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, , τό IN HOMER

1100. In Homer , , τό is usually a demonstrative pronoun and is used substantively or adjectively; it also serves as the personal pronoun of the third person: ““ἀλλὰ τὸ θαυμάζωbut I marvel at thisδ 655, τὸν λωβητῆρα ἐπεσβόλον this prating brawler B 275, τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λύ_σω but her I will not release A 29.

1101. In its substantival use either marks a contrast or recalls the subject (the anaphoric use). But with ἀλλά, δέ, αὐτάρ the subject is generally changed. It often precedes an explanatory relative clause: τῶν οἳ νῦν βροτοί εἰσι of those who are now mortal men A 272.

1102. , , τό often approaches to its later use as the definite article or is actually so used: τὸν μέν . . . τὸν δ᾽ ἕτερον E 145 (cp. 1107). a. The substantive often stands in apposition, and is added, as an afterthought, to the demonstrative (especially δέ) which is still an independent pronoun: ““αὐτὰρ τοῖσι γέρων ὁδὸν ἡγεμόνευενbut he, the old man, was leading the way for themω 225. In some cases the appositive is needed to complete the sense: ““ἐπεὶ τό γε καλὸν ἀκουέμεν ἐστὶν ἀοιδοῦsince this—to listen to a minstrel—is a good thingα 370. b. Often with adjectives and participles used substantively, with pronouns, and adverbs; especially when a contrast or distinction is implied: ““οἱ ἄλλοιthe othersΦ 371, τὰ ἐσσόμενα the things that are to be A 70, τὸ πάρος formerly N 228. The attributive adj. before the noun: ““τοὺς σούςthyΨ 572, ““τὰ μέγιστα ἄεθλαthe greatest prizesΨ 640; and in apposition: Ἶρον τὸν ἀλήτην Irus, the beggar ς 333. Hom. has πατὴρ οὑμός Θ 360 (but does not use πατὴρ ἐμός).

1103. In Hom. contrasts two objects, indicates a change of person, or a change of action on the part of the same person. Attic defines.

1104. The transition from the demonstrative to the article is so gradual that it is often impossible to distinguish between the two. Ordinarily Homer does not use the article where it is required in Attic prose. The Epic use is adopted in general by the lyric poets and in the lyric parts of tragedy. Even in tragic dialogue the article is less common than in prose. Hdt. has δέ and he, γάρ for he.

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