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895. Compound nouns (substantives and adjectives) are divided, according to their meaning, into three main classes: determinative, possessive, and prepositional-phrase, compounds.

a. The <*>ical relation of the parts of compounds varies so greatly that boundary-lines between the different classes are difficult to set up, and a complete formal division is impossible. The poets show a much wider range of usage than the pro<*>-writers.

896. Determinative Compounds.—In most determinative compounds the first part modifies or determines the second part: the modifier stands first, the principal word second.

Thus by hand-work a particular kind of work is meant, as contrasted with machine-work; cp. speech-writer and letter-writer, race-horse and horse-race.

a. The first part may be an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, an inseparable prefix, or, in a few cases, a substantive.

897. There are two kinds of determinative compounds.

(1) Descriptive determinative compounds.—The first part defines or explains the second part in the sense of an adjective or adverb. (This class is less numerous than the second class.)

ἀκρό-πολις upper city, citadel (ἄκρα_ πόλις), ὁμό-δουλος fellow-slave (ὁμοῦ δουλεύων, cp. 885. 4 a), ὀψί-γονος late-born (ὀψὲ γενόμενος), προ-βουλή forethought, ἀμφι-θέα_τρον amphitheatre (a place-for-seeing round about), ἄ-γραφος not written (οὐ γεγραμμένος).

a. Copulative compounds are formed by the coördination of two substantives or adjectives: ἰ_α_τρό-μαντις physician and seer, γλυκύ-πικρος sweetly-bitter. Similar is deaf-mute. So also in numerals: δώ-δεκα two (and) ten = 12.

b. Comparative compounds (generally poetic) are μελι-ηδής honey-sweet (μέλι, ἡδύς), ποδ-ήνεμος Ἶρις Iris, with feet swift as the wind. Cp. eagle-eyed, goldfish, blockhead. Such compounds are often possessive (898), as ῥοδο-δάκτυλος rosy-fingered, χρυ_σο-κόμης golden-haired.

(2) Dependent determinative compounds.—A substantive forming either the first or the second part stands in the sense of an oblique case (with or without a preposition) to the other part.

Accusative: λογο-γράφος speech-writer (λόγους γράφων), στρατ-ηγός armyleading, general (στρατὸν ἄγων), φιλ-άνθρωπος loving mankind (φιλῶν ἀνθρώπους), δεισι-δαίμων superstitious (δεδιὼς τοὺς δαίμονας); cp. pickpocket, sightseer, painstaking, soothsayer, laughter-loving.

Genitive: στρατό-πεδον camp (στρατοῦ πέδον ground on which an army is encamped). In ἀξιό-λογος worthy of mention (ἄξιος λόγου) the defining part stands second (869 c) and is governed by the adjective part like a preposition (cp. 899). Cp. ringmaster, law-offcer, jest-book.

(Ablative): ἀνεμο-σκεπής sheltering from the wind; cp. land-breeze, sea-breeze.

Dative: ἰσό-θεος godlike (ἴσος θεῷ); cp. churchgoer, blood-thirsty.

(Instrumental): χειρ-ο-ποίητος made by hand (χερσὶ ποιητός), χρυ_σό-δετος bound with gold (χρυ_σῷ δετός); cp. thunder-struck, storm-swept, star-sown.

(Locative): οἰκο-γενής born in the house (ἐν οἴκῳ γενόμενος), ὁδοι-πόρος wayfarer (879); cp. heart-sick.

N. 1.—The Greeks did not think of any actual case relation as existing in these compounds, and the case relation that exists is purely logical. The same form may be analysed in different ways, as φιλάνθρωπος φιλῶν ἀνθρώπους or = φίλος ἀνθρώπων.

N. 2.—Such compounds may often be analysed by a preposition and a dependent noun: θεό-δμητος god-built (ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν δμητός).

898. Possessive Compounds.—In possessive compounds the first part defines the second as in determinatives; but the whole compound is an adjective expressing a quality, with the idea of possession understood. In most possessive compounds the idea of having (ἔχων) is to be supplied.

So, in English, redbreast is a bird having a red breast, the first part being an attribute of the second.

ἀργυρό-τοξος having a silver bow; μακρό-χειρ having long arms, long-armed; θεο-ειδής having the appearance (εἶδος) of a god, godlike; σώ-φρων having sound mind, temperate; τέθρ-ιππος having four horses; ὁμό-τροπος of like character (ὁμο-occurs only in compounds, but note ὅμοιος like); πολυ-κέφαλος many-headed; εὐ-τυχής having good fortune, fortunate; δεκα-ετής lasting ten years (cp. a twoyear-old); ἀμφι-κί_ων having pillars round about; ἔν-θεος inspired (having a god within: ἐν ἑαυτῷ θεὸν ἔχων).

a. Adjectives in -ειδής from εἶδος form (ἀστερ-ο-ειδής star-like, ἰχθυ-ο-ειδής fish-like, μην-ο-ειδής crescent, πολυ-ειδής of many kinds, σφαιρ-ο-ειδής spherical) are to be distinguished from those in -ώδης derived from ὄζω smell (833 a).

b. English possessive compounds in -ed apply that ending only to the compound as a whole and not to either member. In Milton: deep-throated, whitehanded, open-hearted; in Keats: subtle-cadenced. Besides those in -ed there are others such as Bluebeard.

c. Many possessive compounds begin with α᾽ν)-negative or δυσ- ill; as ἄ-παις childless (having no children or not having children, παῖδας οὐκ ἔχων), ἄ-τι_μος dishonoured (having no honour), δύσ-βουλος ill advised (having evil counsels).

899. Prepositional-phrase Compounds.—Many phrases made of a preposition and its object unite to form a compound and take on adjectival inflection. Such compounds are equivalent to the phrases in question with the idea of being or the like added.

ἄπ-οικος colonist (away from home: ἀπ᾽ οἴκου); ἐγχειρίδιος in the hand, dagger (ἐν χειρί); ἐγχώριος native (in the country: ἐν χώρᾳ); ἐπιθαλάττιος dwelling on the coast (ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ); ἐφέστιος on the hearth (ἐφ᾽ ἑστίᾳ); κατάγειος underground, cp. subterranean (κατὰ γῆς); παρά-δοξος contrary to opinion (παρὰ δόξαν); παρά-φρων out of one's mind, Lat. de-mens (παρὰ τὴν φρένα); ὑπ-εύθυ_νος under liability to give account (ὑπ᾽ εὐθύ_ναις); so φροῦδος gone (= πρὸ ὁδοῦ γενόμενος, cp. 124 a).

a. From such phrases are derived verbs and substantives: ἐγχειρίζω put into one's hands, entrust, διαχειρίζω have in hand, manage (διὰ χειρῶν), διαπα_σῶν octave-scale ( διὰ πα_σῶν χορδῶν συμφωνία_ the concord through all the notes). By analogy to ἐκποδών out of the way (ἐκ ποδῶν) come ἐμποδών in the way and ἐμπόδιος impeding, ἐμποδίζω impede.

b. The compounds of 899 represent bits of syntax used so frequently together that they have become adherent.

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