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728. Most μι-verbs of the fourth class add -νυ- (after a vowel, -ννυ-) to the verb-stem.

729. Verb-stems in -α: κερά-ννυ_μι mix, κρεμά-ννυ_μι hang (intrans.), πετάννυ_μι spread, σκεδά-ννυ_μι scatter.

730. Verb-stems in ε (for ες): ἕ-ννυ_μι (in prose ἀμφιέ-ννυ_μι) clothe, κορέννυ_μι satiate, σβέ-ννυ_μι extinguish.

731. Verb-stems in ω: ζώ-ννυ_μι gird, ῥώ-ννυ_μι strengthen, στρώ-ννυ_μι spread.

732. All the forms in -ννυ_μι started from verb-stems ending in ς: ἕννυ_μι from ἑσ-νυ_-μι, σβέννυ_μι from σβεσ-νυ_-μι, ζώννυ_μι from ζωσ-νυ_-μι. All the other verbs are analogues of these.

733. Verb-stems in a consonant: ἄγ-νυ_μι break, ἄρ-νυμαι earn, δείκ-νυ_μι show, εἴργ-νυ_μι ( = εἴργω) shut in, ζεύγ-νυ_μι yoke (ἀποκτει-νυ_μι often written -κτίννυ_μι ( = κτείνω) kill, μείγ-νυ_μι (miswritten μί_γ-νυ_μι) mix, -οἰγ-νυ_μι ( = -οἴγω) open, ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε) destroy, ὄμ-νυ_μι (ὀμ-ε-, ὀμ-ο) swear, ὀμόργ-νυ_μι wipe off, ὄρ-νυ_μι rouse, πήγ-νυ_μι (παγ-, πηγ-) fix, πλήγ-νυ_μι (once, in ἐκπλήγνυσθαι Thuc. 4. 125; cp. πλήττω), πτάρ-νυμαι sneeze, ῥήγ-νυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-) break, στόρνυ_μι spread, φράγ-νυ_μι ( = φράττω) inclose.

734. Poetic verbs: αἴ-νυμαι take, ἄ-νυ_μι complete (ἀνύω), ἄχ-νυμαι am troubled, γά-νυμαι rejoice, δαί-νυ_μι entertain, καί-νυμαι excel, κί_-νυμαι move myself (cp. κι_νέω), ὀρέγ-νυ_μι reach, τά-νυμαι stretch, with νυ carried into other tenses (τανύω), τί_-νυμαι (cp. Epic τί_νω from τι-νϝ-ω) better τείνυμαι, chastise.

735. The verbs whose verb-stem ends in a liquid or nasal often form the tenses other than the present by adding ε or ο, as ὄλλυ_μι (from ὀλνυ_μι) ὤλεσα, ὀλώλεκα (ὀλ-ε-), ὄμνυ_μι ὤμοσα (ὀμ-ο-).

736. νυ_μι-verbs form only the present and imperfect according to the μι- conjugation; with the exception of σβέ-ννυ_μι, which has 2 aor. ἔσβην. The 2 aorist passive and 2 future passive are rare, as ῥήγνυ_μι ἐρράγην ἐκραγήσομαι, ζεύγνυ_μι ἐζύγην.

736 D. From verbs in -νυ_μι second aorists middle are formed in Hom. by only three verbs: μείγνυ_μι (commonly written μί_γνυ_μι) mix ἔμικτο, ὄρνυ_μι rouse ὦρτο, πήγνυ_μι fix κατέπηκτο.

737. -νημι class. A few verbs add νη- in the singular, να- in the plural, to the verb-stem. These verbs are almost entirely poetical or dialectical; and show by-forms in -ναω. They are:

δάμνημι (δαμνάω) subdue, κίρνημι (κιρνάω also Epic) mix, κρίμνημι (miswritten κρήμνημι) suspend, πέρνημι sell, πίτνημι (πετνάω) spread, σκίδνημι (and κίδνημι) scatter.

a. Only in the middle: μάρναμαι fight, πίλναμαι (πιλνάω) approach. In δύναμαι am able, να has grown fast (cp. δυνατός).

738. Stem Gradation.—Verbs of the root class show in the stem vowel a variation between strong and weak grades in the present and imperfect indicative active. The singular has the strong grade, the dual and plural have the weak grade. The optative active and most middle forms have the weak grade.

a. η strong (original and Dor. α_), α weak; φημί φαμέν, ἔφην ἔφαμεν; ἵστημι ἵσταμεν, ἵ_στην ἵ_σταμεν; δάμνημι δάμναμεν.

b. η strong, ε weak: τίθημι τίθεμεν, ἐτίθην ἐτίθεμεν; ἵ_ημι ἵ_εμεν.

c. ω strong, ο weak: δίδωμι δίδομεν.

d. ει strong, ι weak (cp. λείπω ἔλιπον): εἶμι will go, ἴμεν. The grades ει, οι, ι appear in εἰδῶ, subjunctive of οἶδα know, pl. ἴσμεν for ἴδμεν (799).

739. In the second aorist ἔστην I stood the strong form has been carried from the singular through the dual and plural of the indicative. The strong stem occurs also in the imperative (στῆθι, στῆτε) and infinitive (στῆναι).

740. The second aorist infinitive shows the weak stem: θεῖναι from θέ-εναι, δοῦναι from δό-εναι. Cp. 469 N. δτῆναι is, however, from στή-εναι (469 c. N.).

741. A few root verbs retain the strong grade η throughout. Thus, poet. ἄημι blow ἄημεν; ἀέντες is from ἀηντες by 40; δίζημαι seek (poet. δίζεσθαι is from δίζομαι); πίμπλημι fill 2 aor. ἐνεπλήμην, opt. ἐμπλῄμην.

742. Verbs adding νυ show the strong form of the verb-stem in the present. ῥήγ-νυ_-μι break 2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην, μείγ-νυ_-μι (miswritten μί_γνυ_μι) mix 2 aor. pass. ἐμίγην, ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke 2 aor. pass. ἐζύγην.

743. The ending νυ varies between strong νυ_ and weak νυ^. Thus δείκνυ_μι δείκνυ^μεν, ἐδείκνυ_ν ἐδείκνυ^μεν.

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