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2240. Causal clauses are introduced by ὅτι, διότι, διόπερ because, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε, ὁπότε since, ὡς as, since, because. The negative is οὐ.

a. Also by poetic οὕνεκα ( = οὗ ἕνεκα) and ὁθούνεκα ( = ὅτου ἕνεκα) because, εὖτε since (poetic and Ionic; also temporal), and by ὅπου since (Hdt. 1.68, X. C. 8.4.31, I. 4.186). Homer has or τε because.

b. ὡς frequently denotes a reason imagined to be true by the principal subject and treated by him as a fact (2241). ὅτι often follows διὰ τοῦτο, διὰ τόδε, ἐκ τούτου, τούτῳ. διότι stands for διὰ τοῦτο, ὅτι. ὅτε and ὁπότε usually mean when (cp. cum); as causal conjunctions they are rare, as ὅτε τοίνυν τοῦθ᾽ οὕτως ἔχει since then this is the case, D. 1.1, ““χαλεπὰ . . . τὰ παρόντα ὁπότ᾽ ἀνδρῶν στρατηγῶν τοιούτων στερόμεθαthe present state of affairs is difficult since we are deprived of such generalsX. A. 3.2.2. Causal ὅτε, temporal ὅτε rarely, can begin a sentence. When they approach the meaning if, ὅτε and ὁπότε take μή. In Attic prose inscriptions ἐπεί is rare, διότι does not occur, and ὧν ἕνεκα is generally used for διόπερ.

2241. Causal clauses denoting a fact regularly take the indicative after primary and secondary tenses.

ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑ_μεῖς οὐ βούλεσθε συμπορεύεσθαι, ἀνάγκη δή μοι ὑ_μᾶς προδόντα τῇ Κύ_ρου φιλίᾳ χρῆσθαι κτλ. but since you do not wish to continue the march with me, I must either retain the friendship of Cyrus by renouncing you, etc. X. A. 1.3.5, δ᾽ ἐζήλωσας ἡμᾶς ὡς τοὺς μὲν φίλους . . . εὖ ποιεῖν δυνάμεθα . . ., οὐδὲ ταῦθ᾽ οὕτως ἔχει but as to that which has excited your envy of us, our supposed ability (lit. because, as you think, we are able) to benefit our friends, not even is this so X. Hi. 6.12, ““ἐτύγχανε γὰρ ἐφ᾽ ἁμάξης πορευόμενος διότι ἐτέτρωτοfor he happened to be riding on a wagon from the fact that he had been woundedX. A. 2.2.14.

2242. But causal clauses denoting an alleged or reported reason (implied indirect discourse, 2622) take the optative after secondary tenses.

οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι) ““τὸν Περικλέα_ ἐκάκιζον ὅτι στρατηγὸς ὢν οὐκ ἐπεξάγοιthe Athenians reviled Pericles on the ground that, though he was general, he did not lead them outT. 2.21, εἶχε λέγειν . . . ὡς Λακεδαιμόνιοι διὰ τοῦτο πολεμήσειαν αὐτοῖς ὅτι οὐκ ἐθελήσαιεν μετ᾽ Ἀ_γησιλά_ου ἐλθεῖν ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν Pelopidas was able to say that the Lacedaemonians had made war upon them (the Thebans) for the reason that they had not been willing to march against him (the King of Persia) with Agesilaus X. H. 7.1.34.

2243. Cause may be expressed also by the unreal indicative with ἄν or the potential optative with ἄν.

““ἐπεὶ διά γ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς αὐτοὺς πάλαι ἂν ἀπολώλειτεsince you would long ago have perished had it depended on yourselvesD. 18.49, δέομαι οὖν σου παραμεῖναι ἡμῖν: ὡς ἐγὼ οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἑνὸς ἥδι_ον ἀκούσαιμι σοῦ accordingly I beg you to stay with us; because there is no one (in my opinion) to whom I should more gladly listen than to you P. Pr. 335d.

2244. ἐπεί may introduce a coördinate command (imperative S. El. 352, potential optative, P. G. 474b), wish (S. O. T. 661), or question (S. O. T. 390). Cp. the use of ὥστε, 2275. Sometimes, with the indicative, ἐπεί has the force of although (P. S. 187a).—A causal clause may have the value of γάρ with a coördinate main clause. So often in tragedy with ὡς in answers (S. Aj. 39; cp. X. C. 4.2.25).—A clause with ὅτε, apparently introducing a consequence, may give the reason for a preceding question (Δ 32).

2245. Cause may also be expressed by a relative clause (2555), by a participle (2064, 2085, 2086), by τῷ or διὰ τὸ with the infinitive (2033, 2034 b).

2246. εἰ or εἴπερ, when it expresses the real opinion of the writer or speaker, may have a causal force, as ἐγὼ . . . ἥδομαι μὲν ὑφ᾽ ὑ_μῶν τι_μώμενος, εἴπερ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι I am pleased at being honoured by you, since (lit. if indeed) I am a man X. A. 6.1.26.

2247. Many verbs of emotion state the cause more delicately with εἰ (ἐά_ν) if as a mere supposition than by ὅτι. The negative is μή or οὐ.

a. So with ἀγανακτῶ am indignant, ἄγαμαι am content, αἰσχρόν ἐστι it is a shame, αἰσχύ_νομαι am ashamed, ἄχθομαι take hard, δεινόν ἐστι it is a shame, δεινὸν ποιοῦμαι am indignant, θαυμάζω am astonished, μέμφομαι blame, φθονῶ am jealous, etc. The if clause is usually indicative, sometimes an unreal indicative, a subjunctive, or a potential optative. Thus, ““θαυμάζω εἰ μὴ βοηθήσετε ὑ_μῖν αὐτοῖςI am surprised if you will not help yourselvesX. H. 2.3.53, ““ἀγανακτῶ εἰ οὑτωσὶ_ νοῶ μὴ οἷός τ᾽ εἰμι εἰπεῖνI am grieved that I am thus unable to say what I meanP. Lach. 194a, ““δεινὸν ποιούμενοι εἰ τοὺς ἐπιβουλεύοντας σφῶν τῷ πλήθει μὴ εἴσονταιindignant that they could not discover those who were plotting against their commonsT. 6.60, ἄτοπον ἂν εἴη, εἰ μηδὲν μὲν ἐμοῦ λέγοντος αὐτοὶ βοᾶτε τὴν ἐπωνυμία_ν τῶν ἔργων . . . , ἐμοῦ δὲ λέγοντος ἐπιλέλησθε, καὶ μὴ γενομένης μὲν κρίσεως περὶ τοῦ πρά_γματος ἥλω ἄν, γεγονότος δὲ ἐλέγχου ἀποφεύξεται it would be absurd if, when I say nothing, you shout out the name of what he has done, but when I do speak, you forget it; and absurd if, while he should have been condemned when no investigation was instituted concerning the matter, he should yet get off now when the proof has been given Aes. 1.85 (cp. 2904 b), μὴ θαυμάζετε δ᾽ ἄ_ν τι φαίνωμαι λέγων do not be surprised if I seem to say something I. Ep. 6. 7, ““τέρας λέγεις, εἰ . . . οὐκ ἂν δύναιντο λαθεῖνit is a marvel you are telling if they could be undetectedP. Men. 91d.

b. After a past tense we have either the form of direct discourse or the optative, as in indirect discourse. Thus, ““ἐθαύμαζον εἴ τι ἕξει τις χρήσασθαι τῷ λόγῳ αὐτοῦI kept wondering if any one could deal with his theoryP. Ph. 95a, ““ἐπεῖπεν . . . ὡς δεινὸν εἴη εἰ μὲν . . . Ξανθία_ς ὑποκρι_νόμενος οὕτως . . . μεγαλόψυ_χος γένοιτοhe added that it was a shame if a man who played the rôle of Xanthias should prove himself so noble mindedAes. 2.157, ““ᾤκτι_ρον εἰ ἁλώσοιντοthey pitied them in case they should be capturedX. A. 1.4.7 (cp. 2622 a). Sometimes the construction used after a primary tense is retained after a secondary tense (X. C. 4.3.3).

2248. These verbs admit also the construction with ὅτι.

““μὴ θαυμάζετε ὅτι χαλεπῶς φέρωdo not be surprised that I take it hardX. A. 1.3.3, ἐθαύμαζον ὅτι Κῦρος οὔτε ἄλλον πέμπει . . . οὔτε αὐτὸς φαίνοιτο (implied indirect discourse) they were surprised that Cyrus neither sent some one else nor appeared himself 2. 1. 2, ἥκομεν ἀγαπῶντες ὅτι τὰ σώματα διεσωσάμεθα we have reached here, content that we have saved our lives 5. 5. 13. The construction with ἐπὶ τῷ and the infinitive (2033 b) also occurs: (Σωκράτης) ““ἐθαυμάζετο ἐπὶ τῷ . . . εὐκόλως ζῆνSocrates was admired because he lived contentedlyX. M. 4.8.2.

a. ὅτι after verbs of emotion really means that, not because.

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