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367. A Greek verb has two kinds of stems: (1) the tense-stem, to which the endings are attached, and (2) a common verb-stem (also called theme) from which all the tense-stems are derived. The tense-stem is usually made from the verb-stem by prefixing a reduplication-syllable (439), and by affixing signs for mood (457, 459) and tense (455). A tense-stem may be identical with a verbstem.

368. The Tense-stems.—The tenses fall into nine classes called tense-systems. Each tense-system has its own separate tense-stem.

I.Present,includingpresent and imperfect.
II.Future,future active and middle.
III.First aorist,first aorist active and middle.
IV.Second aorist,second aorist active and middle.
V.First perfect,first perfect, first pluperfect, and fut. perf., active.
VI.Second perfect,second perfect and second pluperfect active.
VII.Perfect middle,perfect and pluperfect middle (pass.), future perfect.
VIII.First passive,first aorist and first future passive.
IX.Second passive,second aorist and second future passive.

The tense-stems are explained in detail in 497-597.

a. Since few verbs have both the first and second form of the same tense (361), most verbs have only six of these nine systems; many verbs do not even have six. Scarcely any verb shows all nine systems.

b. There are also secondary tense-stems for the future passive, the pluperfect, and the future perfect.

c. The tense-stems assume separate forms in the different moods.

369. The principal parts of a verb are the first person singular indicative of the tense-systems occurring in it. These are generally six: the present, future, first aorist, first (or second) perfect active, the perfect middle, and the first (or second) aorist passive. The future middle is given if there is no future active. The second aorist (active or middle) is added if it occurs. Thus:

λύ_ω loose, λύ_σω, ἔλυ_σα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην.

λείπω leave, λείψω, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, 2 aor. ἔλιπον.

γράφω write, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, 2 aor. pass. ἐγράφην.

σκώπτω jeer, σκώψομαι, ἔσκωψα, ἐσκώφθην.

370. The principal parts of deponent verbs (356 c) are the present, future, perfect, and aorist indicative. Both first and second aorists are given if they occur.

βούλομαι wish, βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην (passive deponent).

γ́γνομαι become, γενήσομαι, γεγένημαι, 2 aor. ἐγενόμην (middle deponent).

ἐργάζομαι work, ἐργάσομαι, εἰργασάμην, εἴργασμαι, εἰργάσθην.

371. Verb-stem (or Theme).—The tense-stems are made from one fundamental stem called the verb-stem (or theme).

This verb-stem may be a root (193) as in τί_-ω honour, or a root to which a derivative suffix has been appended, as in τι_-μά-ω honour.

372. A verb forming its tense-stems directly from a root is called a primitive verb. A denominative verb forms its tense-stems from a longer verb-stem, originally a noun-stem; as δουλόω enslave from δοῦλος slave. Verbs in μι (379), and verbs in ω of two syllables (in the present indicative active, as λέγ-ω speak) or of three syllables (in the middle, as δέχομαι receive) are generally primitive. Others are denominative.

373. The verb-stem may show numerous modifications in form.

Thus, corresponding to the gradations in sing, sang, sung (35), the verb λείπ-ω leave shows the stems λειπ-, λοιπ- (2 perf. λέ-λοιπ-α), λιπ- (2 aor. ἔ-λιπ-ο-ν); the verb φεύγ-ω flee shows φευγ- and φυγ- (2 aor. ἔ-φυγ-ο-ν). In ῥήγνυ_μι break we find the three stems ῥηγ, ῥωγ (2 perf. ἔρρωγα), ῥαγ (2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην). στέλλ-ω send has the stems στελ- and σταλ- (perf. ἔ-σταλ-κα, 2 fut. pass. σταλ-ήσομαι).

a. When the fundamental stem shows modifications, it is customary for convenience to call its shorter (or shortest) form the verb-stem, and to derive the other forms from it. The student must, however, beware of assuming that the short forms are older than the other forms.

374. The verb-stem may also show modifications in quantity, as present λύ_-ω loose, perfect λέ-λυ^-κα.

N.—Various causes produce this variation. λύ_ω has υ_ from analogy to λύ_-σω, ἔ-λυ_-σα where the verb-stem λυ^ has been regularly lengthened (534, 543). For Attic φθάνω anticipate Hom. has φθά_νω for φθανϝω (28, 147 D.).

375. ω Inflection and μι Inflection.—There are two slightly different methods of inflecting verbs, the first according to the common, the second according to the μι system. The names ω-verbs and μι verbs (a small class) refer to the ending of the first person singular active of the present tense indicative only: λύ_-ω loose, τίθη-μι place.

a. In the ω inflection the tense-stem ends in the thematic vowel. To this form belong all futures, and the presents, imperfects, and second aorists showing the thematic vowel.

376. According to the ending of the verb-stem, ω-verbs are termed:

1. Vowel (or pure) verbs:

a. Not contracted: those that end in υ or ι, as λύ_-ω loose, παιδεύ-ω educate, χρί_-ω anoint. Such verbs retain the final vowel of the stem unchanged in all their forms.

b. Contracted: those that end in α, ε, ο, as τι_μῶ honour from τι_μά-ω, ποιῶ make from ποιέ-ω, δηλῶ manifest from δηλό-ω.

2. Consonant verbs, as:

Liquid or nasal verbs: δέρ-ω flay, μέν-ω remain.

Verbs ending in a stop (or mute), as ἄγ-ω lead, πείθ-ω persuade.

N.—Verbs ending in a stop consonant are called labial, dental, or palatal verbs. Consonant verbs do not retain the final consonant of the stem unchanged in all their forms. The final consonant may be assimilated to a following consonant, or may form with it a double consonant.

377. Thematic Vowel.—Some tense-stems end in a vowel which varies between ο and ε (or ω and η) in certain forms. This is called the thematic (or variable) vowel. Thus λύ_ο-μεν λύ_ε-τε, λύ_ω-μεν λύ_η-τε, λύ_σο-μεν λύ_σε-τε. The thematic vowel is written όε or ώη, as λυ_όε-, γραφώη-. See 456.

378. ο is used before μ or ν in the indicative, and in the optative, ω before μ or ν in the subjunctive, elsewhere ε is used in the indicative (η in the subjunctive).

379. In the μι inflection no thematic vowel is employed, and the endings are attached directly to the tense-stem. The μι form is used only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist. In the other tenses, verbs in μι generally show the same inflection as ω-verbs. For further explanation of the ω and the μι inflection see 602ff., 717ff.

380. Meanings of the Tenses and Moods.—In the synopsis (382) meanings are given wherever these are not dependent on the use of the various forms in the sentence. The meanings of the subjunctive and optative forms and the difference between the tenses can be learned satisfactorily only from the syntax. Some of these meanings may here be given:

a. Subjunctive: λύ_ωμεν or λύ_σωμεν let us loose, (ἐὰ_ν) λύ_ω or λύ_σω (if) I loose, (ἵνα) γράφω (that) I may write.

b. Optative: (εἴθε) λύ_οιμι or λύ_σαιμι (would) that I may loose! (εἰ) λύ_οιμεν or λύ_σαιμεν (if) we should loose.


I. Verbs in ω:

A. Vowel verbs not contracted:

Synopsis and conjugation of λύ_ω (pp. 112-118).

Second aorist (active and middle) of λείπω (p. 119).

Second perfect and pluperfect (active) of λείπω.

B. Vowel verbs contracted:

Present and imperfect of τι_μάω, ποιέω, δηλόω (pp. 120-123).

C. Consonant verbs:

Liquid and nasal verbs: future and first aorist (active and middle), second aorist and second future passive of φαίνω (pp. 128-129).

Labial, dental, and palatal verbs: perfect and pluperfect, middle (passive) of λείπω, γράφω, πείθω, πρά_ττω, ἐλέγχω (p. 130). Perfect of the liquid verbs ἀγγέλλω, φαίνω; and perfect of τελέω (p. 131).

II. Verbs in μι.

A. Present, imperfect, and 2 aorist of τίθημι, ἵστημι, δίδωμι (pp. 135 ff.).

Second aorist middle of ἐπριάμην (p. 138).

B. Present and imperfect of δείκνυ_μι (p. 140).

Second aorist: ἔδυ_ν (p. 140).

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