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Conjunctional καί

2869. Copulative καί often has an intensive or heightening force; as where it joins a part and the whole, the universal and the particular. Thus, ἐν Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τοῖς Ἕλλησι Ar. Nub. 413, Ζεῦ καὶ θεοί Ar. Pl. 1 (θεοὶ καὶ Ζεύς the gods and above all Zeus), ἐνταῦθα ἔμειναν ἡμέρα_ς τρεῖς καὶ ἧκε Μένων X. A. 1.2.6. On καὶ ταῦτα, see 947, 2083.

a. Here καί often = namely, for example, and so where an antecedent statement is explained either by another word or by an example. Cp. X. A. 1.9.14, 4. 1. 19, 5. 2. 9, 5. 6. 8.

2870. The heightening force is also seen where καί with corrective force may be rendered by or; often to set forth a climax and not an alternative. Thus, ““σοφία_ ὀλίγου τινὸς ἀξία_ καὶ οὐδενόςwisdom worth little or nothingP. A. 23a, ““μαχαιροποιοὶ . . . ἀνὰ πέντε μνᾶς καὶ ἕξsword-cutlers worth five or six minas eachD. 27.9, ““προιοῦσι δὲ καὶ ἀπιοῦσι πόλεμοςbut war if we advance or retireX. A. 2.1.21, ““καὶ δίκαια κἄ_δικαright or wrongAr. Nub. 99, σὸς (γόνος), ““κει᾽ μὴ σόςthy son, or if not thineS. O. C. 1323.

2871. καί often has an adversative force; as where it joins a negative to an affirmative clause. Here καὶ οὐ (μή) is almost = but not, as in ἐμ᾽ ἐχειροτόνησαν καὶ οὐχ ὑ_μᾶς they elected me and (= but) not you D. 18.288. So also where καί is like καίτοι and yet; as ““χαίρων ἄπιθι: καί σ᾽ ἄ_κων ἐγὼ λείπωfare thee well; and yet I leave thee unwillinglyAr. Eq. 1250. To connect negative clauses οὐδέ is used.

2872. In questions, καί before an interrogative expression marks an objection occasioned by surprise or indignation; as καὶ τίς θανόντων ἦλθεν ἐξ Ἅιδου πάλιν; and, pray, who of the dead has come back from Hades? E. H. F. 297. So καὶ πῶς; pray, how comes it that? Cp. Eng. and when a speaker is stopped by an abrupt question.

a. After an interrogative expression adverbial καί asks for further information concerning a statement assumed to be true. Thus, ποίου χρόνου δὲ καὶ πεπόρθηται πόλις; but when was the city captured? A. Ag. 278. Cp. 2884.

2873. In imperative sentences καί often means and now, just. Thus, ““καί μοι ἀνάγνωθι τὸ ψήφισμαand now read me the billL. 13.35, ““καί μοι ἀπόκρι_ναιjust answer meP. A. 25a.

2874. καί may mark a result (P. Th. 154c, quoted in 2288).

2875. After expressions of sameness and likeness καί has the force of as (Lat. ac). Thus, ““ αὐτὸς ὑ_μῖν στόλος ἐστὶ καὶ ἡμῖνyour expedition is the same as oursX. A. 2.2.10, ““οὐχ ὁμοίως καὶ πρίνnot the same as beforeT. 7.28, ἴσα καὶ ἱκέται the same as suppliants 3. 14, ““ταὐτὰ καίthe same asX. C. 1.3.18. This use is commoner in prose than poetry.

2876. In expressions denoting coincidence of time καί often has the force of when. So ἅμα . . . καί (2169), ἤδη . . . καί X. A. 2.1.7, οὔπω . . . καί P. Eu. 277b, οὐκ ἔφθην . . . καί (εὐθύς) I had not got the start . . . when I. 19.22, D. 43.69. Cp. καὶ . . . καί in ““καὶ ἥκομεν καὶ ἡμῖν ἐξελθὼν θυρωρὸς . . . εἶπεν περιμένεινas soon as we arrived the doorkeeper came out and told us to waitP. Ph. 59e.

2877. καὶ . . . καί both . . . and, not only . . . but also, as . . . so, as well as . . . as also, sometimes whether . . . or, emphasizes each member separately, and forms a less close combination than τὲ καί. Thus, καὶ τότε καὶ νῦν not only then but also now. So ““τι_μὰ_ς δοτέον καὶ ζῶντι καὶ τελευτήσαντιhonours must be paid him both when living and after deathP. R. 414a, σὺ καὶ δέδορκας κου᾽ βλέπεις thou both hast sight and (yet) dost not see S. O. T. 413, ““κἀ_πεμπόμην πρὸς ταῦτα καὶ τὸ πᾶν φράσωas I was sent for this purpose so I will tell thee allS. El. 680, ““τολμᾶν ἀνάγκη, κἂ_ν τύχω κἂ_ν μὴ τύχωI must dare whether I succeed or failE. Hec. 751.

2878. In a series of more than two ideas καί is used before each, where English would use and only before the last. Thus, ““συντυγχάνουσιν αὐτῷ καὶ λαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ παῖδας καὶ τοὺς ἵππους καὶ πάντα τὰ ὄνταthey fell upon him and seized him, his wife, his children, his horses, and all his possessionsX. A. 7.8.22.

2879. Adjectives of quantity, as πολύς and ὀλίγος in the plural, are usually joined to an adjective in the same construction by καί or τὲ καί (also by τέ or τὲ . . . τέ in poetry). Thus, πολλὰ καὶ δεινά D. 37.57 (δεινὰ καὶ πολλά 37. 57), πολλά τε καὶ δεινά X. A. 5.5.8. In πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα ἀγαθά (X. C. 1.5.9), the substantive is qualified by two adjectives; whereas in English the second adjec tive is taken with the substantive and treated as a unit modified by the first adjective (many good-things).

a. πολλοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι means many others also (with καί adverbial). For many others we find ἄλλοι πολλοί (very common) or πολλοὶ ἄλλοι.

2880. Some combinations of conjunctional καί are:

καὶ . . . μέντοι and however, and of course (in καὶ μέντοι καί the first καί may be adverbial: yes indeed and).

καὶ . . . τοίνυν and . . . further, in connecting a thought with the preceding.

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