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1692. παρά (Hom. παραί, Lat. por- in porrigere) alongside, by, near. Except with the accusative παρά is commonly used of persons and personified things.

1. παρά with the (Ablatival) Genitive

Usually coming or proceeding from a person, in Hom. also of things; cp. de chez.

a. Local: ““οἱ αὐτομολοῦντες παρὰ βασιλέωςthe deserters from the kingX. A. 2.1.6. In poetry, where we might expect the dat. (1659 a): ἔγρετο παρ᾽ Ἥρης lit. he awoke from the side of Hera O 5. In standard Attic prose παρά with the gen. of a thing is excessively rare. When so used, the thing is personified, or the thing implies a person (as πόλις, ἀρχή, θέα_τρον).

b. Author, Source (cp. 1410): with verbs of receiving, taking, asking, learning, sending, etc.: ““παρὰ Μήδων τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐλάμβανον Πέρσαιthe Persians wrested the empire from the MedesX. A. 3.4.8, ““παρὰ σοῦ ἐμάθομενwe learned from youX. C. 2.2.6; ““ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν εὔνοιαthe good-will on the part of the godsD. 2.1 (less commonly ἀπό); with passives and intransitives (instead of ὑπό with the gen. of the agent): ““τὰ παρὰ τῆς τύχης δωρηθένταthe gifts of FortuneI. 4.26, τοῦτο παρὰ πάντων ὁμολογεῖται this is acknowledged on all sides (on the part of all) L. 30.12.

2. παρά with the Dative

Almost always of persons in standard Attic prose; cp. chez.

a. Local: ““οὐ παρὰ μητρὶ σι_τοῦνται οι᾽ παῖδες, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τῷ διδασκάλῳthe boys do not eat with their mothers, but with their teachersX. C. 1.2.8, παρ᾽ ἐμοί σκηνοῦν to mess with me (as chez moi) 6. 1. 49; of things: ““τὰ παρὰ θαλάττη χωρίαthe places along the seaX. A. 7.2.25.

b. Other relations: Possessor: ““τὸ μὲν χρυ_σίον παρὰ τούτῳ, οἱ δὲ κίνδυ_νοι παρ᾽ ὑ_μῖνthis man has the gold, you the dangersAes. 3.240; of the superior in command: ““οἱ παρὰ βασιλεῖ ὄντεςthose under the kingX. A. 1.5.16; of the person judging: ““ἀναίτιος παρὰ τοῖς στρατιώταιςblameless in the opinion of the troopsX. C. 1.6.10, ὁμολογεῖται παρὰ τῷ δήμῳ it is agreed in the opinion of the people Lyc. 54 (here παρά denotes the sphere of judgment); with the gen. after a passive (1692. 1. b) it denotes the source.

3. παρά with the Accusative

a. Local: of motion to, in prose only of persons: ““ἧκε παρ᾽ ἐμέcome to meX. C. 4.5.25; motion along, by, past (a place): ““παρὰ γῆν πλεῖνsail along shoreT. 6.13; of parallel extent (along, alongside, beside) with verbs of motion and of rest (often the dat.), and often when no verb is used: ““ἥνπερ ἔλαβον ναῦν, ἀνέθεσαν παρὰ τὸ τροπαῖονthe ship they captured they set up alongside of the trophyT. 2.92, ““εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ᾽ ἑαυτόνhe told him to remain close by himX. C. 1.4.18, ““τὸ πεδίον τὸ παρὰ τὸν ποταμόνthe plain extending along the riverX. A. 4.3.1, ἦν παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν κρήνη there was a spring by the road 1. 2. 13. Contrary to: παρὰ τοὺς νόμους κατ᾽ αὐτούς contrary to (i.e. going past) the laws or in accordance with them D. 23.20; in addition to (along beside): ““ἔχω παρὰ ταῦτα ἄλλο τι λέγεινbesides this I have to say something elseP. Ph. 107a. Phrase: παρ᾽ ὀλίγον ἐποιοῦντο Κλέανδρον they treated Cleander as of no account (cp. ‘next to nothing’) X. A. 6.6.11.

b. Temporal: (duration) ““παρὰ πάντα τὸν χρόνονthroughout the whole timeD. 5.2, (momentary) ““παρὰ τὰ δεινάin the hour of dangerAes. 3.170, παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀ_δικήματα at the time of (i.e. immediately after) the offences themselves D. 18.13.

c. Other relations: Cause = διά: ““παρὰ τὴν ἡμετέρα_ν ἀμέλειανin consequence of our negligenceD. 4.11, εἰ παρὰ τὸ προαισθέσθαι κεκώλυ_ται if it was prevented by being perceived in advance 19. 42. Dependence: παρὰ τοῦτο γέγονε τὰ ““τῶν Ἑλλήνωνthe fortunes of the Greeks depend on thisD. 18.232. Measure: παρὰ μι_κρὸν ἤλθομεν ἐξανδραποδισθῆναι we had a narrow escape (came by a little) from being enslaved I. 7.6, ““παρὰ πολύby farT. 2.8. Comparison: ““ἐξέτασον παρ᾽ ἄλληλαcontrast with each otherD. 18.265, χειμὼν μείζων παρὰ τὴν καθεστηκυῖαν ὥρα_ν stormy weather more severe than was to be expected at the season then present T. 4.6.

4. παρά in Composition

Alongside, by, beside (παριέναι go alongside), beyond, past (παρελαύνειν drive past), over (παρορᾶν overlook), aside, amiss (παρακούειν misunderstand).

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