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1094. Adverbs are of two kinds

a. Ordinary adverbs, denoting manner, degree, time, place, etc. Ordinary adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, and (rarely) substantives: ““ὄπισθεν γενόμενοςgetting behindX. A. 1.8.24, εὐθὺς ἐβόα_ straightway he shouted 1. 8. 1, ““φανερὸν ἤδηalready clearL. 4.6, ““πολὺ θᾶττονmuch more quicklyX. A. 1.5.2, εὖ μάλα very easily 6. 1. 1, ““εἰκότως τρόπον τινάin a way reasonablyD. 8.41, ““μάλα συμφορά_a great misfortuneX. C. 4.2.5, ““μάλα στρατηγόςan excellent generalX. H. 6.2.39.

b. Sentence adverbs (or particles) are adverbs that affect the sentence as a whole or give emphasis to particular words of any kind. Greek has many sentence adverbs, some of which are treated more fully under Particles.

Such are words of interrogation (, ἆρα, μῶν); of affirmation and confidence (δή now, indeed, δῆτα surely, γέ at least, even, really, μήν in truth, νή surely, τοί surely); of uncertainty (ἴσως, πού, τάχα perhaps); of negation (οὐ, μή, οὔτοι, μήτοι, etc.); of limitation (ἄν 1761 ff.).

1095. The equivalents of an ordinary adverb are: an oblique case (ἐβασίλευεν εἴκοσιν ἔτη he reigned for twenty years, 1581, 1582; ἀκούειν σπουδῇ to listen attentively, τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ ἐπορεύοντο they proceeded on the next day, and many other datives, 1527 b; ἧκε τὴν ταχίστην he came in the quickest way, and many other accusatives, 1606-1611); an oblique case with a preposition (διὰ τάχους ἦλθε he came quickly = ταχέως, ἀπ᾽ οἴκου ὁρμῶμαι I start from home = οἴκοθεν, ἐν τῷ ἐμφανεῖ clearly, ἐδίδου πρὸς τὴν ἀξία_ν he gave according to merit = ἀξίως, πρὸς βία_ν forcibly = βιαίως); a participle (γελῶν εἶπε he said with a laugh, laughingly). (Furthermore, a clause in a complex sentence, as ““εἰσπηδήσαντες . . . θᾶττον ὥς τις ἂν ᾤετοleaping in more quickly than one would have thoughtX. A. 1.5.8; cp. 2189. 3.)

1096. In the attributive position an ordinary adverb may serve as an adjective: ““ἐν τῷ πλησίον παραδείσῳin the neighbouring parkX. A. 2.4.16, ““ ἐκεῖθεν ἄγγελοςthe messenger from that quarterP. R. 619b, ““ταραχὴ τότεthe confusion of that timeL. 6.35. See 1153 e. N.

1097. a. An ordinary adverb qualifying a verb is often so used that it may be referred to the subject or object of the sentence where an adjective could stand. Thus, ὥστε . . . ὑπολαμβάνεσθαι μειζόνως κατὰ τὴν ἀξία_ν so as to be regarded as greater (lit. in a greater way) than (according to) their deserts I. 11.24.

b. δίχα and χωρίς apart, ἑκάς far, ἐγγύς near and some other ordinary adverbs supply, with εἶναι or γίγνεσθαι, the place of missing adjectives. Thus, ““χωρὶς σοφία_ ἐστὶν ἀνδρεία_ςwisdom is different from courageP. Lach. 195a.

1098. For adjectives used adverbially, see 1042; for degrees of comparison, 345, 1068; for the genitive or dative after adverbs, 1437 ff., 1499 ff.; for adverbs used as prepositions, 1700 ff.; for a relative adverb used with names of things as an equivalent of a relative pronoun preceded by ἐν, εἰς, ἐξ, see 2499.

hide References (12 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (12):
    • Demosthenes, On the Chersonese, 41
    • Isocrates, Busiris, 24
    • Lysias, On a Wound by Premeditation, 6
    • Lysias, Against Andocides, 35
    • Plato, Republic, 619b
    • Plato, Laches, 195a
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.2
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.4.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.24
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 4.2.5
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.2.39
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