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474. From the verb-stem (or theme) each tense-stem is formed by the addition of a tense-suffix (455) or of a prefix, or of both. In 475-495 certain modifications of the verb-stem are considered.

475. Variation in Quantity.—Many verbs of the first class (498 ff.) show variation in the quantity of the vowel of the verb-stem, which is commonly long in the present but fluctuates in other tenses, as λύ_-ω, λύ_-σω, ἔλυ_-σα, but λέλυ^-κα, λέλυ^-μαι, ἐλυ?́-θην. (Other examples, 500.)

a. Some verbs of the Fourth Class (523 c) lengthen a short vowel of the present in some other tenses. Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take, λήψομαι, εἴληφα, εἴλημμαι, ἐλήφθην, but 2 aor. ἔλαβον.

476. Vowel Gradation (35, 36).—Verbs of the first class show a variation between a strong grade (or two strong grades) and a weak grade. The weak grades, ι^, υ^, α^, appear especially in the second aorist and second passive systems; the corresponding strong grades, ει (οι), ευ (ου), η (ω), appear usually in the other systems (οι, ου, ω, in the second perfect).

a. Expulsion of a short vowel between consonants (so-called syncope 493) produces a weak form of the stem of the same grade as ι, υ, α (36). Cp. γί-γν-ομαι become (aor. ἐ-γεν-ό-μην), ἐ-πτ-ό-μην (pres. πέτ-ο-μαι fly) with ἔ-λιπ-ο-ν, ἔ-φυγ-ο-ν, ἐ-τάκ-η-ν (477 c). So ἔ-σχ-ο-ν got from ἔχ-ω have.

b. α is the weak form of η (α_), as in τήκω ἐτάκην; and of ε, when ε has λ, μ, ν, ρ before or after it, as in τρέπω, ἐτράπην (479).

477. The following examples illustrate the principles of 476.

a. ει οι ι: λείπω leave, λείψω, 2 perf. λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 aor. ἔλιπομ

N.—The weak form appears when the verb undergoes Attic reduplication (446); as in ἀλείφω anoint, 2 perf. ἀλήλιφα, ἀλήλιμμαι; ἐρείκω tear (Ionic and poetic), 2 perf. ἐρήριγμαι, 2 aor. ἤρικον; ἐρείπω overthrow, Epic ἐρήριπα; but ἐρείδω prop, ἐρήρεισμαι.

b. ευ ου υ: ἐλεύθσομαι I shall go, 2 perf. ἐλήλυθα (Epic ἐλήλουθα), 2 aor. (Epic ἤλυθον); φεύγω flee, φεύξομαι or φευξοῦμαι, 2 perf. πέφευγα, 2 aor. ἔφυγον; ῥέω flow (for ῥευ-ω, 43), εύσομαι, ἐρρύηκα (ῥυε-), 2 aor. pass. ἐρρύην.

N.—χέω pour (for χευ-ω, 43), ἔχεα (for ἔχευα), has υ in κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην; σεύω (poetic) urge, ἔσσευα, ἔσσυμαι, ἐσσύθην or ἐσύθην rushed. See also τεύχω in the List of Verbs.

c. η ω α: ήγ-νυ_μι break, ῥήξω, ἔρρηξα, 2 perf. ἔρρωγα, 2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην; τήκ-ω melt, τήξω, ἔτηξα, τέτηκα, ἐτήχθην, 2 aor. pass. ἐτάκην.

N.—Verbs of class c usually have α^ in the 2 aorist, ω in the 2 perfect (if there is one), elsewhere η. ω occurs in the present in τρώγω gnaw, 2 aor. ἔτραγον.

478. Change of ε to ο in the Second Perfect.—In the second perfect ε of the verb-stem is changed to ο.

κλέπ-τ-ω steal κέκλοφα, (ἀπο-) κτείνω kill (κτεν-, 519) -έκτονα, λέγ-ω collect εἴλοχα, πάσχω, fut. πείσομαι (from πενθσομαι, 100) πέπονθα, πέμπ-ω send πέπομφα, στέργ-ω love ἔστοργα, τίκτω beget τέτοκα, τρέπ-ω turn τέτροφα, τρέφ-ω nourish τέτροφα, φθείρ-ω corrupt ἔφθορα. So in γίγενομαι become ἐγενόμην, γέγονα; ἐγείρω awaken ἐγρήγορα (446). This change corresponds to that of ει to οι (477 a).

479. Change of ε to α.—In verb-stems containing λ, μ, ν, ρ, an ε is usually changed to α in the first perfect, perfect middle, and second passive systems.

τρέπ-ω turn, τέτραμμαι, ἐτράπην (1 aor. ἐτρέφθην); τρέφ-ω feed, τέθραμμαι, ἐτράφην (1 aor. ἐθρέφθην); σπείρω (σπερ-) sow, ἔσπαρμαι, ἐσπάρην; φθείρω (φθερ-) destroy, ἔφθαρμαι, ἐφθάρην; στέλλω (στελ-) send, ἔσταλκα, ἔσταλμαι, ἐστάλην; τείνω (τεν-) stretch, τέτακα, τέταμαι, ἐτάθην (1 aor.).

a. Also in the 2 aor. pass. of κλέπτω steal (ἐκλάπην), πλέκω weave (ἐπλάκην), τέρπω gladden (Epic ἐτάρπην). Many of these verbs also show ο in the second perfect (478).

480. This α^ is also found in the second aorist active and middle of κτείνω kill (ἔκτανον poetic), τέμνω cut (dialectal ἔταμον), τρέπω turn (ἔτραπον poetic), τέρπω gladden (ἐταρπόμην poetic), poetic δέρκομαι see (ἔδρακον). Also πέρθω, πτήσσω.

481. ε in the perfect middle in κέκλεμμαι (κλέπτω steal), πέπλεγμαι (πλέκω weave) is introduced from the present.

482. The α^ in 479, 480 is developed from a liquid or nasal brought between two consonants (35 b). Thus, ἔσταλμαι, τέταμαι from ἐστμαι, τετμαι, ἐτάθην from ἐτθην (20 b). Here στλ, τν represent weak grades of the stem.

483. a. The variations ε, ο, α, ω appear in τρέπω turn, τρέψω, ἔτρεψα, 2 perf. τέτροφα, τέτραμμαι, ἐτρέφθην, 2 aor. pass. ἐτράπην; frequentative τρωπάω (867).

b. The variations ε, ο, ω appear in πέτομαι fly, ποτέομαι (poet.) and frequentative πωτάομαι (poet., 867) fly about.

484. η, α in the Second Perfect.—In the second perfect α^ of the verb-stem is lengthened to η (α_): θάλλω (θαλ-) bloom, τέθηλα; φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφηνα; μαίνω (μαν-) madden, μέμηνα; κρά_ζω (κραγ-) cry out, κέκρα_γα.

485. Addition of ε.—a. To the verb-stem ε is added to make the present stem in δοκέω seem, fut. δόξω, aor. ἔδοξα (δοκ-); so in γαμέω marry, ὠθέω push. Usually ε is added in some stem other than the present.

b. In many verbs ε is added to the verb-stem to form the tense-stems other than present, second aorist, and second perfect, e.g. μάχομαι (μαχ-) fight, μαχοῦμαι ( = μαχεςομαι), ἐμαχεσάμην, μεμάχημαι. So ἄχθομαι am grieved, βούλουαι wish, γίγνομαι become, δέω want, (ε᾽θέλω wish, μέλλω intend, μέλει is a care, οἴομαι think.

c. In some verbs ε is added to form one or more tense-stems, as μένω (μεν-) remain, μεμένηκα (μενε-) to avoid -ν-κα in the perfect. So, νέμω distribute, ἔχω have, οἴχομαι am gone. So also δαρθάνω, ὀσφαίνομαι, ῥέω, στείβω (poetic), τυγχάνω.

d. Some verbs have alternative presents with or without ε. Here sometimes one is used in prose, the other in poetry, sometimes both are poetic or both used in prose. Thus, ἕλκω draw (Hom. also ἑλκέω), ἰάχω ἰαχέω sound (both poetic), μέδω μεδέω (both poetic), ῥί_πτω and ῥι_πτέω throw (both in prose).

485 D. Some Ionic and poetic verbs adding ε are ἀλέξω, ἄλθομαι, γεγωνέω, γηθέω, δουπέω, εἴρομαι, εἰλέω, ἐπαυρέω, κελαδέω, κέλομαι, κεντέω, κήδω, κτυπέω, κυρέω, λάσκω, μέδομαι, μύζω, πατέομαι, ῥι_γέω, στυγέω, τορέω, χάζω, φιλέω (poetic forms), χρα<*> σμέω; ἀμπλακίσκω, ἀπαφίσκω; Epic ἐδιδάσκησα (διδάσκω), πιθήσω, πεπιθήσω<*> πιθήσα_ς (πείθω), πεφιδήσομαι (φείδομαι).

486. Addition of α and ο.—α or ο is added to the verb-stem in some verbs. Thus, μυ_κάομαι bellow (Epic 2 aor. μύκον), ἐμυ_κησάμην; ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-) be captured, ἁλώσομαι from ἁλο-; ὄμνυ_-μι swear (ὀμ-) ὤμοσα, ὀμώμοκα etc. (ὀμο-); οἴχομαι am gone, Epic οἴχωκα or ᾤχωκα.

486 D. α is added also in βρυ_χάομαι, γοάω, δηριάομαι, λιχμάω, μηκάομαι, μητιάω. All these are mainly poetic.

487. Lengthening of Short Final Vowel.—Verb-stems ending in a short vowel generally lengthen that vowel before the tense-suffix in all tenses (except the present and imperfect) formed from them. Here α (except after ε, ι, and ρ) and ε become η, ο become ω.

τι_μά-ω (τι_μα-) honour, τι_μή-σω, ἐτί_μη-σα, τετί_μη-κα, τετί_μη-μαι, ἐτι_μή-θην; θηρά-ω (θηρα-) hunt, θηρά_-σω, ἐθήρα_-σα, etc. (389); ποιέω (ποιε-) make, ποιή-σω, ἐποίη-σα, πεποίη-κα, πεποίη-μαι, ἐποιή-θην; δηλόω (δηλο-) manifest, δηλώ-σω, ἐδήλω-σα, etc.; ἐάω permit, ἐά_σω, etc.

a. Note ἀκροά_σομαι, ἠκροα_σάμην, etc., from ἀκροάομαι hear; χρήσω, ἔχρησα from χράω give oracles; χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην from χράομαι use; τρήσω and ἔτρησα from τετραίνω bore are from τρε-.

b. Verb-stems adding ε or ο (486), and stems apparently receiving a short final vowel by metathesis (128), lengthen the short final vowel, as βούλομαι (βουλ-) wish, βουλή-σομαι (βουλε-, 485), κάμνω (καμ-) am weary, κέκμη-κα (κμα-).

488. Retention of Short Final Vowel.—Many verb-stems ending apparently in a short vowel retain the short vowel, contrary to 487, in some or all the tenses.

γελα?́-ω laugh, γελα?́σομαι, ἐγέλα^σα, ἐγελα?́σθην; τελέω finish, τελῶ from τελέ-ω, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην; ἀνύω accomplish, ἀνυ?́σω, ἤνυ^σα, ἤνυ^σμαι.

a. The following verbs retain the final short vowel of the verb-stem in all tenses: ἄγα-μαι, αἰδέ-ομαι, ἀκέ-ομαι, ἀλέ-ω, ἀνύ-ω, ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), ἀρκέ-ω, ἀρό-ω, ἀρύ-ω, γελά-ω, ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-), ἑλκύ-ω, and ἕλκ-ω (ἑλκ-ε-), ἐμέ-ω, ἐρά-ω, ἔρα-μαι (poet.), ἐσθίω (ἐσθι-, ἐδ-ε-, ἐδο-), ζέ-ω, θλά-ω, ἱ_λάσκομαι (ἱ_λα-), κλά-ω break, μεθύσκω (μεθυ-), ξέ-ω, πτύ_-ω (πτυ_-, πτυ^-), σπά-ω, τελέ-ω, τρέ-ω, φθίνω (φθι-), φλά-ω, χαλά-ω, χέ-ω (χυ-). Also all verbs in -αννυ_μι and -εννυ_μι (except ἔσβηκα from σβέννυ_μι extinguish), and ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε-), ὄμνυ_μι (ὀμ-, ὀμε-, ὀμο-), στόρνυ_μι (στορ-ε).

b. The following verbs keep short the final vowel in the future, but lengthen it in one or more other tense-systems, or have double future forms, one with the short vowel, the other with the long vowel: αἰνέω (αἰνέσω, ᾔνεσα, ᾔνεκα, ᾐνέθην, ᾔνημαι), ἄχθομαι (ἀχθ-, ἀχθε-), καλέ-ω, μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-), μύ_ω, πί_νω (πι-, πο-), ποθέ-ω, πονέ-ω, ἐρύ-ω (Epic), φθάνω (φθα-).

c. In some verbs the final short vowel of the verb-stem remains short in one or more tense-stems, but is lengthened in the future, as δέ-ω bind, δήσω, ἔδησα, δέδεκα, δέδεμαι, ἐδέθην. So αἱρέω, βαίνω (βα-), βυ_νέω (βυ-), δίδωμι (δο-, δω-), δύνα-μαι, δύ_ω (δυ^-, δυ_-), εὑρίσκω (εὑρ-ε-), ἔχω (σεχ-, σχε-), θύ_ω (θυ^-, θυ_-), ἵημι (ἑ-, ἡ-), ἵστημι (στα^-, στη-), λύ_ω (λυ^-, λυ_-), τίθημι (θε-, θη-), τίνω (τι-), φύ_ω (φυ^-, φυ_-), and the root ἐρ-, ῥε- (εἶπον).

d. Most of the verbs refusing to lengthen a final short vowel have verb-stems originally ending in ς (624); as τελέω from τελεσ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. τὸ τέλος). By analogy to these, other verbs retain their short final vowel.

488 D. Here belong Epic ἀκηδέω, κοτέω, λοέω, νεικέω, and the forms ἄασα, -άμην, ἄεσα. ἐρύω shows ἐρυ_- and ἐρυ^-.

489. Insertion of ς.—In the perfect middle and first aorist passive systems, verbs which retain a short final vowel and some others usually insert ς before the personal ending.

Thus, τελέω (488 d), τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην; σπάω draw, ἔσπασμαι, ἐσπάσθην; κελεύω order, κεκέλευσμαι, ἐκελεύσθην; γιγνώσκω know, ἔγνωσμαι, ἐγνώσθην.

a. If the aorist passive ends in -θην and not in -σθην, the perfect middle does not insert ς. Thus -θην, not -σθην, occurs in all verbs in -ευω except λεύω stone to death, in all verbs in -εω which have -θην preceded by η, in all verbs in -οω except χόω heap up, and in all verbs in -αω except those that retain α^. Stems originally ending in ς (624) properly show ς.

b. If the aorist passive ends in -σθην, the perfect middle may or may not insert ς. Verbs in -αζω and -ιζω (stems -αδ, -ιδ) regularly have ς by 83, 587. In the case of other verbs some always show ς, some never show ς, and some are doubtful. In many cases the later usage with ς has crept into the Mss. of the classical authors (so with the perfect of ἀλέω, βαίνω, δράω, ζώννυ_μι, κλείω (κλῄω), σῴζω, χρί_ω, and with the aorist of παύω).

c. The following verbs show an inserted ς both in the perfect middle and the aorist passive in classical Greek: αἰδέομαι, γιγνώσκω, ἑλκύω, θλάω, θραύω, κελεύω, κλάω, κναίω, κορέννυ_μι, κυλί_ω, ξύ_ω, πίμπλημι, πρί_ω, πτίττω, σβέννυ_μι, σείω, σκεδάννυ_μι, σπάω, τανύω, τελέω, τίνω, ὕ_ω, φλάω, χόω, χρῴζω.

d. The following form only the perfect middle with ς in classical Greek: βυ_νέω, ἕννυ_μι (εἷμαι, but ἕστο Hom.), ἐρύω, ζώννυ_μι, ξέω, Ο᾿δύσσομαι, πλέω, φλεύω (Hdt.).

e. The following form only the aorist passive with ς in classical Greek: ἄγαμαι, ἀκούω, ἀνύω, ἀρέσκω, ἄχθομαι, γελάω, δαίνυ_μι, δράω, ἐλύω, ἔραμαι, ἐράω, ἱ_λάσκομαι, κλείω (κλῄω), λεύω, μεθύσκω, μιμνῄσκω, ὀί_ω, ὄνομαι (Hdt.), παίω, παλαίω, πετάννυ_μι, πίμπρημι, ῥαίω, ῥώννυ_μι, στόρνυ_μι, χαλάω, χράομαι, χράω, χρἱ_ω.

f. Only in post-classical Greek is ς attested both in the perfect middle and aorist passive in ἀρκέω, ζέω, κλαίω, (ἀπο) λαύω, λόω, ὄλλυ_μι, πνέω, πταίω, σάω, ψαύω. —Only in the perfect middle: ἄγαμαι, ἀκούω, ἀνύω, γελάω, δράω, ἐμέω, ἔραμαι, κεράννυ_μι, κολούω, μεθύσκω, ναίω, νάω spin, ὀπυίω, παίω, παλαίω, πετάννυ_μι (and in Ionic), πίμπρημι (Aristotle; earlier perf. πέπρημαι), στόρνυ_μι, χαλάω, ψαύω. When the perfect middle is not attested in classical Greek some at least of the ς forms from the above verbs may represent classical usage, provided the aorist passive has -σθην.—Only in the aorist passive: ἀκέομαι, ἀλέω, ἀρύω, βαίνω, βυ_νέω, ψεύω, εἰλύω, ἐλαύνω, ἔρυμαι, ἐρύω, ζώννυ_μι, καίω, ξέω, μάχομαι, νέω heap up, Ο᾿δύσσομαι, πλέω, πτύω, σῴζω, φθάνω.

g. Some verbs have double forms (one of which may be disputed) in the classical period: δύναμαι: ἐδυνήθην and ἐδυνάσθην (chiefly Ionic and poetic); κε<*>άννυ_μι: ἐκρά_θην and ἐκεράσθην; κρούω: κέκρουμαι better than κέκρουσμαι; νέω: νἑνημαι and νένησμαι; ὄμνυ_μι: ὀμώμομαι (and ὀμώμοσται), ὠμόθην and ὠμόσθην.— Dialectal or dialectal and late are ἐβώσθην for ἐβοήθην (βοάω), ἐλήλασμαι ἠλάσθην (ἐλαύνω), κεκόρημαι for κεκόρεσμαι (κορέννυ_μι), πεπέτασμαι (πετάννυ_μι).

h. Some verb-stems ending in ν show -σ-μαι in the perfect middle: ἡδύ_νω, μιαίνω, παχύ_νω, περαίνω, ὑφαίνω, φαίνω. Thus πέφασμαι, ἥδυσμαι, μεμίασμαι. Dialectal or late: θηλύ_νω, κοιλαίνω, λεπτύ_νω, λυ_μαίνομαι, ξαίνω, ξημαίνω, σημαίνω. On -μμαι see 579.

i. Observe that some vowel verbs inserting ς do not lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem in any tense (γελάω, τελέω); and that some not inserting ς (δέω, θύ_ω, λύ_ω) do not lengthen the final vowel in some tenses. ἐπ-αινέω commend and παρ-αινέω exhort do not insert ς and have the short vowel in all tenses.

j. The insertion of ς in the perfect middle started in the 3 sing. and 2 pl. Before the endings -ται and -σθε, ς was retained in the case of verbs with stems originally ending in ς (as τελέω), or where ς developed from τ, δ, θ (98) before -ται, -σθε (πέπεισται from πεπειθται). See 409 b, 624. In all cases where the verb-stem did not originally end in ς, the sigma forms are due to analogy; as in κεκέλευσμαι (κελεύω), πέπλησμαι (πίμπλημι), ἔγνωσμαι (γιγνώσκω).

489 D. Hom. has original forms in πεφραδμένος (φραζω), κεκορυθμένος (κορύττω), ἐπέπιθμεν (πείθω).

490. Addition of θ.—The present stems of some poetical verbs are made by the addition of θ; as νή-θ-ω spin, πλή-θ-ω am full (πίμ-πλη-μι). Cp. 832.

a. Most of the indicative forms seem to be imperfects, but since some have the force of aorists (e.g., Soph. O. C. 862, 1334, O. T. 650), in certain editions they are regarded as second aorists, and the infinitives and participles are accented (against the Mss.) on the ultima (διωκαθεῖν, εἰκαθών).

490 D. A few verbs make poetic forms by adding -θόε- to the present or the 2 aorist tense-stem, in which α or ε (υ once) takes the place of the thematic vowel of the simple verb. Such forms are chiefly Homeric, but occur sometimes in Attic poetry, very rarely in prose. Thus, φλεγέθω (φλέγω burn), ἐδιώκαθοι (διώκω pursue), ἔσχεθον (ἔχω have). θ-forms are found in moods other than the indicative (εἰκάθω, εἰκάθοιμι, ἀμυ_νάθατε, διωκάθειν, εἰκάθων).

491. Omission of ν.—Some verbs in -νω drop the ν of the verbal stem in the first perfect, perfect middle, and first passive systems.

κρί_νω (κριν-), judge, κέκρι-κα, κέκρι-μαι, ἐκρί-θην. So also κλί_νω incline, πλύ_νω wash.

492. Metathesis.—The verbal stem may suffer metathesis (128).

a. In the present: θνῄσκω die, 2 aor. ἔθανον, perf. τέθνηκα.

b. In other tenses: βάλλω throw (βαλ-), perf. βέβληκα, ἐβλήθην (βλη-); τέμνω cut (τεμ-ν-), 2 aor. ἔτεμον, perf. τέτμηκα; δέρκομαι (δερκ-) see, 2 aor. ἔδρακον; τέρπω delight, 2 aor. pass. ἐτάρπην and ἐτράπην (both poetical).

492 D. See the List of Verbs for poetical forms of ἁμαρτάνω, δαρθάνω, θρά_ττω, βλώσκω, δαμάζω, δέμω, πορ-.

493. Syncope.—Some verbs suffer syncope (44 b).

a. In the present: πί_πτω fall for πι-πετ-ω, ἴσχω hold for (ςι-ςεχ-ω (125 e), μίμνω for μι-μεν-ω.

b. In the future: πτήσομαι from πέτομαι fly.

c. In the second aorist: ἔσχον for ἐ-σεχ-ον from ἔχω (ἐχ- for σεχ-, 125 e).

d. In the perfect: πέ-πτα-μαι have expanded from πετά-ννυ_μι.

N.—Syncopated forms are properly weak stems (476 a).

493 D. See the List of Verbs for poetical forms of πέλω, πελάζω, μέλω, μέλομαι; also ἔτετμον found, ἔπεφνον slew.

494. Reduplication.—The verb-stem may be reduplicated.

a. In the present with ι: γι-γνώ-σκω (γνω-) know, τί-θη-μι place, ἵ-στη-μι set, δί-δω-μι give. The present reduplication may be carried over to other tenses: διδά (κ) σκω teach (99), διδάξω. With ε: τε-τραίνω bore.

b. In the second aorist: ἄγω (ἀγ-) lead, ἤγ-αγ-ον; ἕπομαι follow, ἑσπόμην (for σε-σπ-ομην).

c. Regularly with ε in the perfect.

494 D. Poetic ἀραρίσκω (ἀρ) fit, and the intensives (867) μαρ-μαίρω (μαρ-) flash, πορ-φύ_ρω (φυρ-) grow red, παμ-φαίνω (φαν-) shine brightly, ποι-πνύω (πνυ-) puff. Also with η in δη-δέκ-το greeted (Mss. δείδεκτο).

495. Iterative Imperfects and Aorists in -σκόε-.—Homer and Herodotus have iterative imperfects and aorists in -σκον and -σκομην denoting a customary or repeated past action. Homer has iterative forms in the imperfect and 1 and 2 aorist active and middle. Herodotus has no iteratives in the 1 aorist and few in the 2 aorist; and only from ω-verbs. Herodotus regularly and Homer usually omit the augment. -αω verbs have -αα-σκον or -α-σκον; -εω verbs -εε-σκον, in Hom. also -ε-σκον. -α-σκον is rare in other verbs than those in -αω. The vowel preceding the suffix is always short.

a. The suffix -σκόε- is added to the tense-stem. Imperf.: φεύγε-σκε (φεύγω flee), ἔχε-σκον (ἔχω have), νι_κά-σκομεν (νι_κάω conquer), γοάα-σκε (γοάω bewail), κρύπτα-σκε (κρύπτω hide), καλέε-σκον (καλέω call), ζωννύσκετο (ζώννυ_μι gird) ; 1 aor.: ἀπο-τρέψα-σκε (ἀποτρέπω turn away; 2 aor.: φύγε-σκε, στά-σκε stood.

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