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805. Future Middle with Active Meaning.—Many verbs have no active future, but use instead the future middle in an active sense: λαμβάνω take λήψομαι, γιγνώσκω know γνώσομαι.

a. Most such verbs denote a physical action, as the action of the vocal organs; the action of the organs of sight, hearing, smell, touch; the action of throat, mouth, lips; bodily activity in general, voluntary or involuntary; and other aspects of the physical side of human organism.

806. In the following list of active verbs with middle futures those marked * have also an active future; those marked † sometimes have an active future in late Greek. All verbs adding -αν- to form the present stem (523, b, c) have a middle future except αὐξάνω, λανθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. Verbs denoting praise or blame usually have both an active and a middle future.

ἀκούωγελάω*ἐμέω*κλαίωοἰμώζωπλέωτλάω (ἔτλην
βαίνω(see 703-θνῄσκωμανθάνωπάσχωσκώπτωχάσκω
*βλέπω*διώκωκάμνωνέω swimπί_νω(late)*χωρέω

a. Compounds of χωρέω with ἀπο-, συγ-, παρα-, προσ- have both active and middle futures; other compounds have only the active futures.

807. Future Middle with Passive Meaning.—In many verbs the future middle has the meaning of the future passive, as ἀδικέω wrong, ἀδικήσομαι shall be wronged.

808. The following verbs commonly use the future middle in a passive sense. (All of these have the future passive in late Greek, except ἀμφις βητέω, ἐάω, εἴργω, ἐνεδρεύω, οἰκέω, παιδαγωγέω, προαγορεύω, στρεβλόω, στυγέω.)

ἀγνοέω not to knowεἴργω shutμαστι_γόω whipστρεβλόω rack
ἀγωνίζομαι contendἐκπλύ_νω wash outοἰκέω inhabitστυγέω hate (poet.)
ἀδικέω wrongἐνεδρεύω lie in waitὁμολογέω agreeταράττω disturb
ἀμφισβητέω disputeforὀνειδίζω reproachτηρέω guard
ἀνοίγνυ_μι open, C.I.A.ἐπιβουλεύω plotπαιδαγωγέω edu-τρέφω nourish
2. 1054 (not foundagainstcateτρί_βω rub
in literature)ἐχθαίρω hateπολεμέω wage warὕ_ω rain
ἄρχω ruleἔχω haveπροαγορεύω fore-φιλέω love
διδάσκω teachθεραπεύω tendtellφυλάττω guard
ἐάω permitκωλύ_ω preventσταθμάω measure

809. Some verbs use in a passive sense both a future middle form and a future passive form; on the difference in meaning see 1738.

ἄγω lead, ἄξομαι, ἀχθήσομαι.μαρτυρέω bear witness, μαρτυρήσομαι,
ἀπατάω deceive, ἀπατήσομαι, ἐξαπατη-μαρτυρηθήσομαι.
θήσομαι.πολιορκέω besiege, πολιορκήσομαι, πολι-
αὐξάνω increase, αὐξήσομαι, αὐξηθήσομαι.ορκηθήσομαι.
βλάπτω hurt, βλάψομαι, βλαβήσομαι.πρά_ττω do, πρά_ξομαι (rare), πρα_χθήσομαι.
δηλόω manifest, δηλώσομαι, δηλωθήσο-στερέω deprive, ἀποστερήσομαι, ἀποστε-
ζημιόω fine, ζημιώσομαι, ζημιωθήσομαι.τι_μάω honour, τι_μήσομαι, τι_μηθήσομαι.
καλέω call, καλοῦμαι (rare), κληθήσομαι.ὑβρίζω insult, ὑβριοῦμαι, ὑβρισθήσομαι.
κηρύ_ττω proclaim, κηρύξομαι (rare), κη-φέρω bear, οἴσομαι, οἰσθήσομαι, κατενε-
κρί_νω judge, κρινοῦμαι, κριθήσομαι.φρονέω: καταφρονήσομαι despise, κατα-
λέγω say, λέξομαι (tragic), λεχθήσομαι.φρονηθήσομαι.
λείπω leave, ἀπολείψομαι, ἀπολειφθήσομαι.ὠφελέω aid, ὠφελήσομαι, ὠφεληθήσομαι.

810. Middle Deponents.—Deponent verbs whose aorists have an active or middle meaning with middle forms are called middle deponents. The aorist passive of such verbs, when it occurs, has a passive force. Thus αἰτιάομαι accuse, ᾐτια_σάμην accused, ᾐτιά_θην was accused. Others 813 c.

811. Passive Deponents.—Deponent verbs whose aorists have the passive form but the active or middle meaning are called passive deponents; as βούλομαι wish, aor. ἐβουλήθην. The future is usually middle in form. Most passive deponents express mental action of some sort.

812. In the following list verbs marked * have a future passive form and also a future middle form; as διαλέγομαι converse, aor. διελέχθην conversed, fut. διαλέξομαι and διαλεχθήσομαι shall converse. But ἥδομαι take pleasure in has only ἡσθήσομαι, and ἡττάομαι yield to, am worsted has only ἡττηθήσομαι. Verbs with † have also an aorist middle, but it is less common, or poetic, or late Greek.

ἄγαμαι admire, ἠγάσθην*ἡττάομαι yield to, ἡττήθην
*†αἰδέομαι feel shame, ᾐδέσθηνἐν-) θυ_μέομαι consider, ἐνεθυ_μήθην
ἀλάομαι (usu. poet.) wander, ἠλήθηνπρο-) θυ_μέομαι am eager, προεθυ_μήθην
ἁμιλλάομαι contend, ἡμιλλήθην*†(δια-) λέγομαι converse, διελέχθην
ἀρνέομαι deny, ἠρνήθηνἐπι-) μέλομαι care for, ἐπεμελήθην
*ἄχθομαι am grieved, ἠχθέσθηνμετα-) μέλομαι regret, μετεμελήθην
βούλομαι wish, ἐβουλήθην (430ἀπο-) νοέομαι despair, ἀπενοήθην
δέομαι want, ἐδεήθην*(δια-) νοέομαι reflect, διενοήθην
δέρκομαι (poet.) see, ἐδέρχθηνἐν-) νοέομαι think of, ἐνενοήθην
δύναμαι am able, ἐδυνήθην (430†(ἐπι-) νοέομαι think on, ἐπενοήθην
ἐναντιόομαι oppose, ἠναντιώθην†(προ-) νοέομαι foresee, provide, προε-
ἐπίσταμαι understand, ἠπιστήθηννοήθην
ἔραμαι ἐράω love, ἠράσθηνοἴομαι think, ᾠήθην
εὐλαβέομαι am cautious, ηὐλαβήθηνφιλοτι_μέομαι am ambitious, ἐφιλοτι_μή-
ἥδομαι take pleasure in, ἥσθηνθην

a. Some verbs use either the aorist middle or aorist passive without distinction, as ἐναυλίζομαι bivouac, πρα_γματεύομαι am engaged in.

b. Some verbs use both, but prefer the aorist middle, as ἀποκρί_νομαι answer, ἀπολογέομαι speak in defence, μέμφομαι blame.

c. Some verbs use the aorist passive in an active or middle sense, as ἀπορέομαι doubt, pass. be disputed, aor. ἠπορήθην; πειράω prove, πειράομαι try, aor. ἐπειρά_θην (less often ἐπειρα_σάμην), fut. πειρά_σομαι and πειρα_θήσομαι. ἐράω (poet. ἔραμαι) love has ἠράσθην fell in love with, fut. ἐρασθήσομαι.

813. Deponents with Passive Meaning.—Some deponent verbs have a passive meaning. This is avoided by good writers in the present and imperfect or future passive, is not frequent in the aorist, but is common in the perfect and pluperfect passive. Thus ἀπεκρίνεται (ἀπεκρίθη) ταῦτα this answer is (was) made is not good Greek. Few verbs show the passive meaning in most of these tenses; as ὠνέομαι buy, am bought, ἐωνήθην was bought, ἐώνημαι have bought, have been bought.

a. Present and Imperfect: ἀγωνίζομαι contend, am contended for, βιάζομαι force, am forced, λυ_μαίνομαι maltreat, am maltreated, ὠνέομαι buy, am bought.

b. Future Passive: ἀπαρνέομαι deny, ἀπαρνηθήσομαι, ἐργάζομαι work, do, ἐργασθήσομαι.

c. Aorist Passive: These verbs (middle deponents, 810) have also an aorist middle; the aorist passive is used in a passive sense: ἀγωνίζομαι contend, αἰκίζομαι harass, αἰνίττομαι speak darkly, αἰτιάομαι accuse, ἀκέομαι heal, βιάζομαι force, δέχομαι receive, δωρέομαι present, ἐργάζομαι work, do, ἡγέομαι lead, θεάομαι behold, ἰ_άομαι heal, κτάομαι acquire, λυ_μαίνομαι maltreat, λωβάομαι abuse, μι_μέομαι imitate, ὀλοφύ_ρομαι lament, προφασίζομαι feign an excuse, χράομαι use, ὠνέομαι buy. ἀποκρί_νομαι has ἀπεκρί_νατο answered, ἀπεκρίθην usu. means was separated.

d. Perfect and Pluperfect: These verbs use the perfect middle in the middle or the passive sense: ἀγωνίζομαι contend, αἰνίττομαι speak darkly, αἰτιάομαι accuse, ἀποκρί_νομαι answer, ἀπολογέομαι make a defence, βιάζομαι force, ἐνθυ_μέομαι consider, ἐργάζομαι work, do, εὔχομαι pray, ἡγέομαι lead, κτάομαι acquire, λωβάομαι abuse, μηχανάομαι devise, μι_μέομαι imitate, παρρησιάζομαι speak boldly, πολι_τεύομαι act as (discharge the duties of) a citizen, πρα_γματεύομαι am engaged in, σκέπτομαι view, χράομαι use, ὠνέομαι buy.

814. Active Verbs with Aorist Passive in a Middle Sense.—The aorist passive of some active verbs has a reflexive or middle sense, either sometimes or always. Thus εὐφραίνω gladden, ηὐφράνθην rejoiced, κι_νέω move, ἐκι_νήθην was moved or moved myself, φαίνω show, ἐφάνην showed myself, appeared (ἐφάνθην usually was shown).

a. These verbs are often called middle passives.

b. The middle and the passive form of the future of such verbs is often found, the middle being frequently preferred.

815. Aorist Passive and Future Middle forms:

αἰσχύ_νω disgrace, ᾐσχύνθην feltὀργίζω anger, ὠργίσθην became angry,
ashamed, αἰσχυνοῦμαιὀργιοῦμαι
ἀνιάω vex, ἠνιά_θην felt vexed, ἀνιά_σομαιὁρμάω incite, ὡρμήθην set out, ὁρμήσομαι
ἐπείγω urge, ἠπείχθην urged, ἐπείξομαιπείθω persuade, ἐπείσθην obeyed, πείσο-
εὐφραίνω gladden, ηὐφράνθην rejoiced,μαι
εὐφρανοῦμαιπλανάω cause to wander, ἐπλανήθην
κι_νέω move, ἐκι_νήθην moved (bestirredwandered, πλανήσομαι
myself, κι_νήσομαιπορεύω convey, ἐπορεύθην marched, πο-
κοιμάω put to sleep, ἐκοιμήθην lay downρεύσομαι
to sleep, κοιμήσομαιφοβέω terrify, ἐφοβήθην was afraid, φο-
λυ_πέω vex, ἐλυ_πήθην grieved, λυ_πήσομαιβήσομαι

a. ἀνάγομαι set sail, κατάγομαι land, ὁπλίζομαι arm myself, ὁρμίζομαι lie at anchor, generally have an aorist middle.

816. Aorist Passive and Future Passive forms:

μιμνῄσκω remind, ἐμνήσθην remembered,σφάλλω trip up, deceive, ἐσφάλην erred,
μνησθήσομαιfailed, σφαλήσομαι
στρέφω turn, ἐστράφην turned, στραφή-τήκω cause to melt, ἐτάκην dissolved,
σομαιlanguished, τακήσομαι

817. Passive Aorist and Middle and Passive Future forms:

ἀπαλλάττω release, ἀπηλλάγην departed, ἀπαλλάξομαι, ἀπαλλαγήσομαι.

φαίνω show, ἐφάνην appeared, φανοῦμαι, φανήσομαι (819).

818. Some verbs have a passive aorist rarely in a middle sense; with the middle aorist in a different meaning.

μίζω bring, ἐκομίσθην betook myself, ἐκομισάμην carried off.

ῴζω save, ἐσώθην saved myself (was saved), ἐσωσάμην saved for myself.

ψεύδω deceive, ἐψεύσθην deceived myself (was deceived), ἐψευσάμην lied.

819. In some verbs showing 1st and 2nd aorist, or 1st and 2nd perfect, the first tenses are generally transitive, the second tenses generally intransitive. The future active of these verbs is transitive. In some transitive verbs the perfect (usually the 2nd perf.) is intransitive.

ἄγνυ_μι: trans. κατά_γνυ_μι break, -έα_ξα; intrans. κατά_γνυμαι break, 2 aor. -εά_γην; 2 perf. -έα_γα am broken.

βαίνω go: trans. βήσω shall cause to go, 1 aor. ἔβησα, Ion. and poet.; intrans. 2 aor. ἔβην went, pf. βέβηκα have gone, stand fast.

δύ_ω: trans. cause to enter, sink, put on, δύ_σω, ἔδυ_σα, δέδυ^κα; intrans. enter, pass under, δύ_ομαι, δύ_νω, 2 aor. ἔδυ_ν dived, went down, δέδυ_κα have entered, gone down. In prose usually καταδύ_ω make sink, κατέδυ_σα, καταδύ_σω; καταδύ_ομαι sink, καταδύ_σομαι, κατέδυ_ν.—Of another's clothes, ἐνδύ_ω (ἐνέδυ_σα) means put on, ἀποδύ_ω ἐκδύ_ω (ἀπέδυ_σα ἐξέδυ_σα) mean take off; of one's own clothes, ἐνδύ_ομαι and ἐνέδυ_ν mean put on, ἀποδύ_ομαι ἐκδύ_ομαι (ἀπέδυ_ν ἐξέδυ_ν) mean take off.

ἐγείρω: trans. rouse, wake up, ἐγερῶ, ἤγειρα, etc.; intrans. ἐγείρομαι wake, am awake, ἐγερθήσομαι, ἠγέρθην, 2 aor. ἠγρόμην awoke, 2 perf. ἐγρήγορα am awake.

ἵστημι set: trans. στήσω shall set, 1 aor. ἔστησα set, ἐστάθην was set, ἵσταμαι set for myself, στήσομαι, ἐστησάμην. Four active tenses are intrans.: 2 aor. ἔστην (set myself) stood, pf. ἕστηκα (have set myself) stand, am standing, εἱστήκη stood, was standing, 2 perf. ἕστατον stand, fut. pf. ἑστήξω shall stand. So also ἵσταμαι set myself, stand, στήσομαι.

N.—The same distinction prevails in the compounds: ἀνίστημι raise up, ἀνέστην stood up, ἀφίστημι set off, cause to revolt, ἀπέστην stood off, revolted, ἀφέστηκα am distant, am in revolt; ἐφίστημι set over, ἐπέστην set myself over, ἐφέστηκα am set over; καθίστημι set down, establish, κατέστην established myself, became established, καθέστηκα am established. The aorist middle has a different meaning: κατεστήσατο established for himself; συνίστημι introduce, unite, συνέστημεν banded together.

λείπω leave: trans. λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα have left, have failed, am wanting. λείπομαι mid. = remain (leave myself), pass. = am left, am left behind, am inferior; 2 aor. mid. ἐλιπόμην left for myself (in Hom. was left, am inferior), λείψομαι will leave for myself, will remain, be left.

μαίνω: trans. madden, ἐκμαίνω, -μανῶ, -έμηνα; intrans. rage, μαίνομαι, μανοῦμαι, ἐμάνην, 2 perf. μέμηνα am raging.

ὄλλυ_μι: trans. destroy (perdo), ἀπόλλυ_μι, -ολῶ, -ώλεσα, -ολώλεκα have ruined (perdidi); intrans. perish (pereo), ἀπόλλυμαι, -ολοῦμαι, 2 aor. -ωλόμην, 2 perf. -όλωλα am ruined (perii).

πείθω: trans. persuade, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα have persuaded, ἐπείσθην, πεισθήσομαι; intrans. (persuade myself) obey, believe, πείθομαι, πείσομαι, ἐπείσθην, πέπεισμαι am convinced; 2 perf. πέποιθα I trust ( = πιστεύω) is rare in prose.

πήγνυ_μι: trans. fix, make fast, πήξω, ἔπηξα, ἐπήχθην; intrans. am fixed, freeze, πήγνυμαι, παγήσομαι, ἐπάγην, 2 perf. πέπηγα am fixed, frozen.

πί_νω drink: 2 aor. ἔπιον drank, 1 aor. ἔπι_σα caused to drink.

πλήττω: trans. terrify, ἐκπλήττω, καταπλήττω, -έπληξα; intrans. am affrighted, ἐκπλήττομαι, -επλάγην.

πρά_ττω do: πέπρα_χα (probably late) have done, πέπρα_γα have fared (well or ill) and have done.

ῥήγνυ_μι: trans. break, -ῥήξω, ἔρρηξα; intrans. break, burst, ῥήγνυμαι, -ῥαγήσομαι, ἐρράγην, 2 perf. ἔρρωγα am broken.

σβέννυ_μι: trans. extinguish, put out, ἀποσβέννυ_μι, ἀπέσβεσα, ἀπεσβέσθην; intrans. be extinguished, go out, ἀποσβέννυμαι, ἀποσβήσομαι, ἀπέσβην went out, ἀπέσβηκα am extinguished.

σήπω: trans. make rot; intrans. rot, σήπομαι, ἐσάπην rotted, 2 perf. σέσηπα am rotten.

τήκω: trans. cause to melt; intrans. melt, τήκομαι, ἐτάκην, 2 perf. τέτηκα am melted.

φαίνω: trans. show, φανῶ, ἔφηνα, πέφαγκα have shown, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνθην was shown, made known; trans. also show, declare, φαίνομαι, φανοῦμαι, ἐφηνάμην showed (rare and poetic in the simple form; ἀπεφηνάμην declared is common); intrans. show oneself, appear, φαίνομαι, φανήσομαι and φανοῦμαι, ἐφάνην appeared, 2 perf. πέφηνα have shown myself, appeared. The middle means show oneself, appear; the passive, am shown, am made evident. φανήσομαι means shall appear or shall be shown, and is not very different in sense from φανοῦμαι (but see 1738, 1911).

φθείρω: trans. destroy, διαφθείρω, -φθερῶ, -έφθειρα, -έφθαρκα; intrans. am ruined, διαφθείρομαι, -εφθάρην, -φθαρήσομαι, 2 perf. διέφθορα am ruined in Hom., have destroyed in Attic poetry.

φύ_ω: trans. bring forth, produce, φύ_σω, ἔφυ_σα; intrans. am produced, come into being, φύ_ομαι, φύ_σομαι, ἔφυ_ν, 2 perf. πέφυ_κα am by nature.

820. Poetic forms: ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ-) fit, 2 aor. ἤραρον trans. and intrans.— γείνομαι am born, ἐγεινάμην begat.—ἐρείκω rend, 2 aor. ἤρικον trans. rent and intrans. shivered.—ἐρείπω throw down, ἤριπον trans. threw down and intrans. fell.—ὄρνυ_μι rouse, 2 aor. ὤρορον trans. roused and intrans. have risen.—ἀναγιγνώσκω read, ἀνέγνωσα persuaded in Hdt., 2 aor. ἀνέγνων read, recited.

821. The following are poetic intransitive second perfects: ἄρα_ρα fit (ἀραρίσκω fit, trans.).—ἔολπα hope (Epic ἔλπω cause to hope).—κέκηδα sorrow (κήδω trouble).—ὄρωρα have arisen (ὄρνυ_μι rouse).

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