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118. The spirant ς with a vowel before or after it is often lost. Its former presence is known by earlier Greek forms or from the cognate languages.

119. Initial ς before a vowel becomes the rough breathing.

ἑπτά seven, Lat. septem; ἥμισυς half, Lat. semi-; ἵστημι put for σι-στη-μι, Lat. si-st-o; εἱπόμην I followed from ἐ-σεπ-ο-μην, Lat. sequor.

a. When retained, this ς is due to phonetic change (as σύν for ξύν, σι_γή silence for σ[υγλιδε]ι_γη Grm. schweigen), or to analogy. On the loss of ( see 125 e.

120. Between vowels ς is dropped.

γένους of a race from γενες-ος, Lat. gener-is, λύ_ει thou loosest from λύ_ῃ for λυ_ε-ςαι, ἐλύ_ου from ἐλυ_ε-ςο thou didst loose for thyself, τιθεῖο for τιθεῖσο, εἴην from ἐσ-ιη-ν Old Lat. siem, ἀλήθε-ια truth from ἀληθεσ-ια.

a. Yet ς appears in some -μι forms (τίθεσαι, ἵστασο), and in θρασύς θαρσύς 128. ς between vowels is due to phonetic change (as ς for σς 107, πλούσιος for πλουτιος 115) or to analogy (as ἔλυ_σα for ἐλυ_α, modelled on ἐδεικ-σ-α), cp. 35 c.

121. ς usually disappears in the aorist of liquid verbs (active and middle) with lengthening of the preceding vowel (37): ἔστειλα I sent for ἐστελ-σα, ἔφηνα I showed for ἐφαν-σα, ἐφήνατο for ἐφαν-σατο. Cp. 102.

122. Digamma (3) has disappeared in Attic.

The following special cases are to be noted:

a. In nouns of the third declension with a stem in αυ, ευ, or ον (43). Thus, ναῦς ship, gen. νεώς from νηϝ-ός, βασιλεύς king, gen. βασιλέως from βασιλῆϝ-ος (34).

b. In the augment and reduplication of verbs beginning with ϝ: εἰργαζόμην I worked from ἐ-ϝεργαζομην, ἔοικα am like from ϝεϝοικα. Cp. 431, 443.

c. In verbs in εω for εϝω: ῥέω I flow, fut. ῥεύ-σομαι.

123. Some words have lost initial σϝ: ἡδύς sweet (Lat. suadvis), οὗ, οἷ, him, ὅς his (Lat. suus), ἔθος custom, ἦθος character (Lat. con-suetus).

123 D. Hom. εὔαδε pleased stands for ἐϝϝαδε from ἐσϝαδε.

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