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866. Denominative verbs are formed from the stems of nouns (substantives or adjectives). Verbs lacking such a noun-stem are made on the model of the ordinary denominative verb. The principal terminations are as follows:

1. -αω: derived chiefly from words with α_ stems (a few from words of the second declension). Verbs in -αω denote to do, to be , or to have, that which is expressed by the stem.

τι_μά-ω honour (τι_μή, stem τι_μα_-), ἀ_ριστά-ω breakfast (ἄ_ριστο-ν breakfast), τολμά-ω dare (τόλμα daring, stem τολμα_-), κομά-ω wear long hair (κόμη hair). κοιμά-ω, lull to sleep, has no primitive noun.

On -ιαω and -αω denoting a desire or a bodily condition, see 868 b.

2. -εω: derived chiefly from όε- stems (834 f), and thence extended to all kinds of stems. Verbs in -εω denote a condition or an activity, and are often intransitive.

οἰκέ-ω dwell (οἶκο-ς house, οἰκόε-), φιλέ-ω love (φίλο-ς dear, φιλόε-), ὑπηρετέω serve (ὑπηρέτης servant, ὑπηρετα_-), εὐτυχ-έ-ω am fortunate (εὐτυχής fortunate, εὐτυχεσ-), μι_σ-έ-ω hate (μῖσος hate, μι_σεσ-), σωφρον-έ-ω am temperate (σώφρων), μαρτυρ-έ-ω bear witness (μάρτυς, -υρ-ος).

a. Some εω-verbs from εσ-stems have older forms in -είω (624 a).

3. -οω: chiefly derived from ο-stems. Verbs in -οω are usually factitive, denoting to cause or to make.

δηλό-ω manifest, make clear (δῆλο-ς), δουλό-ω enslave (δοῦλο-ς), ζηλό-ω emulate (ζῆλο-ς emulation), ζημιό-ω punish (ζημία_ damage), μαστι_γό-ω whip (μάστιξ, -ι_γος whip). ἀρόω plough has no primitive.

On the formation of the present stem of verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω, see 522.

4. -ευω: derived from substantives from ευ-stems (607) and thence extended to other stems. ευω-verbs usually denote a condition, sometimes an activity.

βασιλεύ-ω am king, rule (βασιλεύ-ς), βουλεύ-ω counsel (βουλή), κινδυ_νεύ-ω venture, incur danger (κίνδυ_νο-ς), παιδεύ-ω educate (παῖς boy, girl), θεραπεύ-ω attend (θεράπων attendant).

5. -υ_ω (rare): from υ-stems, as δακρύ_-ω weep (δάκρυ tear). Cp. 608.

6. -οζω, -ιζω: derived originally from stems in δ or γ (as ἐλπίζω hope = ἐλπιδ-ῖω, ἁρπάζω seize = ἁρπαγ-ιω), and thence widely extended to other stems (cp. 623 δ, γ). Such verbs denote action.

γυμνάζω exercise (γυμνάς, -άδ-ος stripped, naked); ἀναγκάζω compel (ἀνάγκη necessity); ἀτι_μάζω dishonour (ἄτι_μος); βιάζομαι use force (βία_ force); θαυμάζω wonder (θαῦμα); φροντίζω take care (φροντίς); ὑβρίζω insult (ὕβρι-ς outrage); νομίζω consider (νόμο-ς custom, law); τειχίζω fortify (τεῖχ-ος wall, stem τειχεσ-); χαρίζομαι do a favour (χάρις, -ιτος favour).

a. Verbs in -ιζω and -ιαζω derived from proper names express an adoption of language, manners, opinions, or politics:

ἑλληνίζω speak Greek (Ἕλλην), βακχιάζω act like a bacchante (βακχιάς), λακωνίζω imitate Laconian manners (Λάκων), μηδίζω side with the Medes (Μῆδος).

b. Verbs in -εζω, -οζω, and -υζω are rare (πιέζω press, poet. δεσπόζω am lord, κοκκύζω cry cuckoo).

7. -αινω: originally from stems in -αν + [ιγλιδε]ω (518), but usually extended to other stems. See 620, III.

μελαίνω blacken (μέλα_ς black, μελαν-), εὐφραίνω gladden (εὔφρων glad, εὐφρον-), σημαίνω signify (σῆμα, σήματ-ος sign), χαλεπαίνω am angry (χαλεπό-ς hard, angry).

8. -υ_νω: from stems in υν + ῖω (519). The primitive words often show stems in υ. See 620, III.

βαθύ_νω deepen (βαθύ-ς deep), ταχύ_νω hasten (ταχύ-ς swift), αἰσχύ_νω disgrace (αἶσχ-ος shame), θαρρύ_νω encourage (θάρρ-ος courage).

9. On other denominatives in λω, νω, ρω, see 620, III; on inceptives see 526-528.

10. Parallel formations are frequent, often with different meanings.

ἀ_ριστάω take a midday meal, ἀ_ριστίζω give a midday meal; ἀτιμάω, (poet.) ἀτι_μόω, ἀτι_μάζω dishonour; δουλόω enslave, δουλεύω am a slave; εὐδαιμονέω am happy, εὐδαιμονίζω account happy, congratulate; θαρρέω am courageous, θαρρύ_νω encourage; ὁρκόω, ὁρκίζω make one swear an oath; ὁρμάω urge on, ὁρμαίνω (poet.) ponder; ὁρμέω lie at anchor, ὁρμίζω anchor trans. (ὅρμος anchorage); πολεμέω (πολεμίζω Epic) wage war, πολεμόω make hostile; σκηνάω put in shelter, mid. take up one's abode, σκηνέω am in camp, σκηνόω encamp, go into quarters; σωφρονέω am temperate, σωφρονίζω chasten; τυραννέω, τυραννεύω am absolute ruler, τυραννίζω take the part of absolute ruler, τυραννιάω (late) smack of tyranny. Cp. 531.

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