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1698. ὑπό (Hom. also ὑπαί, Lesbian ὐπα-), under, by, Lat. sub.

1. ὑπό with the Genitive

a. Local (rare in Attic prose): out from under (poet., cp. ὑπέκ): ““ῥέει κρήνη ὑπὸ σπείουςa spring flows out from a caveι 140, ““λαβὼν βοῦν ὑπὸ ἁμάξηςtaking an ox from a wagonX. A. 6.4.25; under (of rest): τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς (a fixed phrase) ““ἅπανταall things under the earthP. A. 18b.

b. Other relations (metaphorically under the agency of): Direct agent (with passives and with verbs having a passive force); contrast διά, 1685. 2. d: ““σωθέντες ὑπὸ σοῦsaved by youX. A. 2.5.14, ““αἰσθόμενος ὑπ᾽ αὐτομόλωνinformed by desertersT. 5.2, ““εὖ ἀκούειν ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπωνto be well spoken of by menX. A. 7.7.23. With passive nouns: ““ ὑπὸ Μελήτου γραφήthe indictment brought by MeletusX. M. 4.4.4, ““κλῆσις ὑπὸ τῆς βουλῆςinvitation by the SenateD. 19.32. External cause: ““ἀπώλετο ὑπὸ λι_μοῦperished of hungerX. A. 1.5.5, ““οὐκ ἐπὶ πολὺ ὑπὸ τῶν ἰππέων ἐξιόντεςnot going out far because of the cavalryT. 6.37. Internal cause: ““ὑπὸ τῶν μεγίστων νι_κηθέντες, τι_μῆς καὶ δέους καὶ ὠφελία_ςconstrained by the strongest motives, honour and fear and profitT. 1.76. External accompaniment, as pressure, in ““ἐτόξευον ὑπὸ μαστί_γωνthey shot under the lashX. A. 3.4.25; sound, in ““ὑπὸ αὐλητῶνto the accompaniment of flute-playersT. 5.70; light, in ὑπὸ φα_νοῦ πορεύεσθαι to go with a torch X. R. L. 5.7. Manner: ““ὑπὸ σπουδῆςhastilyT. 3.33.

N. 1.—ὑπό with the genitive of a thing personifies the thing. The things so personified are (1) words implying a person, as λόγοι, (2) external circumstances, as συμφορά_, κίνδυ_νος, νόμος, (3) natural phenomena, as χειμών, (4) emotions, as φθόνος. The dative may also be employed. See 1493, 1494.

N. 2.—On ὑπό to express the personal agent with the perf. pass. see 1493.

2. ὑπό with the Dative

a. Local: under (of rest): ““ἑστάναι ὑπό τινι δένδρῳto stand under a treeP. Phil. 38c. ὑπό of place is more common with the dative than with the genitive.

b. Other relations: Agent (poetic, except with verbs signifying to educate): ὑπὸ παιδοτρίβῃ ἀγαθῷ πεπαιδευμένος educated under (the guidance of) a good master P. Lach. 184e. Coöperative cause (poet.): βῆ ὑπ᾽ ἀμύ_μονι πομπῇ he went under a blameless convoy Z 171. Subjection: οί ὑπὸ βασιλεῖ ὄντες the subjects of (i.e. those under) the king X. C. 8.1.6, ““ὑφ᾽ αὑτῷ ποιήσασθαιto bring under his own powerD. 18.40.

3. ὑπό with the Accusative

a. Local: Motion under: ὑπ᾽ αὐτὸν (τὸν λόφον) ““στήσα_ς τὸ στράτευμαhalting the army under the hillX. A. 1.10.14. Motion down under (poet.): ““εἶμ᾽ ὑπὸ γαῖανI shall go down under the earthΣ 333. Extension or position: αἱ ““ὑπὸ τὸ ὄρος κῶμαιthe villages at the foot of the mountainX. A. 7.4.5. Proximity: ὑποκειμένη Εὔβοια ὑπὸ τὴν Ἀττικήν Euboea lying close by (under) Attica I. 4.108.

b. Temporal (of time impending or in progress): ὑπὸ νύκτα at the approach of night (sub noctem) T. 2.92, ““ὑπὸ νύκταduring the nightHdt. 9.58, ““ὑπὸ τὴν εἰρήνηνat the time of the peaceI. 4.177.

c. Other relations. Subjection: ““ὑπὸ σφᾶς ποιεῖσθαιto bring under their own swayT. 4.60.

4. ὑπό in Composition

Under (ὑποτιθέναι place under), behind (ὑπολείπειν leave behind), secretly (cp. underhand; ὑποπέμπειν send as a spy), gradually (ὑποκαταβαίνειν descend by degrees), slightly (ὑποφαίνειν shine a little); of accompaniment (ὑπᾴδειν accompany with the voice); of an action performed by another (ὑποκηρύ_ττεσθαι have oneself proclaimed by the herald).

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