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561. The stem of the second perfect is formed by adding α to the reduplicated verb-stem: γέ-γραφ-α I have written (γράφ-ω).

561 D. Hom. has several forms unknown to Attic: δέδουπα (δουπ-έ-ω sound), ἔολπα (ἔλπ-ω hope), ἔοργα (ῥέζω work), προ-βέβουλα (βούλομαι wish), μέμηλα (μέλω care for).

562. The second perfect is almost always formed from stems ending in a liquid or a stop consonant, and not from vowel stems.

a. ἀκήκοα (ἀκούω hear) is for ἀκηκοϝ-α (ἀκοϝ- ἀκο[υγλιδε]-, 43).

562 D. But δέδια fear from δϝι-. See 555 b. D., 703.

563. Verb-stems showing variation between short and long vowels (476) have long vowels in the second perfect (α^ is thus regularly lengthened). Thus, τήκω (τακ-, τηκ-) melt τέτηκα, κρά_ζω (κραγ-) cry out κέκρα_γα, φαίνω (φαν-) show πέφηνα have appeared (but πέφαγκα have shown), ῥήγνυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-, 477 c) break ἔρρωγα.

a. εἴωθα am accustomed ( = σε-σϝωθ-α) has the strong form ω (cp. ἦθος custom, 123); Hom. ἔθω (Attic ἐθίζω accustom).

564. The second perfect has ο, οι when the verb-stem varies between α, ε, ο (478, 479) or ι, ει, οι (477 a): τρέφ-ω (τρεφ-, τροφ-, τραφ-) nourish τέτροφα, λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-) leave λέλοιπα, πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέποιθα trust.

565. Similarly verbs with the variation υ, ευ, ου (476) should have ου; but this occurs only in Epic εἰλήλουθα ( = Att. ἐλήλυθα); cp. ἐλεύθ-σομαι. Other verbs have ευ, as φεύγω flee πέφευγα.

566. After Attic reduplication (446) the stem of the second perfect has the weak form; ἀλείφω (ἀλειφ-, ἀλιφ-) anoint ἀλήλιφα.

567. Apart from the variations in 563-566 the vowel of the verb-stem remains unchanged: as γέγραφα (γράφω write), κέκυ_φα (κύ_πτω stoop, κυ_φ-).

568. The meaning of the second perfect may differ from that of the present; as ἐγρήγορα am awake from ἐγείρω wake up, σέσηρα grin from σαίρω sweep. The second perfect often has the force of a present; as πέποιθα trust (πέπεικα have persuaded). See 819.

569. Aspirated Second Perfects.—In many stems a final π or β changes to φ: a final κ or γ changes to χ. (φ and χ here imitate verb-stems in φ and χ, as τρέφω, ὀρύττω.)

κόπτω (κοπ-) cut κέκοφα, πέμπ-ω send πέπομφα, βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure βέβλαφα, τρί_βω (τρι_β-) rub τέτρι^φα, φυλάττω (φυλακ-) guard -πεφύλαχα; τρέφ-ω (τρεφ-) nourish τέτροφα; ὀρύττω (ὀρυχ-) dig ὀρώρυχα.

569 D. Hom. never aspirates π, β, κ, γ. Thus κεκοπώς = Att. κεκοφώς (κόπ-τ-ω cut). The aspirated perfect occurs once in Hdt. (ἐπεπόμφει 1. 85); but is unknown in Attic until the fifth century B.C. Soph. Tr. 1009 (ἀνατέτροφας) is the only example in tragedy.

570. Most such stems have a short vowel immediately before the final consonant; a long vowel precedes ε.γ. in δείκ-νυ_-μι δέδειχα, κηρύ_ττω (κηρυ_κ-) -κεκηρυ_χα, πτήσσω (πτηκ-) ἔπτηχα. τέτριφα and τέθλιφα show ι^ in contrast to ι_ in the present (τρί_βω, θλί_βω). στέργω, λάμπω do not aspirate (ἔστοργα, poet. λέλαμπα).

571. The following verbs have aspirated second perfects: ἄγω, ἀλλάττω, ἀνοίγω, βλάπτω, δείκνυ_μι, διώκω (rare), θλί_βω, κηρύ_ττω, κλέπτω, κόπτω, λαγχάνω, λαμβάνω, λάπτω, λέγω collect, μάττω, μείγνυ_μι, πέμπω, πλέκω, πρά_ττω, πτήσσω, τάττω, τρέπω, τρί_βω, φέρω (ἐνήνοχα), φυλάττω. ἀνοίγω or ἀνοίγνυ_μι has two perfects: ἀνέῳχα and ἀνέῳγα. πρά_ττω do has πέπρα_γα have done and fare (well or ill), and (generally later) πέπρα_χα have done.

572. Second Perfects of the μι-form.—Some verbs add the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem. Such second perfects lack the singular of the indicative.

ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set, 2 perf. stem ἑστα-: ἕστα-μεν, ἕστα-τε, ἑστᾶσι, inf. ἑστά-ναι; 2 plup. ἕστα-σαν (417). The singular is supplied by the forms in -κα; as ἕστηκα. These second perfects are enumerated in 704.

573. Stem Gradation.—Originally the second perfect was inflected throughout without any thematic vowel (cp. the perfect middle), but with stem-gradation: strong forms in the singular, weak forms elsewhere. -α (1 singular) was introduced in part from the aorist and spread to the other persons. Corresponding to the inflection of οἶδα (794) we expect πέποιθα, πέποισθα, πέποιθε, πέπιστον, πέπιθμεν, πέπιστε, πεπίθατι (from πεπιθτι). Traces of this mode of inflection appear in Hom. γεγάτην (from γεγτην, 35 b) γέγαμεν from γέγονα; ἔϊκτον, ἐΐκτην, ἐϊκώς from ἔοικα; ἐπέπιθμεν; μέμαμεν from μέμονα; πέπασθε (for πεπαθτε πεπθτε) from πέπονθα (other examples 704, 705). So the masc. and neut. participles have the strong forms, the feminine has the weak forms (μεμηκώς, μεμακυῖα as εἰδώς, ἰδυῖα).

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