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585. The stem of the first aorist passive is formed by adding -θη- (or -θε-) directly to the verb-stem: ἐ-λύ-θη-ν I was loosed, ἐ-φάν-θη-ν I was shown (φαίνω, φαν-), ἐ-δό-θη-ν I was given (δίδωμι, δο-, δω-).

a. -θη- appears in the indicative, imperative (except the third plural), and infinitive; -θε- appears in the other moods. -θη- is found before a single consonant, -θε- before two consonants or a vowel except in the nom. neuter of the participle.

585 a. D. For -θησαν we find -θεν in Hom., as διέκριθεν.

586. The verb-stem agrees with that of the perfect middle herein:

a. Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem, as τε-τί_μη-μαι, ἐ-τι_μή-θην. On verbs which do not lengthen their final vowel, see 488.

b. Liquid stems of one syllable change ε to α, as τέ-τα-μαι, ἐ-τά-θην (τείνω stretch, τεν-). But στρέφω turn, τρέπω turn, τρέφω nourish have ἐστρέφθην, ἐτρέφθην, ἐθρέφθην (rare), though the perfect middles are ἔστραμμαι, τέτραμμαι, τέθραμμαι.

586 b. D. ἐστράφθην is Ionic and Doric; Hom. and Hdt. have ἐτράφθην from τρέπω. Hom. has ἐτάρφθην and ἐτέρφθην from τέρπω gladden.

c. Primitive verbs showing in their stems the gradations ε (ει, ευ): ο (οι, ου): α (ι, υ) have a strong form, as ἐτρέφθην from τρέπω (τρεπ-, τροπ-, τραπ-) turn, ἐλείφθην from λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-) leave, ἐπλεύσθην from πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-) sail.

d. Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between ε: η and ο: ω have, in the first aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) ἐτέθην, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) ἐδόθην.

e. Final ν is dropped in some verbs: κέ-κρι-μαι, ἐκρίθην. See 491.

586 e. D. Hom. has ἐκλίνθην and ἐκλίθην, ἐκρίνθην and ἐκρίθην; ἱδρύνθην = Att. ἱδρύ_θην (ἱδρύω erect), ἀμπνύνθην (ἀναπνέω revive).

f. The verb-stem may suffer metathesis: βέ-βλη-μαι, ἐ-βλή-θην. See 492.

g. Sigma is often added: κε-κέλευσ-μαι, ἐ-κελεύσ-θην. See 489.

587. Before θ of the suffix, π and β become φ; κ and γ become χ (82 c); τ, δ, θ become ς (83). φ and χ remain unaltered.

λείπ-ω ἐλείφ-θην, βλάπτω (βλαβ-) ἐβλάφ-θην; φυλάττω (φυλακ-) ἐφυλάχ-θην, ἄγ-ω ἤχ-θην; κομίζω (κομιδ-) ἐκομίσ-θην, πείθ-ω ἐπείσ-θην; γράφ-ω ἐγράφ-θην, ταράττω (ταραχ-) ἐταράχ-θην.

588. θ of the verb-stem becomes τ in ἐ-τέ-θην, and in ἐ-τύ-θην for ἐ-θυ-θην from τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place and θύ_ω (θυ-, θυ_-) sacrifice. See 125 c.

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