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211. Stems in α_ are masculine or feminine. The feminine nominative singular ends in -α_, -α^, or -η; the masculine nominative singular adds -ς to the stem, and thus ends in -α_ς or -ης.

212. Table of the union of the case endings (when there are any) with the final vowel of the stem.

Nom. α_ or α^ ηα_-ςη-ςα-ιN. A. V. α_
Gen. α_-ς or η-ς η-ςα_-ιο (Hom. α_-οῶν (for έ-ων, ά_-ωνG. D. α-ιν
Dat. α_-ι or η-ι η-ια_-ιη-ια-ις or α-ισιν
Acc. α_-ν or α^-ν η-να_-νη-να_ς (for α-νς
Voc. α_ or α^ ηα_α^ or ηα-ι

Observe the shortening of the stem in vocative singular and plural, in nominative and dative plural, and genitive and dative dual.

213. Accent.—For special rule of accent in the genitive plural, see 208. The genitive plural is always perispomenon since -ῶν is contracted from -έ-ων derived from original (and Hom.) -ά_-ων (51). Final -αι is treated as short (169).

a. The form of the gen. pl. is taken from the pronominal adjective, i.e. (Hom.) θεά_ων goddesses follows the analogy of (Hom.) τά_ων (332 D.) for τα_- (ςων, cf. Lat. istā-rum deā-rum.

214. The dialects show various forms.

214 D. 1. For η, Doric and Aeolic have original α_; thus, νί_κα_, ϝί_κα_ς, ϝί_κᾳ, νί_κα_ν; πολί_τα_ς, κριτά_ς, Ἀτρείδα_ς.

2. Ionic has η for the α_ of Attic even after ε, ι, and ρ; thus, γενεή, οἰκίη, ἀγορή, μοίρης, μοίρῃ (nom. μοῖρα^), νεηνίης. Thus, ἀγορή, -ῆς, -, -ήν; νεηνίης, -ου, -, -ην. But Hom. has θεά_ goddess, Ἑρμεία_ς Hermes.

3. The dialects admit -α^ in the nom. sing. less often than does Attic. Thus, Ionic πρύμνη stern, κνί_ση savour (Att. πρύμνα, κνῖσα), Dor. τόλμα_ daring. Ionic has η for α^ in the abstracts in -είη, -οίη (ἀληθείη truth, εὐνοίη good-will). Hom. has νύμφα^ oh maiden from νύμφη.

4. Nom. sing. masc.—Hom. has -τα for -της in ἱππότα horseman, ἱππηλάτα driver of horses, νεφεληγερέτα cloud-collector, κυ_ανοχαῖτα dark-haired; and, with recessive accent, μητίετα counsellor. So in the adj. εὐρύοπα far-sounding. Cp. Lat. poeta, scriba.

5. Gen. sing. masc.—(a) -α_ο, the original form from α_-ιο, is used by Hom. (Ἀτρείδα_ο). It contracts in Aeolic and Doric to -α_ (Ἀτρείδα_).

(b) -εω, from ηο (= α_ο) by 34, is also used by Hom., who makes it a single syllable by synizesis (60), as in Ἀτρείδεω. Hdt. has -εω, as πολί_τεω (163 a).

(c) -ω in Hom. after a vowel, Βορέω (nom. Βορέης).

6. Accus. sing. masc.—In proper names Hdt. often has -εα borrowed from ς stems (264), as Μιλτιάδεα for Μιλτιάδη-ν.

7. Dual.—Hom. has the nom. dual of masculines only. In the gen. and dat. Hom. has -αιν and also -αιιν.

8. Gen. plur.—(a) -ά_ων, the original form, occurs in Hom. (μουσά_ων, ἀγορά_ων). In Aeolic and Doric -ά_ων contracts to (b) -ᾶν (ἀγορᾶν). The Doric -ᾶν is found also in the choral songs of the drama (πετρᾶν rocks). (c) -έων, the Ionic form, appears in Homer, who usually makes it a single syllable by synizesis (60) as in βουλέωνν, from βουλή plan. -έων is from -ήων, Ionic for -ά_ων. (d) -ῶν in Hom. generally after vowels (κλισιῶν, from κλισίη hut).

9. Dat. plur.: -ῃσιν), -ῃς, generally before vowels, and (rarely) -αις in Hom. Ionic has -ῃσι, Aeolic -αισιν), -αις, Doric -αις.

10. Accus. plur.: -ανς, -α^ς, α_ς in various Doric dialects, -αις in Aeolic.

215. Dative Plural.—The ending -αισιν) occurs in Attic poetry (δίκαισι from δίκη right, δεσπόταισι from δεσπότης lord).

a. Attic inscriptions to 420 B. C. have -ῃσι (written -ηισι), -ησι, and (after ε, ι, ρ) -ᾳσι (written -αισι) and -α_σι. Thus, δραχμῇσι and δραχμῆσι drachmas, ταμίᾳσι and ταμία_σι stewards. -ησι and -α_σι are properly endings of the locative case (341).


χώρα_ νί_κη φυγή μοῖρα γλῶττα θάλαττα
N. A. V.χώρα_νί_κα_φυγά_μοίρα_γλώττα_θαλάττα_
G. D.χώραιννί_καινφυγαῖνμοίραινγλώτταινθαλάτταιν
N. V.χῶραινῖκαιφυγαίμοῖραιγλῶτταιθάλατται

ὥρα_ season, ἡμέρα_ day, σκιά_ shadow, μάχη battle, τέχνη art, γνώμη judgment, τι_μή honor, ἀρετή virtue, μοῦσα muse, πρῶρα prow, ἅμαξα wagon, δόξα opinion.

217. RULES.—a. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a vowel (σκιά_ shadow) or ρ (μοῖρα), alpha is kept throughout the singular.

b. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a consonant not ρ, alpha is changed to η in the genitive and dative singular.

c. If the nominative singular ends in η, η is kept in all the cases of the singular.

d. When the genitive singular has -ης, final α of the nominative singular is always short; when the genitive singular has -α_ς, the final α is generally long.

Feminines fall into two classes:

218. (I) Feminines with α_ or η in all the cases of the singular.

After ε, ι, or ρ, α_ appears in all the cases of the singular, as in γενεά_ race, οἰκία_ house, χώρα_ land. Otherwise, η throughout the singular, as νί_κη victory.

a. After ο, we find both α_ and η, as στοά_ porch, βοή shout, ἀκοή hearing, ὁͅοή current, ῥόα_ pomegranate. After ρ we have η in κόρη girl, δέρη neck (31).

219. (II) Feminines with α^ in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. The quantity of the vowel is generally shown by the accent (163, 164).

In this class are included:

1. Substantives having ς (ξ, ψ, ττ, or σς), ζ, λλ, or αιν before the final α show α^ in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and η in gen. and dat. sing. Thus, μοῦσα muse, μούσης, μούσῃ, ἅμαξα wagon, τράπεζα table, γλῶττα tongue, ῥίζα root, ἅμιλλα contest, λέαινα lioness. Others are τόλμα daring, δίαιτα mode of life, ἄκανθα thorn, μυῖα fly.

2. Substantives in α^ in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and α_ in gen. and dat. sing.

a. Substantives in -εια and -τρια denoting females, as βασίλεια queen (but βασιλεία_ kingdom), ψάλτρια female harper; so the fem. of adj. in -υς, as γλυκύς, γλυκεῖα sweet.

b. Abstracts in -εια and -οια from adjectives in -ης and -οος, as ἀλήθεια truth (from ἀληθής true), εὔνοια good will (from εὔνους, εὔνοος kind, 290).

c. Most substantives in -ρα after a diphthong or υ_, as μοῖρα fate, γέφυ_ρα bridge.

220. Exceptions to 219, 1: κόρση temple (later κόρρη), ἕρση dew; to 2 b: in Attic poetry, ἀληθεία_, εὐνοία_, ἀγνοία_ ignorance, which owe their α_ to the influence of the genitive and dative ἀληθεία_ς, ἀληθείᾳ, etc.

221. Most, if not all, of the substantives in α^ are formed by the addition of the suffix [ιγλιδε]α or ια (20); thus, γλῶττα from γλωχ-[ιγλιδε]α (cp. γλωχῖν-ες points), γέφυ_ρα from γεφυρ-[ιγλιδε]α, δότειρα giver from δοτερ-[ιγλιδε]α (and so φέρουσα bearing from φεροντ[ιγλιδε]α), μοῖρα from μορ-[ιγλιδε]α, ψάλτρ-ια.


νεα_νία_ς πολί_της κριτήςἈτρείδης
young mancitizenjudgeson of Atreus
N. A. V.νεα_νία_πολί_τα_κριτά_Ἀτρείδα_
G. D.νεα_νίαινπολί_ταινκριταῖνἈτρείδαιν
N. V.νεα_νίαιπολῖταικριταίἈτρεῖδαι

ταμία_ς steward, Αἰνεία_ς Aeneas,—ναύτης sailor, τοξότης bowman, στρατιώτης soldier, δεσπότης ruler,—μαθητής pupil, ποιητής poetΠέρσης Persian.

223. Accent.—The vocative of δεσπότης lord is δέσποτα.

224. α_ and η.—In the final syllable of the singular α_ appears after ε, ι, and ρ; otherwise we find η. Cp. 218.

a. Exceptions are compounds in -μέτρης: γεω-μέτρης measurer of land.

225. Genitive singular.—The form in -ου is borrowed from the genitive singular of the second declension. A few words in -α_ς, generally names of persons not Greeks, have -α_, the Doric genitive (214 D. 5): Ἀννίβα_ς Hannibal, gen. Ἀννίβα_.

226. Vocative singular.—Masculines in -α_ς have the vocative in -α_ (νεα_νία_); those in -της have -α^ (πολῖτα), all others in -ης have -η (Ἀτρείδη, Κρονίδη son of Kronos) except names of nations and compounds: Πέρσα^ Persian, Σκύθα^ Scythian, γεω-μέτρα^ (nom. γεω-μέτρης measurer of land), παιδο-τρίβα^ gymnastic master.


227. Contracts in α_ or η from εα_ or αα_ have the circumflex in all the cases: nominative feminine -, -, masculine -ᾶς, -ῆς.

227 D. Hdt. has μνέαι, μνεῶν, μνέα_ς, γῆ and γεῶν, Ἑρμῆς, Βορῆς. Hom. has Αθηναίη, γῆ (and γαῖα), συ_κέη, Ἑρμεία_ς 214 D. 2, Βορέης.

μνᾶ mina συ_κῆ fig tree Βορρᾶς Boreas Ἑρμῆς Hermes
μνα_- forσυ_κη- forΒορρα_- forἙρμη- for
μναα_-συ_κεα_-Βορεα_- 117Ἑρμεα_-

N. A. V.μνᾶσυ_κᾶἙρμᾶ
G. D.μναῖνσυ_καῖνἙρμαῖν

N. V.μναῖσυ_καῖἙρμαῖ

The dual and plural of Ἑρμῆς mean statues of Hermes.

Other examples: Ἀθηνᾶ Athena (from Ἀθηνα (ια_-), γῆ earth (γεα_- or γαα_-) with no plural in Attic, γαλῆ weasel (γαλεα_-), ἀδελφιδῆ niece (ἀδελφιδεα_-), Ἀπελλῆς Apelles (Ἀπελλεα_-).

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