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2209. Object clauses after verbs of effort are introduced by ὅπως, rarely by ὡς (Herodotus, Xenophon), scarcely ever by ἵνα. The negative is μή.

2210. Verbs of effort include verbs denoting to take care or pains, to strive.

ἐπιμελοῦμαι, μέλει μοι, μελετῶ, φρουρῶ, πρόνοιαν ἔχω, βουλεύομαι, μηχανῶμαι, παρασκευάζομαι, προθυ_μοῦμαι, πρά_ττω, πάντα ποιῶ (ποιοῦμαι), σπουδάζω, etc.

a. The same construction follows certain verbs of will signifying to ask, command, entreat, exhort , and forbid, and which commonly take the infinitive (αἰτῶ, δέομαι, παραγγέλλω, ἱκετεύω, δια- or παρακελεύομαι, ἀπαγορεύω, etc.).

b. Some verbs take, by analogy, but in negative clauses only, the construction either of verbs of effort or of verbs of fearing. These verbs signify to see to a thing: ὁρῶ, σκοπῶ (-οῦμαι), ἐσκεψάμην, σκεπτέον ἐστί, τηρῶ; to be on one's guard: εὐλαβοῦμαι, φροντίζω, φυλάττω (-ομαι). See 2220.

These verbs may take μή with the infinitive. εὐλαβοῦμαι and φυλάττομαι take the infinitive when they mean to guard against doing something.

2211. Object clauses after verbs of effort take the future indicative with ὅπως after primary and secondary tenses (rarely the optative after secondary tenses, 2212).

ἐπιμελοῦμαι ὅπως ταῦτα ποιήσει I take care that he shall do this.

ἐπιμελοῦμαι ὅπως μὴ ταῦτα ποιήσει I take care that he shall not do this.

ἐπεμελούμην ὅπως ταῦτα ποιήσει (ποιήσοι) I took care that he should do this.

ἐπεμελούμην ὅπως μὴ ταῦτα ποιήσει (ποιήσοι) I took care that he should not do this.

““εἰ ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι, τοῦτο δεῖ παρασκευάσασθαι ὅπως ὡς κράτιστα μαχούμεθαif it is necessary to fight, we must prepare to fight bravelyX. A. 4.6.10, ἔπρα_σσον ὅπως τις βοήθεια ἥξει they were managing (this, that) how some reinforcements should come T. 3.4, ““σκοπεῖσθε τοῦτο, ὅπως μὴ λόγους ἐροῦσιν μόνον . . . ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔργον τι δεικνύειν ἕξουσινsee to this, that they not only make speeches but also are able to show some proofD. 2.12, σκεπτέον μοι δοκεῖ εἶναι . . . ὅπως ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα ἄπιμεν (774) ““καὶ ὅπως τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἕξομενit seems to me that we must consider how we shall depart in the greatest security and how we shall procure our provisionsX. A. 1.3.11. In ““δεῖ σε ὅπως δείξειςit is needful that thou proveS. Aj. 556 there is a confusion between δεῖ δεῖξαι and the construction of 2213.

2212. After secondary tenses the future optative occasionally occurs.

““ἐπεμέλετο ὅπως μήτε ἄσι_τοι μήτε ἄποτοί ποτε ἔσοιντοhe took care that they should never be without food or drinkX. C. 8.1.43.

a. The future optative occurs especially in Xenophon, and represents a thought that was originally expressed by the future indicative. Here the indicative would present the thought vividly, i.e. as it was conceived in the mind of the subject.

2213. ὅπως and ὅπως μή with the future indicative may be used without any principal clause, to denote an urgent exhortation or a warning. Originally the ὅπως clause depended on σκόπει (σκοπεῖτε), ὅρα_ (ὁρᾶτε) see to it; but the ellipsis was gradually forgotten and the construction used independently.

““ὅπως οὖν ἔσεσθε ἄνδρες ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς ἧς ἧς κέκτησθεbe men worthy of the freedom which you possessX. A. 1.7.3, ““ὅπως δὲ τοῦτο μὴ διδάξεις μηδέναbut don't tell anybody thisAr. Nub. 824, and very often in Ar. This use is also preceded by ἄγε (X. S. 4. 20). The third person is very rare (L. 1.21).

2214. Verbs of effort sometimes have the construction of final clauses, and take, though less often, ὅπως with the present or second aorist subjunctive or optative (cp. 2196). The subjunctive may be used after secondary tenses.

ἔπρα_σσεν . . . ὅπως πόλεμος γένηται he tried to bring it about that war should be occasioned T. 1.57, ““ὅρα_ . . . ὅπως μὴ παρὰ δόξαν ὁμολογῇςsee to it that it does not prove that you acquiesce in what you do not really thinkP. Cr. 49c, οὐ φυλάξεσθ᾽ ὅπως μὴ . . . δεσπότην εὕρητε; will you not be on your guard lest you find a master? D. 6.25. Future and subjunctive occur together in X. A. 4.6.10. In Xenophon alone is the subjunctive (and optative) more common than the future.

a. The object desired by the subject of a verb of effort is here expressed by the same construction as is the purpose in the mind of the subject of a final clause.

2215. ἄν is sometimes added to ὅπως with the subjunctive to denote that the purpose is dependent on certain circumstances.

““ὅπως ἂν . . . οἱ στρατιῶται περὶ τοῦ στρατεύεσθαι βουλεύωνται, τούτου πειρἁ_σομαι ἐπεμέλεσθαιI will endeavour to make it my care that the soldiers deliberate about continuing the warX. C. 5.5.48, ““μηχανητέον ὅπως ἂν διαφύγῃplans must be made for his escapeP. G. 481a (the same passage has ὅπως with the subjunctive and the future). In Attic this use occurs in Aristophanes, Xenophon, and Plato.

2216. ὡς and ὡς ἄν with subjunctive and optative and ὅπως ἄν with the optative occur in Xenophon, ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν with the optative being used after primary and secondary tenses. Hdt. has ὅκως ἄν after secondary tenses. The optative with ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν is potential.

2217. After verbs meaning to consider, plan , and try ὄπως or ὡς with the subjunctive (with or without κέ) or optative is used by Homer, who does not employ the future indicative in object clauses denoting a purpose. Thus, ““φράζεσθαι . . . ὅππως κε μνηστῆρας . . . κτείνῃςconsider how thou mayest slay the suitorsα 295, ““πείρα_ ὅπως κεν δὴ σὴν πατρίδα γαῖαν ἵκηαιtry that thou mayest come to thy native landδ 545. Here ὅπως with the future indicative would be the normal Attic usage.

2218. Verbs of will or desire signifying to ask, command, entreat, exhort , and forbid, which usually have an infinitive as their object, may take ὅπως (ὅπως μή) with the future indicative (or optative) or the subjunctive (or optative). The ὅπως clause states both the command, etc. and the purpose in giving it. Between take care to do this and I bid you take care to do this the connection is close. Cp. impero, postulo with ut (ne).

““διακελεύονται ὅπως τι_μωρήσεταιthey urge him to take revengeP. R. 549e, ““δεήσεται δ᾽ ὑ_μῶν ὅπως . . . δίκην μὴ δῷhe will entreat you that he may not suffer punishmentAnt. 1.23, παραγγέλλουσιν ὅπως ἂν (2215) τῇδε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τελευτήσῃ they give orders (to the end) that he die to-day P. Ph. 59e, ““Λακεδαιμονίων ἐδέοντο τὸ ψήφισμ᾽ ὅπως μεταστραφείηthey begged the Lacedaemonians that the decree might be changedAr. Ach. 536, ““ἀπηγόρευες ὅπως μὴ τοῦτο ἀποκρινοίμηνyou forbade me to give this answerP. R. 339a.

2219. Dawes' Canon.—The rule formulated by Dawes and afterwards extended (that the first aorist subjunctive active and middle after ὅπως, ὅπως μή, and οὐ μή is incorrect and should be emended) is applicable only in the case of verbs of effort. After these verbs the future is far more common than subjunctive or optative (except in Xenophon), and some scholars would emend the offending sigmatic subjunctives where they occur in the same sentence with second aorists (as And. 3.14) or even where the future has a widely different form (as ἐκπλευσεῖται, subj. ἐκπλεύσῃ, cp. X. A. 5.6.21).

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