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109. Numerous changes occur before the semivowel [ιγλιδε] (= y, 20) before a vowel. This y is often indicated by the sign [ιγλιδε]. In 110-117 (except in 115) [ιγλιδε] is = y.

110. λ[ιγλιδε] becomes λλ: ἄλλος for ἀλιος Lat. alius, ἅλλομαι for ἁλ[ιγλιδε]ομαι Lat. salio, φύλλον for φυλ[ιγλιδε]ον Lat. folium.

111. After αν, ον, αρ, ορ, [ιγλιδε] is shifted to the preceding syllable, forming αιν, οιν, αιρ, οιρ. This is called Epenthesis (ἐπένθεσις insertion).

φαίνω show for φαν-[ιγλιδε]ω, μέλαινα black for μελαν-[ιγλιδε]α, σπαίρω gasp for σπαρ-[ιγλιδε]ω, μοῖρα fate for μορ-[ιγλιδε]α. (So κλαίω weep for κλαϝ-[ιγλιδε]ω 38 a.) On ι after εν, ερ, ιν, ιρ, υν, υρ, see 37 a.

112. κ[ιγλιδε], χ[ιγλιδε] become ττ (= σς 78): φυλάττω guard for φυλακ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. φυλακή guard), ταράττω disturb for ταραχ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ταραχή disorder).

113. (I) τ[ιγλιδε], θ[ιγλιδε] after long vowels, diphthongs, and consonants become ς; after short vowels τ[ιγλιδε], θ[ιγλιδε] become σς (not = ττ 78), which is simplified to ς.

αἶσα fate from αἰτ-[ιγλιδε]α, πᾶσα all from παντ-[ιγλιδε]α, μέσος middle (Hom. μέσσος) from μεθ-[ιγλιδε]ος (cp. Lat. med-ius), τόσος so great (Hom. τόσσος) from τοτ-[ιγλιδε]ος (cp. Lat. toti-dem).

a. In the above cases τ[ιγλιδε] passed into τς. Thus παντ-[ιγλιδε]α, παντσα, πανσσα, πάνσα (Cretan, Thessalian), πᾶσα (37 D. 3).

114. (II) τ[ιγλιδε], θ[ιγλιδε] become ττ (= σς 78): μέλιττα bee from μελιτ-ια (cp. μέλι, -ιτος honey), κορύττω equip from κορυθ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. κόρυς, -υθος helmet).

a. χαρίεσσα graceful and other feminine adjectives in -εσσα are poetical, and therefore do not assume the native Attic prose form in ττ. But see 299 c.

b. ττ from τ[ιγλιδε], θ[ιγλιδε] is due to analogy, chiefly of ττ from κ[ιγλιδε].

115. τ before final ι often becomes ς. Thus, τίθησι places for τίθητι; also in πλούσιος rich for πλουτ-ιος (cp. πλοῦτος wealth).

a. ντ before final ι becomes νς, which drops ν: ἔχουσι they have for ἔχοντι (37).

115 D. Ioric often retains τ (τίθητι, ἔχοντι). σέ is not from (Dor.) τέ (cp. Lat. te), no is σοί from τοί.

116. δ[ιγλιδε] between vowels and γ[ιγλιδε] after a vowel form ζ: thus, ἐλπίζω hope for ἐλπιδ-[ιγλιδε]ω, πεζός on foot for πεδ-[ιγλιδε]ος (cp. πεδ-ίο-ν ground), ἁρπάζω seize for ἁρπαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ἅρπαξ rapacious). After a consonant γ[ιγλιδε] forms δ: ἔρδω work from ἐργ-[ιγλιδε]ω.

117. π[ιγλιδε] becomes πτ, as in χαλέπτω oppress from χαλεπ-[ιγλιδε]ω. ρ[εγλιδε] becomes ρρ in Βορρᾶς from Βορέα_ς Boreas. Here ε was sounded nearly like y (44, 61 a).

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