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505. The present stem is formed by adding -τόε- to the verbstem, which ends in π, β, or φ. The verb-stem is ascertained from the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same root.

κόπτω cut,verb-stem κοπ-in 2 aor. pass. ἐ-κόπ-ην.
βλάπτω injure,“ “ βλαβ-“ “ “ ἐ-βλάβ-ην.
καλύπτω cover,“ “ καλυβ-καλύβ-η hut.
ῥί_πτω throw,“ “ ῥιφ-, ῥι_φ-“ 2 aor. pass. ἐ-ρρίφ-ην.

a. ἀστράπτω lighten, χαλέπτω oppress may be from -π[ιγλιδε]ω (117, 507).

506. Some of the verbs of this class add ε in the present or other tenses, as ῥι_πτέω throw, πεκτέω comb, τύπτω strike τυπήσω.

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