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1136. Names of persons and places are individual and therefore omit the article unless previously mentioned (1120 b) or specially marked as well known: ““Θουκυ_δίδης ἈθηναῖοςThucydides an AthenianT. 1.1, τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς αὐτῶν, τοὺς παρὰ Κλέαρχον ἀπελθόντας, εἴα_ Κῦρος τὸν Κλέαρχον ἔχειν their soldiers who seceded to Clearchus, Cyrus allowed Clearchus to retain X. A. 1.4.7, Σόλων D. 20.90, οἱ Ἡρα_<*>λέες the Heracleses P. Th. 169b.

1137. Names of deities omit the article, except when emphatic (νὴ τὸν Δία by Zeus) or when definite cults are referred to: τὸ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἕδος the sanctuary of Athena (at Athens) I. 15.2. Names of festivals vary in prose writers (no article in inscriptions): Παναθήναια the Panathenaea (but ““Παναθηναίοις τοῖς μι_κροῖςat the Lesser PanathenaeaL. 21.4). Names of shrines have the article.

1138. Names of nations may omit the article, but οἱ Ἕλληνες is usual when opposed to οἱ βάρβαροι the barbarians. When nations are opposed, the article is usually absent: πόλεμος Ἀθηναίων καὶ Πελοποννησίων T. 2.1 (but πόλεμος τῶν Πελοποννησίων καὶ Ἀθηναίων 1. 1). The name of a nation without the article denotes the entire people. Names of families may omit the article: Ἀσκληπιάδαι P. R. 406a.

1139. Continents: Εὐρώπη Europe, Ἀσία_ Asia. Other names of countries, except those originally adjectives (as Ἀττική Attica), omit the article (Λιβύη Libya). γῆ and χώρα_ may be added only to such names as are treated as adjectives: Βοιωτία_ (γῆ) Boeotia. The names of countries standing in the genitive of the divided whole (1311) usually omit the article only when the genitive precedes the governing noun: ““Σικελία_ς τὸ πλεῖστονthe most of SicilyT. 1.12. The article is generally used with names of mountains and rivers; but is often omitted with names of islands, seas (but Πόντος the Pontus), and winds. Names of cities usually omit the article. Names of cities, rivers, and mountains often add πόλις, ποταμός, ὄρος (1142 c). The article is omitted with proper names joined with αὐτός used predicatively (1206 b): ““αὐτοὺς Ἀθηναίουςthe Athenians themselvesT. 4.73.

1140. Several appellatives, treated like proper names, may omit the article: βασιλεύς the king of Persia ( βασιλεύς is anaphoric (1120 b) or refers expressly to a definite person). Titles of official persons: πρυτάνεις the Prytans, στρατηγοί the Generals. Names of relationship, etc.: πατήρ father, ἀνήρ husband, γυνή wife (but the article is needed when a definite individual is spoken of). Thus: ““ἦκον δὲ τῷ μὲν μήτηρ, τῷ δὲ γυνὴ καὶ παῖδεςto one there came his mother, to another his wife and childrenAnd. 1.48. So also πατρίς fatherland.

1141. Similarly in the case of words forming a class by themselves, and some others used definitely: ἥλιος sun, οὐρανός heaven, ὧραι seasons, κεραυνός thunder, θάνατος death; ἄστυ, πόλις city, ἀκρόπολις citadel, ἀγορά_ market-place, τεῖχος city-wall, πρυτανεῖον prytaneum, νῆσος island (all used of definite places), θάλαττα sea as opposed to the mainland, but θάλαττα of a definite sea; similarly γῆ earth, land.

1142. When the name of a person or place is defined by an appositive (916) or attributive, the following distinctions are to be noted:

a. Persons: Περδίκκα_ς Ἀλεξάνδρου Perdiccas, son of Alexander T. 2.99: the official designation merely stating the parentage. Δημοσθένης Ἀλκισθένους (the popular designation) distinguishes Demosthenes, the son of Alcisthenes (T. 3.91) from other persons named Demosthenes. (Similarly with names of nations.)

b. Deities: the article is used with the name and with the epithet or (less often) with neither: ““τῷ Διὶ τῷ Ὀλυμπίῳto Olympian ZeusT. 5.31, Διὶ ἐλευθερίῳ to Zeus guardian of freedom 2. 71.

c. Geographical Names are usually treated as attributives, as ““ Εὐφρά_της ποταμόςthe river EuphratesX. A. 1.4.11, ““ Βόλβη λίμνηlake BolbeT. 4.103. In a very few cases (six times in Thuc.) is omitted with the name of a river when ποταμός is inserted; but Hdt. often omits . With the names of mountains the order is ““τὸ Πήλιον ὄροςMt. PelionHdt. 7.129 when the gender agrees, but otherwise ““ἐς τὸ ὄρος τὴν Ἰστώνηνto Mt. IstoneT. 3.85 (rarely as ““ὑπὸ τῇ Αἴτνῃ τῷ ὄρειat the foot of Mt. AetnaT. 3.116). With names of islands, towns, etc., the order varies: ““τὸ Παρθένιον πόλισμαthe town of PartheniumX. A. 7.8.21; ““ Ψυττάλεια νῆσοςthe island of PsyttaleaHdt. 8.95; ““Τραγία_ νῆσοςthe island of TragiaT. 1.116; ““τοῦ Πειραιῶς τοῦ λιμένοςof the harbour of PeiraeusT. 2.93; τὸ φρούριον τὸ Λάβδαλον fort Labdalon 7. 3. The city of Mende would be Μένδη πόλις, Μένδη πόλις, Μένδη πόλις.

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