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2165. Two or more sentences (or words) independent in form and thought, but juxtaposed, i.e. coördinated without any connective, are asyndetic (from ἀσύνδετον not bound together), and such absence of connectives is called asyndeton.

a. The absence of connectives in a language so rich in means of coördination as is Greek is more striking than in other languages. Grammatical asyndeton cannot always be separated from rhetorical asyndeton. Grammatical asyndeton is the absence of a conjunction where a connective might have been used without marked influence on the character of the thought; as especially in explanatory sentences (often after a preparatory word, usually a demonstrative) which take up the matter just introduced; also where, in place of a conjunction, a resumptive word, such as οὗτος, τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος, ἐνταῦθα, οὕτω, etc., is employed. Rhetorical asyndeton is the absence of a conjunction where the following sentence contains a distinct advance in the thought and not a mere formal explanation appended to the foregoing sentence. Rhetorical asyndeton generally expresses emotion of some sort, and is the mark of liveliness, rapidity, passion, or impressiveness, of thought, each idea being set forth separately and distinctly. Thus, οὐκ ἀσεβής; οὐκ ὠμός; οὐκ ἀκάθαρτος; οὐ συ_κοφάντης; is he not impious? is he not brutal? is he not impure? is he not a pettifogger? D. 25.63.

2166. Asyndeton is frequent in rapid and lively descriptions.

““συμβαλόντες τὰ_ς ἀσπίδας ἐωθοῦντο, ἐμάχοντο, ἀπέκτεινον, ἀπέθνῃσκονinterlocking their shields, they shoved, they fought, they slew, they were slainX. H. 4.3.19, προσπεσόντες ἐμάχοντο, ἐώθουν ἐωθοῦντο, ἔπαιον ἐπαίοντο falling upon them, they fought; pushed (and) were pushed; struck (and) were struck X. C. 7.1.38. Also with anaphora (2167 c), as in ““ἔχεις πόλιν, ἔχεις τριήρεις, ἔχεις χρήματα, ἔχεις ἄνδρας τοσούτουςyou have a city, you have triremes, you have money, you have so many menX. A. 7.1.21. Cp. T. 7.71, D. 19.76, 19. 215, P. S. 197d.

2167. Asyndeton also appears when the unconnected sentence

a. Summarizes the main contents, or expresses the result, of the preceding. Thus, ““πάντ᾽ ἔχεις λόγονyou have the whole storyA. Ag. 582, ““ἀκηκόατε, ἑωρἁ_κατε, πεπόνθατε, ἔχετε: δικάζετεyou have heard, you have seen, you have suffered, you have the evidence; pronounce your judgmentL. 12.100, φυλακῇ μέντοι πρὸ τῶν πυλῶν ἐντευξόμεθα: ἔστι γὰρ ἀεὶ τεταγμένη. οὐκ ἂν μέλλειν δέοι, ἔφη Κῦρος, ἀλλ᾽ ἰέναι however, we shall meet with a guard in front of the gates, for one is always stationed there. We must not delay, but advance, said Cyrus X. C. 7.5.25. This is often the case when a demonstrative takes up the foregoing thought (as ἔδοξε ταῦτα X. A. 1.3.20) or continues the narrative, as in ἀκούσα_σι τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ταῦτα ἔδοξε τὸ στράτευμα συναγαγεῖν 4. 4. 19 (cp. 2061).

b. Expresses a reason or explains the preceding. Thus, μι_κρὸν δ᾽ ὕπνου λαχὼν εἶδεν ὄναρ: ἔδοξεν αὐτῷ . . . σκηπτὸς πεσεῖν κτλ. when he had snatched a little sleep, he saw a vision; a bolt of lightning seemed to him to fall, etc. X. A. 3.1.11, ““ἱκοῦ πρὸς οἴκους: πᾶς σε Καδμείων λεὼς καλεῖcome home; all the Cadmean folk calls theeS. O. C. 741. Here γάρ or ἄρα might have been used. So often after a preparatory word (often a demonstrative); as ταὐτὸν δή μοι δοκεῖ τοῦτ᾽ ἄρα καὶ περὶ τὴν ψυ_χὴν εἶναι: ἔνδηλα πάντα ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ ψυ_χῇ ἐπειδὰν γυμνωθῇ τοῦ σώματος κτλ. now it seems to me that this is the same with regard to the soul too; everything in the soul is open to view when a man is stripped of his body P. G. 524d. ““ἑνὶ μόνῳ προέχουσιν οἱ ἱππεῖς ἡμᾶς: φεύγειν αὐτοῖς ἀσφαλέστερόν ἐστιν ἡμῖνin one point alone has the cavalry the advantage of us: it is safer for them to run away than for usX. A. 3.2.19, and so when ὥσπερ is followed by οὕτω καί (P. R. 557c). Also when μέν γε . . . δέ take up what precedes, as ὅμοιός γε Σόλων νομοθέτης καί Τι_μοκράτης: μέν γε . . . δέ D. 24.106. Furthermore after τεκμήριον δέ (994), as T. 2.50.

c. Repeats a significant word or phrase of the earlier sentence (anaphora). Thus, ““καὶ ὅτῳ δοκεῖ ταῦτα, ἀνατεινάτω τὴν χεῖρα: ἀνέτειναν ἅπαντεςand let him who approves this, hold up his hand; they all held up their handsX. A. 3.2.33. In poetry a thought is often repeated in a different form by means of a juxtaposed sentence (S. Tr. 1082).

d. Sets forth a contrast in thought to the preceding. This is commoner in poetry than in prose. Thus, ““μέλλοντα ταῦτα: τῶν προκειμένων τι χρὴ πρά_σσεινthis lies in the future; the present must be thy careS. Ant. 1334.

e. Introduces a new thought or indicates a change to a new form of expression. Thus, ἀλλ᾽ ἰτέον, ἔφη. πρῶτόν με ὑπομνήσατε ἐλέγετε but we must proceed, said he. First recall to my mind what you were saying P. Ph. 91c.

f. Is introduced by a word stressed by emotion, as ταῦτα D. 3.32, ἐγώ 4. 29.

On juxtaposition of participles, see 2147.

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