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723. The present is made by adding the personal endings directly to the verb-stem, which is a root. This verb-stem may be used in its pure form or it may be reduplicated.

a. Some verbs of this class with no active have a verb-stem of more than one syllable (usually two syllables).

724. Unreduplicated Presents: εἰμί (ἐσ-) am, εἶμι (ἰ-, εἰ-) go, ἧμαι (ἡσ-) sit, ἠμί say ( said, 3 sing.), κεῖμαι (κει-) lie, φημί (φα-, φη-) say, χρή it is necessary (793); and poet. ἄημι (ἀη-) blow.

725. Deponents.—ἄγα-μαι (and ἀγάομαι) admire, δέα-μαι appear, δίε-μαι flee, make flee (cp. δίω), δύνα-μαι am able (737 a), ἐπί-στα-μαι understand, ἔρα-μαι love (poet. for ἐράω), ἵπταμαι fly (late, see 726 a), κρέμα-μαι hang (intrans.), ὄνο-μαι insult, πέτα-μαι (poet. by-form of πέτομαι) fly, ἐπριάμην bought a second aorist, στεῦμαι affirm.

a. Other such forms are Hom. ἵ_εμαι (ϝί_εμαι) strive, εἴρυμαι and ἔρυμαι rescue, Ion. λάζυμαι take. ἐπίστηται II 243 owes its η to such non-present forms as ἐπιστήσομαι.

726. Reduplicated Presents.—δίδημι bind (rare for δέω), δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give, ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set, κίχρημι (χρα-, χρη-) lend, ὀνίνημι (ὀνα-, ὀνη-) benefit, πίμπλημι (πλα-, πλη-) fill, πίμπρημι (πρα-, πρη-) burn, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place.

a. Also poetic βίβημι (βα-, βη-) go, in Hom. βιβά_ς striding, δί-ζημαι (also Ion.) seek, for δι-δ[ιγλιδε]η-μαι by 116 (cp. ζητέω seek), ἵλημι (ἱ_λα-, ἱ_λη- for σισλα-, σισλη-) am propitious. ἵπταμαι (late) for πέτομαι fly is an analogue of ἵσταμαι and is not properly reduplicated. τίτρημι bore is late.

727. Verbs in -μι reduplicate with ι in the present. See 414, 447. πί-μ-πλημι and πί-μ-πρημι may lose the inserted nasal in compounds of ἐν, but only when ἐν- takes the form ἐμ-; as ἐμπίπλημι, but ἐνεπίμπλασαν. Doric has κίγχημι. In ὀ-νί-νη-μι the reduplication takes place after a vowel (verb-stem ὀνα-, ὀνη-).

a. Reduplication is in place only in present and imperfect; but Hom. has διδώσομεν.

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