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2257. A clause of result with ὥστε stating that something actually occurred as a fact must be expressed by the indicative.

2258. A clause of result with ὥστε stating that something may occur in consequence of an intention, tendency, capacity, and in general in consequence of the nature of an object or action, is regularly expressed by the infinitive. When a consequence is stated without affirming or denying its actual occurrence, the infinitive is in place. The infinitive may therefore denote a fact, but does not explicitly state this to be the case; and is, in general, permissible in all cases where the attainment of the result is expected, natural, or possible, and its actual occurrence is not emphasized; as it is emphasized by the indicative.

a. ὥστε with the infinitive does not state a particular fact. The infinitive is preferred in clauses containing or implying a negative. ὥστε with the indicative is preferred after εἰς τοῦτο ἥκει and like phrases when affirmative (cp. 2265, 2266, 2274).

2259. This difference may be illustrated by examples.

ἔχω τριήρεις ὥστε ἑλεῖν τὸ ἐκείνων πλοῖον I have triremes (so as) to catch their vessel X. A. 1.4.8 (ὥστε εἷλον would mean so that I caught with an essentially different meaning), ““πάντας οὕτω διατιθεὶς ὥστε αὐτῷ εἶναι φίλουςtreating all in such a manner that they should be his friendsX. A. 1.1.5 (an intended result, 2267), ““οὕτω διάκειμαι ὑφ᾽ ὑ_μῶν ὡς οὐδὲ δεῖπνον ἔχω ἐν τῇ ἐμαυτοῦ χώρᾳI am treated by you in such a manner that I cannot even sup in my own countryX. H. 4.1.33 (a fact), ὥστε πάροδον μὴ εἶναι παρὰ πύργον, ἀλλὰ δι᾽ αὐτῶν μέσων διῇσαν so that it was impossible to pass by the side of a tower, but the guards went through the middle of them T. 3.21, ““κραυγὴν πολλὴν ἐποίουν καλοῦντες ἀλλήλους ὥστε καὶ τοὺς πολεμίους ἀκούειν: ὥστε οἱ μὲν ἐγγύτατα τῶν πολεμίων καὶ ἔφυγονthey made a loud noise by calling each other so that even the enemy could hear; consequently those of the enemy who were nearest actually fledX. A. 2.2.17. Here the fact that some of the enemy fled is proof that they actually heard the cries; but the Greek states merely that the noise was loud enough to be heard. Had the clause ὥστε . . . ἔφυγον not been added, we could only have inferred that the noise was heard.

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