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498. Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem with or without the thematic vowel.

499. (I) Presents with the thematic vowel (ω-verbs). The present stem is made by adding the thematic vowel όε- to the verb-stem, as λύ_-ω, παιδεύ-ω, παύ-ω, μέν-ω, πείθ-ω, φεύγ-ω, and the denominative verbs τι_μά-ω, φιλέ-ω, βασιλεύ-ω. For the personal endings, see 463 ff. For the derivation of many of these verbs, see 522.

500. The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -υω or -ιω.

1. a. Verbs in -υω generally have υ_ in Attic in the present; as λύ_ω loose, δύ_ω go under, θύ_ω sacrifice (almost always), φύ_ω make grow (usually). Also in ἀλύ_ω, ἀρτύ_ω, βρενθύ_ομαι, γηρύ_ομαι, δακρύ_ω (once υ^), ἱδρύ_ω, ἰσχύ_ω, καττύ_ω, κνύ_ω,, κωκύ_ω, κωλύ_ω (usually), μηνύ_ω, ὀπύ_ω (ὀπυίω), πτύ_ω, ῥύ_ομαι, στύ_ομαι, τρύ_ω, ὕ_ει; possibly in εἰλύομαι, ἠμύω, μύω, ξύω, φλύω; ἐλινύω, μηρύομαι, πληθύω (once υ^), φι_τύω. ὠρύω (υ_^) is doubtful.

b. -υω has υ short in ἀνύω, ἀρύω, βρύω, κλύω (but κλῦθι), μεθύω, and in all verbs in -νυω.

500. 1. D. Homer has short υ in ἀλύω, ἀνύω, βρύω, δύω, ἐρύω, ἠμύω, τανύω, φύω, and in all denominative verbs except ἐρητύ_οντο and ἐπι_θύ_ουσι, where υ_ is metrically necessary; long υ in ξύ_ω, πτύ_ω, ὕ_ω; anceps in θυ?́ω sacrifice (υ_ doubtful), θύ_ω rush on, rage, λυ?́ω (rarely λύ_ω), ποιπνύω, ῥύομαι. Pindar has υ short in θύω sacrifice, ἰσχύω, λύω, μανύω, ῥύω, ῥύομαι, in presents in -νυω, and in denominative verbs.

2. Hom. has ι_ in the primitives πί_ομαι and χρί_ω; but τι?́ω and τί_ω (τείω?); -ι^ω in denominatives (except μήνι_ε B 769). κονί_ω, ὀί_ομαι are from κονις-[ιγλιδε]ω, ὀις-[ιγλιδε]ομαι.

3. Where Attic has υ_, ι_ in the present, and Epic υ^, ι^, the former are due to the influence of υ_, ι_ in the future and aorist.

2. Attic has ι_ in primitive verbs in -ιω, as πρί_ω, χρί_ω, χλί_ω, but ι^ in τίω. Denominative verbs have ι_; but ἐσθι?́ω.

501. Several verbs with medial ι_, υ_ in the present, show ι^ or ι_, υ^ or υ_ in some other tense or tenses. Thus, θλί_βω press τέθλιφα, πνί_γω choke ἐπνίγην, τρί_βω rub τέτριφα ἐτρίβην, τύ_φω raise smoke ἐτύφην, ψύ_χω cool ἐψύχην.

502. Verb-stems having the weak grades α, ι, υ, show the strong grades η, ει, ευ in the present; as τήκ-ω (τα^κ-) melt, λείπω (λιπ-) leave, φεύγω (φυγ-) flee.

a. To this class belong also λήθω, σήπω, τέθηπα am astonished, 2 aor. ἔταφον, ἀλείφω, (δέδοικα, 703), εἴκω (ἔοικα), (εἴωθα, 563 a), ἐρείκω, ἐρείπω, πείθω, στείβω, στείχω, φείδομαι; ἐρεύγομαι, κεύθω, πεύθομαι, τεύχω.

503. Present Stems in -εο´ε- for ευόε-.—The strong form ευ before the thematic vowel became εϝ (ευ) and then ε (20 a, 43) in the verbs θέω run θεύσομαι, νέω swim ἔνευσα, πλέω sail ἔπλευσα, πνέω breathe ἔπνευσα, ῥέω flow ῥεύσομαι, χέω pour κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην.

503 D. These verbs end in -ευω in Aeolic (πνεύω etc.). Epic πλείω, πνείω have ει by metrical lengthening (28 D.).

504. (II) Presents without the thematic vowel (μι-verbs). The personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong forms η, ω in the singular, weak forms ε (α), ο in the dual and plural. Thus τί-θη-μι, τί-θε-μεν; ἵ-στη-μι for σι-στη-μι (= σι-στα_-μι), ἵ-στα-μεν; δί-δω-μι, δί-δο-μεν.

a. All verbs in μι (enumerated 723 ff) belong to this class except those in -νυ_μι (523 f) and -νημι (523 g).

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