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852. Diminutives are denominatives formed from the stems of substantives by various secondary suffixes.

1. ιο (nom. -ιο-ν, neut.): παιδ-ίο-ν little child (παῖς, παιδ-ός), ὀρνί_θ-ιο-ν small bird (ὄρνι_ς, ὄρνι_θος), ἀσπίδ-ιο-ν small shield (ἀσπίς, ἀσπίδ-ος).

N.—Trisyllabic words are paroxytone if the first syllable is long by nature or position.

2. ιδ-ιο (nom. -ίδιο-ν, neut.): derived from such words as ἀσπίδ-ιο-ν; as ξιφ-ίδιο-ν dagger (ξίφος sword, stem ξιφεσ-), βο-ίδιο-ν small cow (βοῦ-ς), οἰκί_διο-ν small house, οἰκι ¨ ιδιον (οἰκία_), ἰχθύ_διο-ν small fish (ἰχθύ_ς). See 833 b.

3. αρ-ιο (nom. -άριον, neut.): παιδ-άριο-ν little child.

4. υδ-ριο (nom. -ύδριον, neut.): μελ-ύδριο-ν little song (μέλος).

5. υλλιο (nom. -ύλλιον, neut.): ἐπ-ύλλιο-ν little epic or cersicle (ἔπος).

6. ισκο, ισκα_ (nom. -ίσκος, masc., -ίσκη, fem.): ἀνθρωπ-ίσκο-ς manikin, παιδ-ίσκο-ς young boy, παιδ-ίσκη young girl. From this comes -ισκ-ιο in ἀσπιδ-ίσκιο-ν small shield.

853. Many other diminutives occur, as ακνα_: in πιθάκνη wine-jar (πίθος); ιδ, ι_δ: in ἁμαξίς, -ίδος small wagon (ἅμαξα), νησί_ς, -ῖδος islet (νῆσο-ς); ιδ-ευ: of the young of animals, as λυκ-ιδεύς wolf's whelp (λύκο-ς), also ὑϊδεύς son's son, grandson (υἱός); ιχο: ὀρτάλιχος young bird (ὀρταλίς) chick; ιχνα_: κυλίχνη (and κυλίχνιον, κυλιχνίς) small cup (κύλιξ). Rare or late are -α_κίδιον, -ά_σιον, -άφιον, -ιδάριον, -ισκάριον, ιον, 861. 19, -ύλος, and over 25 others. See λο, 860. 1.

854. Diminutives are often combined: παιδ-ισκ-άριον stripling, μειράκ-ιον, μειρακ-ίσκος, μειρακ-ύλλ-ιον, μειρακ-υλλ-ίδιον stripling (μεῖραξ lass), χλαν-ισκ-ίδιον cloaklet (χλανίς), ζῳδάριον insect (ζῷον animal).

855. Some words, especially such as denote parts of the body, are diminutive in form, but not in meaning; as κρα_νίον skull, θηρίον beast ( = θήρ), πεδίον plain (πέδον ground), all in Homer, who has no diminutives. Diminutives often employed tend to lose their diminutive value.

856. Diminutives may express affection, familiarity, daintiness, and sometimes pity or contempt (cp. dar-ling, lord-ling). See the examples under 852, and also πατρ-ίδιον daddy (πατήρ), ἀδελφ-ίδιο-ν dear little brother, Σωκρατ-ίδιον dear Socky, ἀνθρώπ-ιον manikin. Some endings often have an ironical force, as πλούτ-α_ξ rich churl, γάστρ-ων fat-belly.

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