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1845. The infinitive or participle with ἄν represents either a past tense of the indicative with ἄν or the optative with ἄν. The context determines whether the indicative or the optative is meant. The participle with ἄν is post-Homeric.

1846. The present infinitive or participle with ἄν represents the imperfect indicative with ἄν or the present optative with ἄν.

a. (inf.) ἀκούω Λακεδαιμονίους ἂν ἀναχωρεῖν ἐπ᾽ οἴκου I hear the Lacedaemonians used to return home ( = ἂν ἀνεχώρουν, 1790) D. 9.48, οἴεσθε γὰρ τὸν πατέρα οὐκ ἂν φυλάττειν; for do you think my father would not have taken care? ( = οὐκ ἂν ἐφύλαττεν, 1786) D. 49.35; νομίζοντες ἂν τι_μῆς τυγχάνειν in the belief that they would obtain reward ( = ἂν τυγχάνοιμεν) X. A. 1.9.29.

b. (part.) ὅπερ ἔσχε μὴ κατὰ πόλεις αὐτὸν ἐπιπλέοντα τὴν Πελοπόννησον πορθεῖν, ἀδυνάτων ἂν ὄντων . . . ἀλλήλοις ἐπιβοηθεῖν which prevented him from sailing against the Peloponnese and laying it waste city by city when the Peloponnesians would have been unable to come to the rescue of one another ( = ἀδύνατοι ἂν ἦσαν) T. 1.73, πόλλ᾽ ἂν ἔχων ἕτερ᾽ εἰπεῖν, παραλείπω though I might be able to say much else I pass it by ( = ἂν ἔχοιμι, 1824) D. 18.258, ““σοφία_ λεγομένη δικαιότατ᾽ ἄνthat might most justly be called wisdomP. Phil. 30c ( = σοφία_ λέγοιτο ἄν).

1847. The future infinitive and participle with ἄν are rare and suspected.

1848. The aorist infinitive or participle with ἄν represents the aorist indicative with ἄν or the aorist optative with ἄν.

a. (inf.) Κῦρός γε, εἰ ἐβίωσεν, ἄριστος ἂν δοκεῖ ἄρχων γενέσθαι it seems probable that Cyrus, if he had lived, would have proved himself a most excellent ruler ( = ἂν ἐγένετο) X. O. 4.18, ὥστε καὶ ἰδιώτην ἂν γνῶναι so that even a common man could have understood ( = ἂν ἔγνω) X. A. 6.1.31, τί ἂν οἰόμεθα παθεῖν; what do we think our fate would be? ( = τί ἂν πάθοιμεν;) X. A. 3.1.17.

b. (part.) ὁρῶν τὸ παρατείχισμα ῥᾳδίως ἂν ληφθέν seeing that the counterwall could easily be captured ( = ἂν ληφθείη) T. 7.42, Ποτείδαιαν ἑλὼν καὶ δυνηθεὶς ἂν αὐτὸς ἔχειν, εἰ ἐβουλήθη, παρέδωκεν after he had seized Potidaea and would have been able to keep it himself, had he wished, he gave it up to them ( = ἐδυνήθη ἄν) D. 23.107, ““οὔτε ὄντα οὔτε ἂν γενόμενα λογοποιοῦσινthey fabricate stories which neither are, nor could be, trueT. 6.38 ( = οὔτε ἔστιν οὔτε ἂν γένοιτο).

1849. The perfect infinitive with ἄν represents the pluperfect indicative with ἄν or the perfect optative with ἄν: οἶδ᾽ ὅτι (ἂν) φήσειεν πάντα ταῦθ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἂν ἡλωκέναι I know that he would say that all this would have been captured by the barbarians ( = ἂν ἡλώκεσαν) D. 19.312, ἡγεῖτο τοὺς ἀγνοοῦντας ἀνδραποδώδεις ἂν δικαίως κεκλῆσθαι he thought that those who did not know this might justly be deemed servile in nature ( = κεκλημένοι ἂν εἶεν) X. M. 1.1.16.

For the infinitive and participle without ἄν see 1865 ff., 1872 ff., and under Infinitive and Participle.

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