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STEMS IN ευ, αυ, ου


βασιλεύ-ς γραῦ-ς ναῦ-ς, βοῦ-ς
kingold womanshipox, cow
Dat. (βασιλέ-ιβασιλεῖγρα_-ΐνη-ΐβο-ΐ

N. A. V.βασιλῆγρᾶ-ενῆ-εβό-ε
G. D.βασιλέ-οινγρα_-οῖννε-οῖνβο-οῖν

N. V.βασιλῆς, later )γρᾶ-εςνῆ-εςβό-ες

Like βασιλεύς are declined the masculine oxytones ἱππεύς horseman, ἱερεύς priest, γονεύς parent, φονεύς murderer; like βοῦς is declined χοῦς threequart measure (but acc. χόα_ and χόας).

275 D. 1. Hom. has βασιλῆος, -ῆι, -ῆα, -εῦ, -ῆες, -εῦσι (and -ήεσσι), -ῆας. Also -έος, -έϊ, -έα^, from the stem εϝ ε[υγλιδε]. -εῦς and -εῖ for -έος and -έϊ are not common. Ἀτρεύς, Τυ_δεύς have -έϝ-ος etc. regularly (Τυ_δῆ from Τυ_δέα). Hdt. has -έος, -έϊ or -εῖ, -έα^, -εῦ, -έες, -έων, -εῦσι, -έα^ς.

2. Hom. has γρηῦς or γρηΰς, γρηΐ, γρηῦ and γρηΰ; the unattic βόεσσι (and βουσί), βόας (and βοῦς), βῶν acc. sing. H 238. The Doric nom. sing. is βῶς, acc. pl. βῶς.

3. The declension of ναῦς in Doric, Homer, and Herodotus is as follows:

νε-ός(and νη-ός?)νε-ῶν
νά_-εσσιννή-εσσιν), νέ-εσσιν

Hom. has ναυσί in ναυσικλυτός.

276. Substantives in -εύς preceded by a vowel may contract in the gen. and acc. sing. and pl. Thus, ἁλιεύς fisherman has gen. ἁλιέως or ἁλιῶς, acc. ἁλιέα_ or ἁλιᾶ, gen. pl. ἁλιέων or ἁλιῶν, acc. pl. ἁλιέα_ς or ἁλιᾶς. All other forms are regular. The contracted forms were in use in the fifth century, but in the fourth (especially after 350 B.C.) the open forms are common. So are declined Εὐβοεύς Euboean from Εὐβοιεύς, Παιραιεύς Peiraeus, Πλαταιεύς Plataean.

277. Other Forms.—a. In the drama from words in -εύς we find rarely -έα^ in acc. sing., -έα^ς in acc. pl. -έος and -ῆος, -ῆες, -ῆας are occasionally found.

b. The nom. pl. in older Attic ended in -ῆς (βασιλῆς), derived either from -ῆες by contraction or from -έης (once on an inscription) by 34. -ῆς occurs on inscriptions till about 350 B.C., and is the form to be adopted in the texts of authors of the fifth century and in Plato. -έες occurs rarely, but is suspected. βασιλεῖς (regular on inscriptions after 329 B.C.) is from analogy to ἡδεῖς.

c. The acc. pl. βασιλεῖς was not used till the end of the fourth century. -ῆς (the nom. form) is used for the acc. in a few passages (251 b).

278. Stem Variation.—Stems ending in ευ, αυ, ου lose υ before case endings beginning with a vowel, [υγλιδε] passing into ϝ (43). Stems in ευ show the pure form only in the vocative; other forms are derived from the stronger stem ηυ. ηυ and α_υ before a consonant become ευ, α^υ (40) as in βασιλεύς, βασιλεῦσι, ναῦς, ναυσί from βασιληυς, να_υς, etc. From βασιλῆϝ-ος, -ϝ-ι, -ϝ-α, -ϝ-ας come, by transfer of quantity (34), the Attic forms. So νεώς is derived from νηϝ-ός. In βασιλέων, νεῶν, ε is shortened from the η of βασιλήων, νηῶν by 39. βο-ός, etc. are from the stem βου- βοϝ-, cp. Lat. bovis.

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