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689. All vowel and consonant verbs in -ω inflect the first perfect alike. Some verbs in -ω inflect the second perfect according to the ω-conjugation, others inflect it according to the μι-conjugation.

690. Indicative.—Originally the endings were added to the stem without any thematic vowel. Of this unthematic formation a few traces survive (573). In the 2 p. sing. the ending is -ς, but originally -θα; in the 3 pl. -κα_σι stands for κα-νσι out of κα-ντι (100). Thus λέλυκα, -ας, -ε, πέπομφα, -ας, -ε, etc. The periphrastic combination occurs in the indicative (599 a).

691. Subjunctive.—The perfect subjunctive is commonly formed periphrastically by the perfect active participle and , ᾖς, , etc. Thus λελυκὼς (γεγραφὼς) , etc., λελυκότες (γεγραφότες) ὦμεν, etc. Of the periphrastic forms only the 1 and 3 sing., 2 and 3 plur. are attested.

692. Instances of the simple perfect subjunctive (λελύκω, γεγράφω) are very rare. The simple form is made by substituting the thematic vowel ώη for α in the tense-stem. Only the sing. and the 3 plur. are attested from ω-verbs.

693. Besides εἰδῶ (οἶδα) and ἑστήκῃ, etc., Attic prose has only about 16 occurrences of the simple perf. subj., and from the following verbs only: βαίνω, δέδια, ἐγείρω, ἔοικα, θνῄσκω, λαμβάνω, λανθάνω, πάσχω, ποιῶ, φύ_ω. Hippocr. has forms from βιβρώσκω, πονῶ, τεύχω. There are about 30 occurrences in the poetry. Attic prose writers show about 25 cases of the periphrasis from all ω-verbs.

694. Optative.—The perfect optative is commonly formed periphrastically by the perfect active participle and εἴην, εἴης, εἴη, etc. Thus λελυκὼς (γεγραφὼς) εἴην, etc., λελυκότες (γεγραφότες) εἶμεν, etc. The dual is exceedingly rare.

695. Occasionally the simple forms are used (λελύκοιμι, γεγράφοιμι). These are formed by adding the mood-sign ι_, and the endings, to the tense-stem with the thematic vowel (ο). All the -ιη-forms are attested; of the -ι_-forms only the 3 sing. and 1 and 3 plur.

696. Of the simple optative there are about 25 occurrences in Attic prose, and from the following verbs only: ἀποχωρῶ, ἐξαπατῶ, εἰσβάλλω, παραδίδωμι, ἔοικα, -ἑστήκοι, ὑπηρετῶ, θνῄσκω, λανθάνω, καταλείπω, ποιῶ, πάσχω, προέρχομαι, ἐμπί_πτω, φύ_ω. In the poets there are about 16 occurrences. Prose writers show about 106 occurrences of the periphrastic forms.

697. Imperative.—The usual form of the first perfect imperative is periphrastic: λελυκὼς ἴσθι, ἔστω, etc. No classical Attic writer uses the simple forms.

698. The second perfect is rare, and occurs only in the case of verbs which have a present meaning. From active verbs inflected according to the ω- conjugation there occur κεχήνετε gape, Ar. Ach. 133 (χάσκω, χαν-), and κεκρά_γετε screech, Vesp. 415 (κρά_ζω). Most second perfects show the μι form and have present meaning, as τέθναθι (Hom.) τεθνάτω from θνῄσκω die, δέδιθι from δέδια fear, and κέκρα_χθι from κρά_ζω in Aristophanes. Most such second perfects are poetical.

699. Infinitive.—The perfect infinitive adds -έ-ναι, as λελυκέναι, λελοιπέναι.

699 D. Doric has -ην and -ειν, as δεδύκην δεδυκέναι, γεγά_κειν γεγονέναι. Aeolic has -ην, as τεθνάκην.

700. Participle.—The suffixes of the perfect participle in the nominative are -(ϝώς, -υῖα, -(ϝός, as λελυκώς, λελοιπώς. See 301 c, d, 309.

700 D. In the 2 perf. Hom. sometimes has -ῶτ-ος for -ότ-ος, as κεκμηώς, -ῶτος (κάμνω am weary). In the 2 perf. Hom. sometimes has α for Attic η in the feminine, as ἀρηρώς ἀραρυῖα from ἄρηρα (ἀραρίσκω fit). See 573. Aeolic inflects the perfect participle as a present in -ων, -οντος. Thus Hom. κεκλήγοντας for κεκληγότας (κλάζω scream), Pind. πεφρί_κοντας (φρί_ττω shudder).

701. Pluperfect Active.—The pluperfect is formed by adding -εα, -εας, -εε, -ετον, -ετην, -εμεν, -ετε, -εσαν to the reduplicated stem. By contraction from ἐλελυκεα, -εας, -εε come the forms ἐλελύκη, -ης -ει (ν). In the later language ει spread from the 3 sing. and was used throughout, as ἐλελύκειν, -εις, -ει, -ειτον, -είτην, -ειμεν, -ειτε, and very late -εισαν. The best Mss. of Demosthenes have -ειν in 1 sing. Instead of the simple pluperfect we find periphrastic forms, 599 a.


702. A few ω-verbs form their second perfects in the dual and plural without α by adding the endings directly to the stem. Herein these forms agree with the second perfect of μι-verbs (417). In the singular α is used.

703. The second perfect δέδια I fear usually has the forms of the first perfect δέδοικα in the singular, less frequently in the plural.

δέδοικα or δέδιαἐδεδοικη or ἐδεδίηδεδίω (rare)
δέδοικας or δέδιαςἐδεδοίκης or ἐδεδίηςOptative
δέδοικε or δέδιεἐδεδοίκει or ἐδεδίειδεδιείην (rare)
δέδιτονἐδεδίτηνδέδιθι (poet.)
δέδιμεν or δεδοίκαμενἐδέδιμενδεδιέναι or δεδοικέναι
δέδιτε or δεδοίκατεἐδέδιτε
δεδία_σι or δεδοίκα_σιἐδέδισαν or ἐδεδοίκεσανParticiple
δεδιώς, -υῖα, -ός or
δεδοικώς, -υῖα, -ός.

703 D. The root of δέδια is δϝι-, strong forms δϝει-, δϝοι-. Hom. has δίε, δίον feared, fled; for δέδοικα, δέδια he has δείδοικα, δείδια, etc. (once δεδία_σι). Here ει is due to metrical lengthening. δείδω, a present in form, is really a perfect for δε-δϝο[ιγλιδε]-α.

704. Other second perfects inflected like δέδια are the following:

a. βαίνω (βα-) go, 1 perf. βέβηκα have gone, stand fast regular; 2 perf. 3 pl. βεβᾶσι (poet.), subj. 3 pl. βεβῶσι, inf. βεβάναι (poet. and Ion.), part. βεβώς (contracted from βεβαώς) βεβῶσα, gen. βεβῶτος.

704 a. D. Hom. has 3 pl. βεβάα_σι, inf. βεβάμεν, part. βεβαώς, βεβαυῖα, gen. βεβαῶτος; 2 plup. βέβασαν.

b. γίγνομαι (γεν-, γα-) become, 2 perf. γέγονα am regular; 2 perf. part. poet. γεγώς (contracted from γεγαώς), γεγῶσα, gen. γεγῶτος.

b. Hom. has γεγάα_τε and γεγάα_σι, inf. γεγάμεν, part. γεγαώς, γεγαυῖα; 2 plup. ἐκγεγάτην.

c. θνῄσκω (θαν-, θνα-) die, 1 perf. τέθνηκα am dead regular; 2 perf. du. τέθνατον, pl. τέθναμεν, τέθνατε, τεθνᾶσι, 2 plup. 3 pl. ἐτέθνασαν, 2 perf. opt. τεθναίην, imper. τεθνάτω, inf. τεθνάναι, part. τεθνεώς, -εῶσα, -εός, gen. -εῶτος.

c. Hom. τέθναθι, τεθνάμεναι and τεθνάμεν, τεθνηώς -ηῶτος and -ηότος, fem. τεθνηυίης.

d. ἔοικα (ϝε-ϝοικ-α) am like, appear (ἰκ-, εἰκ-) has the μι forms ἔοιγμεν (poet.), εἴξα_σι for ἐοικ-σ-α_σι (poet. and in Plato). ἔοικα (ἐῴκη plup.) has also the foll. forms: ἐοίκω, ἐοίκοιμι, ἐοικέναι (εἰκέναι poet.), ἐοικώς (εἰκώς also in Plato).

d. Hom. imperf. εἶκε, 2 perf. 3 du. ἔϊκτον, 2 plup. ἐῴκει ἐΐκτην, ἐοίκεσαν, part. ἐοικώς (εἰκώς Φ 254), εἰκυῖα and ἐϊκυῖα (εἰοικυῖαι Σ 418); mid. ἤϊκτο, ἔϊκτο. Hdt. has οἶκα, οἰκώς.

e. κρά_ζω (κραγ-) cry out, 2 perf. κέκρα_γα as present, imper. κέκρα_χθι and κεκρά_γετε, a thematic form (both in Aristoph.).

705. Other verbs with second perfects of the μι-form (chiefly Homeric) are: ἄνωγα (ἄνωχθι), βιβρώσκω (βεβρῶτες), ἐγείρω (ἐγρήγορα), ἔρχομαι (είλήλυθμεν), μέμονα (μεμαώς), πάσχω (πέποσθε), πείθω (ἐπέπιθμεν), πἱ_πτω (πεπτώς), root δα- learn (δεδαώς), root τλα- (τέτλαμεν, τετλαίην, τέτλαθι, τετλάμεναι and τετλάμεν, τετληώς).

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