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2106. Verbs of Knowing and Showing.—After verbs signifying to know, be ignorant of, learn (not learn of), remember, forget, show, appear, prove, acknowledge, and announce, the participle represents a dependent statement, each tense having the same force as the corresponding tense of the indicative or optative with ὅτι or ὡς, the present including also the imperfect, the perfect including also the pluperfect.

Such verbs are: οἶδα, γιγνώσκω, ἐπίσταμαι, ἐννοῶ, μανθάνω (2136), (οὐκ) ἀγνοῶ, μέμνημαι, ἐπιλανθάνομαι (2134), δηλῶ, (ἐπι) δείκνυ_μι, φαίνω, ἀποφαίνω, φαίνομαι (2143), ἔοικα (2089 c, 2133), (ἐξ-) ἐλέγχω, ὁμολογῶ (rarely), ἀγγέλλω, ποιῶ represent (2115).

οὐ γὰρ ᾔδεσαν αὐτὸν τεθνηκότα (= τέθνηκε) for they did not know that he was dead X. A. 1.10.16, ἔγνω τὴν ἐσβολὴν ἐσομένην (= ἔσται) he knew that the invasion would take place T. 2.13, δν ὑ_μεῖς ἐπίστασθε ἡμᾶς προδόντα (= προὔδωκε) you know that he betrayed us X. A. 6.6.17, τίς οὕτως εὐήθης ἐστὶν ὑ_μῶν ὅστις ἀγνοεῖ τὸν ἐκεῖθεν πόλεμον δεῦρ᾽ ἥξοντα (= ἥξει); who of you is so simple-minded as not to know that the war will come hither from that quarter? D. 1.15, (Χερρόνησον) κατέμαθε πόλεις ἕνδεκα δώδεκα ἔχουσαν (= ἔχει) he learned that Chersonesus contained eleven or twelve cities X. H. 3.2.10, μέμνημαι ἀκούσα_ς (= ἤκουσα) I remember to have heard X. C. 1.6.6, μέμνημαι Κριτίᾳ τῷδε ξυνόντα σε (= ξυνῆσθα) I remember that you were in company with Critias here P. Charm. 156a, ἐπιλελήσμεσθ᾽ ἡδέως γέροντες ὄντες (= ἐσμέν) we have gladly forgotten that we are old E. Bacch. 188, δείξω (αὐτὸν) πολλῶν θανάτων ὄντ᾽ (= ἐστί) ““ἄξιονI will show that he deserves to die many timesD. 21.21, δειχθήσεται τοῦτο πεποιηκώς (= πεποίηκε) he will be shown to have done this 21. 160, τοῦτο τὸ γράμμα δηλοῖ ψευδῆ τὴν διαθήκην οὖσαν (= ἐστί) this clause shows that the will was forged 45. 34, ἐὰ_ν ἀποφαίνωσι τοὺς φεύγοντας παλαὶ πονηροὺς ὄντας (= εἰσί) if they show that the exiles were inveterate rascals L. 30.1, ψυ_χὴ ἀθάνατος φαίνεται οὖσα (= ἐστί) it seems that the soul is immortal P. Ph. 107c, ἀδικοῦντα (= ἀδικεῖ) ““φίλιππον ἐξήλεγξαI convicted Philip of acting unjustlyD. 18.136, ῥᾳδίως ἐλεγχθήσεται ψευδόμενος (= ψεύδεται) he will easily be convicted of lying 27. 19, ὁμολογούμεθα ἐλθόντες (= ἤλθομεν) I acknowledge that I came L. 4.7, αὐτῷ Κῦρον ἐπιστρατεύοντα (= ἐπιστρατεύει) ““πρῶτος ἤγγειλαI was the first to announce that Cyrus was taking the field against himX. A. 2.3.19.

a. Except with ἀγγέλλω announce (what is certain), verbs of saying or thinking rarely take the participle in prose, e.g. πᾶσι ταῦτα δεδογμένα ἡμῖν νόμιζε (= εὖ ἴσθι) think that this is our unanimous opinion P. R. 450a.

hide References (2 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (2):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 3.5.3
    • Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox, Overview of Greek Syntax, Verbs: Mood
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