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1972. In general the subject of the infinitive, if expressed at all, stands in the accusative; when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject or object of the governing verb, or when it has already been made known in the sentence, it is not repeated with the infinitive.

1973. When the subject of the infinitive is the same as that of the governing verb, it is omitted, and a predicate noun stands in the nominative case.

““οἶμαι εἰδέναιI think that I knowP. Pr. 312e, ““Πέρσης ἔφη εἶναιhe said he was a PersianX. A. 4.4.17, ““ἐγὼ οὐχ ὁμολογήσω ἄκλητος ἥκεινI shall not admit that I have come uninvitedP. S. 174d, ὁμολογεῖς περὶ ἐμὲ ἄδικος γεγενῆσθαι; do you admit that you have been guilty as regards me? X. A. 1.6.8 (cp. 4.2.27 in 2263).

a. The nominative is used when the infinitive, expressing some action or state of the subject of the main verb, has the article in an oblique case. Thus, τούτων ἀξιωθεὶς διὰ τὸ πατρικὸς αὐτῷ φίλος εί̂ναι justifying these requests on the ground that he was his hereditary friend Aes. 3.52, ““τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐποίει ἐκ τοῦ χαλεπὸς εἶναιthis he effected by reason of his being severeX. A. 2.6.9, ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοῖοι τοῖς λειπομένοις εἶναι ἐκπέμπονται (colonists) are sent out to be the equals of those who stay at home T. 1.34.

b. The nominative stands usually in sentences with δεῖν, χρῆναι etc., dependent on a verb of saying or thinking. Thus, ““ἡγούμην . . . περιεῖναι δεῖν αὐτῶν καὶ μεγαλοψυ_χότερος φαίνεσθαιI thought I ought to surpass them and to show myself more magnificentD. 19.235. Here ἡγούμην δεῖν is equivalent to I thought it proper.

c. When the governing verb is a participle in an oblique case, a predicate noun usually agrees with the participle, and rarely stands in the nominative. Thus, ““ἀπαλλαγεὶς τούτων τῶν φασκόντων δικαστῶν εἶναιbeing rid of those who profess to be judgesP. A. 41a, ““τὰ_ς ἀρχὰ_ς δίδωσι . . . τοῖς ἀεὶ δόξα_σιν ἀρίστοις εἶναιit dispenses the offices to those who always seem to be the most deservingP. Menex. 238d.

1974. A pronoun subject of the infinitive, if (wholly or partially) identical with the subject of the main verb, is generally expressed when emphatic, and stands in the accusative (cases of the nominative are rare and suspected); but the indirect reflexive σφεῖς stands in the nominative or accusative.

““οἶμαι ἐμὲ πλείω χρήματα εἰργάσθαι ἄλλους σύνδυοI think I have made more money than any two others togetherP. Hipp. M. 282e, ἡγησάμενος ἐμαυτὸν ἐπιεικέστερον εἶναι (emphatic for ἡγησάμενος ἐπιεικέστερος εἶναι) deeming myself to be too honest P. A. 36b, ““τοὺς δὲ Θηβαίους ἡγεῖτο . . . ἐά_σειν ὅπως βούλεται πρά_ττειν ἑαυτόνhe thought the Thebans would let him have his own wayD. 6.9, οὐ σφεῖς ἀδικεῖσθαι, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκείνους μᾶλλον he said that not they (the speaker and the other Lacedaemonians), but they (the Toroneans) rather had been wronged 4. 114 (but σφᾶς in 1228 b).

a. After a preceding accusative with the infinitive, a second pronoun referring to a different person, and also subject of an infinitive, must also stand in the accusative whether or not it denotes the same person as the subject of the governing verb. Thus, ἀλλὰ νομίζεις ἡμᾶς μὲν ἀνέξεσθαί σου, αὐτὸς (see below) δὲ τυπήσειν; καὶ ἡμᾶς μὲν ἀποψηφιεῖσθαί σου, δὲ (not σὺ) δ᾽ ου᾽ παύσεσθαι but do you think that we are going to put up with you, while you strike us yourself? and that we are going to acquit you, while you will not cease your outrageous conduct? D. 21.204. αὐτός, above and in Κλέων οὐκ ἔφη αὐτός, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνον στρατηγεῖν Cleon said that not he himself, but that Nicias was in command T. 4.28, is not the expressed subject of the infinitive, but αὐτός of direct discourse (αὐτὸς τυπήσεις, αὐτὸς οὐ στρατηγῶ); hence αὐτός is not used here for σεαυτόν (ἑαυτόν).

1975. When the subject of the infinitive is different from that of the governing verb, it stands in the accusative; and a predicate noun stands also in the accusative.

““νομίζω γὰρ ὑ_μᾶς ἐμοὶ εἶναι καὶ πατρίδα καὶ φίλουςfor I think you are to me both fatherland and friendsX. A. 1.3.6, ““τὸν γὰρ καλὸν κἀ_γαθὸν ἄνδρα εὐδαίμονα εἶναί φημιfor I maintain that the noble and good man is happyP. G. 470e.

1976. A predicate noun takes the case of the subject of an infinitive itself dependent on a subjectless infinitive. Thus, ““ἡμῖν δὲ ποιοῦσι δοκεῖν σφᾶς παντοδαποὺς φαίνεσθαιthey manage it so that they seem to us to appear in various formsP. R. 381e.

1977. Several infinitives may be used in succession, one infinitive being the subject of another: ““περὶ πολλοῦ ποιούμενος μηδενὶ δόξαι ὑβρίζειν βούλεσθαιregarding it of great importance not to seem to any one to wish to behave outrageouslyL. 23.5.

1978. When the subject of the infinitive is the same as the object (in the genitive or dative) of the governing verb, it is often omitted, and a predicate noun is either attracted into the genitive or dative, or stands in the accusative in agreement with the omitted subject of the infinitive. See 1060-1062.

ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν ἀγαθοῖς εἶναι or ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν ἀγαθοὺς εἶναι it is in our power to be good (lit. to be good is possible for us). Thus, δεόμεθ᾽ οὖν ὑ_μῶν . . . ἀκροά_σασθαι τῶν λεγομένων, ἐνθυ_μηθέντας ὅτι κτλ. we ask you therefore to listen to what is said, considering that, etc. 1. 14. 6. Cp. νῦν σοι ἔξεστιν ἀνδρὶ γενέσθαι quoted in 1062 with ““Λακεδαιμονίοις ἔξεστιν ὑ_μῖν φίλους γενέσθαιit is in your power to become friends to the LacedaemoniansT. 4.29. The latter construction may be explained as abbreviated for ἔξεστιν ὑ_μῖν (ὑ_μᾶς) φίλους γενέσθαι.

1979. The subject of the infinitive is often retained when it is the same as the (omitted) oblique object of the governing verb. Thus, ““παρήγγειλε τὰ ὅπλα τίθεσθαι τοὺς Ἕλληναςhe issued orders that the Greeks should get under armsX. A. 2.2.21.

1980. An indefinite or general subject of the infinitive (τινά, τινάς, ἀνθρώπους) is commonly omitted; and a predicate noun stands in the accusative. Thus, φιλάνθρωπον εἶναι δεῖ one (τινά) must be humane I. 2.15 (cp. 1984), ῥᾷον παραινεῖν παθόντα καρτερεῖν it is easier for a man to give advice than to endure suffering Men. Sent. 471, ““δρῶντας γὰρ μὴ δρῶντας ἥδι_ον θανεῖνfor it is preferable to die in action rather than doing nothingE. Hel. 814.

1981. The construction of the accusative with the infinitive seems to have originated from the employment of the infinitive to complement the meaning of transitive verbs; as in κελεύω σε ἀπελθεῖν I command you to depart. Here the accusative was separated from the transitive verb and felt to be the independent subject of the infinitive (I command that you depart). Gradually the accusative with the infinitive was used even after verbs incapable of taking an object-accusative.

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