνα thou art smitten in the abdomen E 284.

b. Of qualities and attributes (nature, form, size, name, birth, number, etc.): ““διαφέρει γυνὴ ἀνδρὸς τὴν φύσινwoman differs from man in natureP. R. 453b, ““οὐδὲ ἔοικεν θνητὰ_ς ἀ_θανάτῃσι δέμας καὶ εἶδος ἐρίζεινnor is it seemly that mortal women should rival the immortals in form and appearanceε 213, ποταμός, Κύδνος ὄνομα, εὖρος δύο πλέθρων a river, Cydnus by name, two plethra in width X. A. 1.2.23 (so with ὕψος, βάθος, μέγεθος), πλῆθος ὡς δισχί_λιοι about two thousand in number 4. 2. 2, ““λέξον ὅστις εἶ γένοςtell me of what race thou artE. Bacch. 460.

c. Of the sphere in general: ““δεινοὶ μάχηνterrible in battleA. Pers. 27, ““γένεσθε τὴν διάνοιανtransfer yourselves in thoughtAes. 3.153, ““τὸ μὲν ἐπ᾽ ἐμοὶ οἴχομαι, τὸ δ᾽ ἐπὶ σοὶ σέσωσμαιso far as I myself was concerned I was lost, but through you am savedX. C. 5.4.11. Often of indefinite relations: ““πάντα κακόςbase in all thingsS. O. T. 1421, ““ταῦτα ἀγαθὸς ἕκαστος ἡμῶν, ἅπερ σοφός, δὲ ἀμαθής, ταῦτα δὲ κακόςeach one of us is good in matters in which he is skilled, but bad in those in which he is ignorantP. Lach. 194d.

1602. Very rarely after substantives: χεῖρας αἰχμητής a warrior valiant with (thy) arm π 242, ““νεα_νίαι τὰ_ς ὄψειςyouths by their appearanceL. 10.29.

1603. For the acccusative of respect the instrumental dative (1516) is also employed, and also the prepositions εἰς, κατά, πρός, e.g. διαφέρειν ἀρετῇ or εἰς ἀρετήν.

1604. Not to be confused with the accusative of respect is the accusative after intransitive adjectives (1565) or after the passives of 1632.

1605. The accusative of respect is probably in its origin, at least in part, an accusative of the internal object.


1606. Many accusatives marking limitations of the verbal action serve the same function as adverbs.

1607. Most of these adverbial accusatives are accusatives of the internal object: thus, in τέλος δὲ εἶπε but at last he said, τέλος is to be regarded as standing in apposition to an unexpressed object of the verb—words, which were the end. Many adverbial accusatives are thus accusatives in apposition (991) and some are accusatives of respect (1600). It is impossible to apportion all cases among the varieties of the accusatives; many may be placed under different heads. The use of adjectives as adverbs (μέγα πλούσιος very rich) is often derived from the cognate accusative with verbs (μέγα πλουτεῖν).

1608. Manner.—τρόπον τινά in some way, τίνα τρόπον in what way? τόνδε (τοῦτον) τὸν τρόπον in this way, πάντα τρόπον in every way (also παντὶ τρόπῳ), τὴν ταχίστην (ὁδόν) in the quickest way, τὴν εὐθεῖαν (ὁδόν) straightforward, προῖκα, δωρεά_ν gratis (1616), δίκην after the fashion of (““δίκην τοξότουlike an archerP. L. 705e), πρόφασιν in pretence (““ἔπλεε πρόφασιν ἐπ᾽ Ἑλλησπόντουhe sailed professedly for the HellespontHdt. 5.33), χάριν for the sake of (lit. favour: ““οὐ τὴν Ἀθηναίων χάριν ἐστρατεύοντοdid not engage in the expedition out of good will to the AtheniansHdt. 5.99, ““τοῦ χάρινfor what reason?Ar. Plut. 53, ““τὴν σὴν ἥκω χάρινfor thy sake I have comeS. Ph. 1413. Cp. 993.

1609. Measure and Degree.—μέγα, μεγάλα greatly, πολύ, πολλά much, τὸ πολύ, τὰ πολλά for the most part, ὅσον as much as, οὐδέν, μηδέν not at all, τοσοῦτον so much, τὶ somewhat, ἀρχήν or τὴν ἀρχήν at all with οὐ or μή (““ἐν τῷ παραχρῆμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἀρχὴν ὀρθῶς βουλεύεσθαιit is utterly impossible to deliberate correctly offhandAnt. 5.73).

1610. Motive.—τί why? τοῦτο, ταῦτα for this reason (cognate accus.): τί ἦλθες quid (cur) venisti = τίνα ἷξιν ἦλθες; τοῦτο χαίρω ( = ταύτην τὴν χαρὰ_ν χαίρω) therefore I rejoice, ““αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἥκωfor this very reason have I comeP. Pr. 310e, ““τοῦτ᾽ ἄχθεσθεfor this reason you are vexedX. A. 3.2.20.

1611. Time and Succession (1582): τὸ νῦν now, τὸ πάλαι of old, πρότερον before, τὸ πρότερον the former time, πρῶτον first, τὸ κατ᾽ ἀρχά_ς in the beginning, τὸ πρῶτον in the first place, τὸ τελευταῖον in the last place (for τὸ δεύτερον in a series use ἔπειτα or ἔπειτα δέ), τὸ λοιπόν for the future, ἀκμήν at the point, just, καιρόν in season.

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