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449. In verbs compounded with a preposition, augment and reduplication stand between the preposition and the verb.

Thus, ὑπερβαίνω pass over, ὑπερέβαινον, ὑπερβέβηκα; εἰσβάλλω throw into, εἰσέβαλλον, εἰσβέβληκα.

a. Before ε of the augment ἐκ regains its fuller form ἐξ (133 a), and ἐν and σύν reappear in their proper forms which were modified in the present. Thus ἐκβάλλω throw out, ἐξέβαλλον, ἐκβέβληκα; ἐμβάλλω throw into, ἐνέβαλλον; συλλέγω collect, συνέλεγον, συνείλοχα; συρρί_πτω throw together, συνέρρι_ψα, συνέρρι_φα; συσκευάζω pack together, συνεσκεύαζον, συνεσκευάσθην.

b. Prepositions (except περί and πρό) drop their final vowel: ἀποβάλλω throw away, ἀπ-έβαλλον; but περιβάλλω throw around, περιέβαλλον, προβαίνω step forward, προέβην. But πρό may contract with the augment (προὔβην).

450. But some verbs, which are not often used except as compounds, are treated like uncompound verbs and take the augment before the preposition, as ἐκαθήμην sat from κάθημαι, ἐκάθιζον set, sat from καθίζω, ἠμφίεσα clothed from ἀμφιέννυ_μι, ἐκάθευδον (and καθηυ_δον) slept from καθεύδω, ἠπιστάμην, ἠπιστήθην from ἐπίσταμαι understand. ἵ_ημι forms ἀφί_ει and ἠφί_ει. The simple verbs occur mostly in poetry. But ἀπολαύω enjoy makes ἀπολέλαυκα, ἐξετάζω review ἐξήτακα.

451. Double Augment.—Some verbs take two augments, one before and the other after the preposition, as ἠν-ειχόμην, ἠν-εσχόμην from ἀν-έχομαι endure, ἠν-ώχλουν from ἐνοχλέω annoy, ἐπηνώρθωμαι from ἐπανορθόω set upright. So also, by analogy to the foregoing, a few verbs derived from compound words: ἠμφεσβήτουν from ἀηφισβητέω dispute, ἠντεδέκει from ἀντιδικέω go to law (ἀντίδικος).

452. Compounds of δυς- ill and εὖ well. (1) δυστυχέω am unhappy, ἐ-δυστύχουν, δε-δυσ-τύχηκα. δυσ-ηρέστουν, δυσ-ηρέστηκα from δυσ-αρεστέω do not occur. (2) εὐεργετέω do good, εὐεργέτησαν, εὐεργέτηκα (inscrip.) εὐηργέτηκα (texts).

453. Verbs derived from compound nouns take the augment and the reduplication at the beginning; as ἐμυ_θολόγουν, μεμυ_θολόγηκα from μυ_θολογέω tell legends (μυ_θολόγος teller of legends); ᾠκοδόμουν, ᾠκοδόμηκα from οἰκοδομέω build (οἰκοδόμος house-builder); ἠμπόλων, ἠμπόληκα from ἐμπολάω traffic in (ἐμπολή traffic).

a. ἐκκλησιάζω hold an assembly (ἐκκλησία_) makes ἠκ-κλησίαζον or ἐξ-ε-κλησίαζον. ἐγγυάω pledge makes ἐνεγύων, ἐνεγύησα and (better) ἠγγύων, ἠγγύησα.

454. Verbs derived from compound nouns whose first part is a preposition are commonly treated as if compounded of a preposition and a simple verb; as κατηγορέω accuse (κατήγορος), κατηγόρουν, κατηγόρηκα; ἐνθυ_μέομαι ponder (ἔνθυ_μος) ἐνεθυ_μήθην, ἐντεθυ_μῆσθαι; ἐπιορκέω swear falsely (ἐπίορκος), ἐπιώρκηκα; ἐγχειρίζω entrust (ἐν χειρί), ἐνεχείρισα.

a. But several verbs are not treated as compounds, such as ἀπατάω deceive, ἀπιστέω distrust, ἀπορέω am in difficulty, παρρησιάζομαι speak freely.

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