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1172. Adjectives of Place.—When used in the predicate position (1168) ἄκρος (high) means the top of, μέσος (middle) means the middle of, ἔσχατος (extreme) means the end of. Cp. summus, medius, extremus.

Attributive PositionPredicate Position
τὸ ἄκρον ὅρος the lofty mountainἄκρον τὸ ὄρος )the top of
τὸ ὄρος ἄκρον )the mountain
μέση ἀγορά_ the central marketμέση ἀγορά_ )the centre of
ἀγορὰ_ μέση )the market
ἐσχάτη νῆσος the farthest islandἐσχάτη νῆσος )the verge of
νῆσος ἐσχάτη )the island

Thus, περὶ ἄκραις ταῖς χερσὶ χειρῖδες gloves on the fingers (points of the hands) X. C. 8.8.17, ““διὰ μέσου τοῦ παραδείσου ῥεῖflows through the middle of the parkX. A. 1.2.7. The meaning of the predicate position is also expressed by (τὸ) ἄκρον τοῦ ὄρους, (τὸ) μέσον τῆς ἀγορᾶς, etc.

1173. μόνος, ἥμισυς.—(1) Attributive: μόνος παῖς the only son, αἱ ἡμίσειαι χάριτες half-favours. (2) Predicate: μόνος παῖς (or παῖς μόνος) παίζει the boy plays alone, ἥμισυς βίος (or βίος ἥμισυς) half of life, τὰ ἅρματα τὰ ἡμίσεα half of the chariots.

αὐτός: (1) Attributive: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man. (2) Predicate: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself.

1174. πᾶς (and in the strengthened forms ἅπα_ς, σύμπα_ς all together). a. In the attributive position πᾶς denotes the whole regarded as the sum of all its parts (the sum total, the collective body): οἱ πάντες πολῖται the whole body of citizens, πᾶσα Σικελία_ the whole of Sicily, ““ἀποκτεῖναι τοὺς ἅπαντας Μυτιληναίουςto put to death the entire Mitylenean populationT. 3.36.

N.—Hence, with numbers, οἱ πάντες, τὰ σύμπαντα in all: ““ἑξακόσιοι καὶ χί_λιοι οἱ πάντες1600 in allT. 1.60.

b. In the predicate (and usual) position πᾶς means all: πάντες οἱ πολῖται or (often emphatic) οἱ πολῖται πάντες all the citizens (individually), ““περὶ πάντας τοὺς θεοὺς ἠσεβήκα_σι καὶ εἰς ἅπα_σαν τὴν πόλιν ἡμαρτήκα_σινthey have committed impiety towards all the gods and have sinned against the whole StateL. 14.42.

c. Without the article: πάντες πολῖται all (conceivable) citizens, ““μισθωσάμενοι πάντας ἀνθρώπουςhiring every conceivable personL. 12.60.

N. 1.—In the meaning pure, nothing but, πᾶς is strictly a predicate and has no article: κύκλῳ φρουρούμενος ὑπὸ πάντων πολεμίων hemmed in by a ring of guards all of whom are his enemies ( = πάντες ὑφ᾽ ὧν φρουρεῖται πολέμιοί εἰσι) P. R. 579b. So πᾶσα κακία_ utter baseness.

N. 2.—The article is not used with πᾶς if the noun, standing alone, would have no article.

N. 3.—In the singular, πᾶς often means every: ““σὺν σοὶ πᾶσα ὁδὸς εὔποροςwith you every road is easy to travelX. A. 2.5.9, ““πᾶσα θάλασσαevery seaT. 2.41.

1175. ὅλος: (1) Attributive: τὸ ὅλον στράτευμα the whole army; (2) Predicate: ὅλον τὸ στράτευμα (or τὸ στράτευμα ὅλον) the army as a whole, τὴν νύκτα ὅλην the entire night. With no article: ὅλον στράτευμα a whole army, ὅλα στρατεύματα whole armies.

1176. The demonstrative pronouns οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and αὐτός self, in agreement with a noun, usually take the article, and stand in the predicate position (1168): οὗτος ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ οὗτος (never οὗτος ἀνήρ) this man, αὐτὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself ( αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man 1173).

1177. One or more words may separate the demonstrative from its noun: ““ τούτου ἔρως τοῦ ἀνθρώπουthe love of this manP. S. 213c. Note also τῶν οἰκείων τινὲς τῶν ἐκείνων some of their slaves (some of the slaves of those men) P. A. 33d.

1178. οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος sometimes omit the article.

a. Regularly, when the noun is in the predicate: ““αὕτη ἔστω ἱκανὴ ἀπολογία_let this be a sufficient defenceP. A. 24b, ““οἶμαι ἐμὴν ταύτην πατρίδα εἶναιI think this is my native countryX. A. 4.8.4.

b. Usually, with proper names, except when anaphoric (1120 b): ἐκεῖνος Θουκυ_δίδης that (well-known) Thucydides Ar. Ach. 708.

c. Usually, with definite numbers: ““ταύτα_ς τριά_κοντα μνᾶςthese thirty minaeD. 27.23.

d. Optionally, when a relative clause follows: ““ἐπὶ γῆν τήνδε ἤλθομεν, ἐν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν Μήδων ἐκράτησανwe have come against this land, in which our fathers conquered the MedesT. 2.74.

e. In the phrase (often contemptuous) οὗτος ἀνήρ P. G. 505c; and in other expressions denoting some emotion: ἄνθρωπος οὑτοσί_ D. 18.243.

f. Sometimes, when the demonstrative follows its noun: ἐπίγραμμα τόδε T. 6.59. So often in Hdt.

g. Frequently, in poetry.

1179. ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος both, ἑκάτερος each (of two), ἕκαστος each (of several) have the predicate position. But with ἕκαστος the article is often omitted: κατὰ τὴν ἡμέρα_ν ἑκάστην (day by day and) every day, καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέρα_ν every day.

1180. The demonstratives of quality and quantity, τοιοῦτος, τοιόσδε, τοσοῦτος, τοσόσδε, τηλικοῦτος, when they take the article, usually follow it: ““τῶν τοσούτων καὶ τοιούτων ἀγαθῶνof so many and such blessingsD. 18.305, τοῦτο τὸ τοιοῦτον ἔθος such a practice as this 21. 123. δεῖνα such a one (336) regularly takes the article.

a. But the predicate position occurs: ““τοσαύτη πρώτη παρασκευὴ πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον διέπλειso great was the first armament which crossed over for the warT. 6.44.

1181. An attributive, following the article, may be separated from its noun by a pronoun: ““ πάλαι ἡμῶν φύσιςour old natureP. S. 189d, στενὴ αὕτη ὁδός (for αὕτη στενὴ ὁδός) this narrow road X. A. 4.2.6.

1182. Possessive pronouns take the article only when a definite person or thing is meant, and stand between article and noun: τὸ ἐμὸν βιβλίον my book, τὰ ἡμέτερα βιβλία our books.

a. But names of relationship, πόλις, πατρίς, etc., do not require the article (1140).

1183. The article is not used with possessive pronouns or the genitive of personal and reflexive pronouns (cp. 1184, 1185):

a. When no particular object is meant: ἐμὸν βιβλίον or βιβλίον μου a book of mine.

b. When these pronouns belong to the predicate: ““μαθητὴς γέγονα σόςI have become a pupil of yoursP. Euth. 5a, ““οὐ λόγους ἐμαυτοῦ λέγωνnot speaking words of my ownD. 9.41.

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