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1126. The article is often omitted (1) in words and phrases which have survived from the period when , , τό was a demonstrative pronoun; (2) when a word is sufficiently definite by itself; (3) when a word expresses a general conception without regard to its application to a definite person. The generic article is frequently omitted, especially with abstracts (1132), without appreciable difference in meaning. Its presence or absence is often determined by the need of distinguishing subject from predicate (1150), by the rhythm of the sentence, etc.

1127. The article is omitted in many adverbial designations of time, mostly with prepositions (except ἡμέρα_ς by day, νυκτός by night).

Thus, περὶ μέσα_ς νύκτας about midnight, ἅμα ἕῳ just before daylight, ὥρᾳ ἕτους at the season of the year. So with ὄρθρος daybreak, δείλη afternoon, ἑσπέρα_ evening, ἔαρ spring; and ἐκ παίδων from childhood. Most of the above cases are survivals of the older period when the article had a demonstrative force.

1128. The article is very often omitted in phrases containing a preposition: ““ἐν ἀρχῇ τοῦ λόγουin the beginning of the speechD. 37.23, ““ἔξω βελῶνout of reach of the missilesX. A. 3.4.15, ““Ἠιόνα τὴν ἐπὶ Στρυ_μόνιEion on the StrymonT. 1.98.

1129. Words denoting persons, when they are used of a class, may omit the article. So ἄνθρωπος, στρατηγός, θεός divinity, god ( θεός the particular god). Thus, ““πάντων μέτρον ἄνθρωπός ἐστινman is the measure of all thingsP. Th. 178b.

1130. Adjectives and participles used substantively have no article when the reference is general: ““μέσον ἡμέρα_ςmiddayX. A. 1.8.8, ψυ_χρόν cold, ““θερμόνheatP. S. 186d, πέμψαι προκαταληψομένους τὰ ἄκρα to send men to preoccupy the heights X. A. 1.3.14. Rarely when an adverb is used adjectively: ““τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἄρδην ὄλεθροςthe utter destruction of the enemyD. 19.141.

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