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838. Some suffixes have a special significance; of these the most important are given in 839-856. But suffixes commonly used with a special function (such as to denote agency, action, instrument, etc.) are not restricted to this function. Only a few have one function, as τερο to denote comparison.

a. The instrument may be viewed as the agent, as in ῥαι-σ-τήρ hammer, lit. smasher, from ῥαί-ω smash. τρο (863. 16) may express the agent, instrument, or place. Suffixes used to denote actions or abstract ideas often make concrete words, as τροφ-ή nurture and nourishment, ἀγγελ-ία_ message (cp. Eng. dwelling, clothing). πορθμεῖον means ferry, ferry-boat, ferryman's fee. Words originally denoting an agent have lost that meaning, as πα-τήρ father (orig. protector), and in many cases the original force is changed.


a. The primary suffixes τα_, τηρ, τορ, τρο, ευ, denoting the agent or

1. τα_ (nom. -τή-ς): κρι-τή-ς judge (κρί_νω decide, κρι-), κλέπ-τη-ς thief (κλέπ- steal), ποιη-τή-ς poet, i.e. maker (ποιέ-ω make), αὐλη-τή-ς flute-pl<*> (αὐλέ-ω play the flute), μαθ-η-τή-ς pupil (μανθάνω learn, μαθ-ε-), ἱκ-έ- suppliant (ἱκ-νέ-ομαι come, ἱκ-).

2. τηρ (nom. -τήρ): δο-τήρ giver (δί-δω-μι give, δο-, δω-), σω-τήρ saviour (σῳ save).

3. τορ (nom. -τωρ): ῥή-τωρ orator (ἐρέω shall say, ἐρ-, ῥε-), εἴ-ρη-κα h<*> spoken, κτίσ-τωρ founder (κτίζω found, κτιδ-), σημάντωρ comman<*> poet. (σημαίνω give a signal, σημαν-).

4. τρο (nom. -τρό-ς): ἰ_α_-τρό-ς physician (ἰ_ά_-ομαι heal).

5. ευ (nom. -εύ-ς): γραφ-εύ-ς writer (γράφ-ω write), τοκ-εύ-ς father (τί<*> beget, τεκ-).

b. The primary suffixes τριδ, τρια_, τειρα_, τιδ are feminine.

1. τριδ (nom. -τρίς): αὐλη-τρίς female flute-player.

2. τρια_ (nom. -τρια): ποιή-τρια poetess (late), ψάλ-τρια female harper (ψάλ<*> play the harp, ψαλ-).

3. τειρα_ (nom. -τειρα from τερ-ῖα): σώ-τειρα fem. of σω-τήρ, δό-τειρα fem. δο-τήρ.

4. τιδ (nom. -τις): ἱκ-ε-τις female suppliant fem. of ἱκ-έ-της.

c. The same root or verb-stem may have different suffixes denoting the agen<*> γεν-έ-της, γεν-ε-τήρ, γεν-έ-τωρ begetter; μαθ-η-τρίς, or μαθ-ή-τρια female pup fem. of μαθ-η-τής.

d. Words in -τηρ, -τρις, -ευς are oxytone. Words in -τωρ, -τειρα, -τρια ha<*> recessive accent. Words in -της are oxytone or paroxytone.

e. See also ον (nom. -ων) 861. 18.


a. Substantives denoting actions often express abstract idea and names of actions and verbal abstracts are often used co<*> cretely. The following suffixes (except μο, nominative -μό-ς, an ες, nominative -ος) form feminines; all are primary except ια_ i<*> some words.

1. τι (nom. -τι-ς): πίσ-τι-ς faith (πείθ-ω persuade, πιθ-), φά-τι-ς rumour (φη<*> say, φα-).

2. σι (nom. -σι-ς): λέξις style (λέγ-ω speak), ποίη-σι-ς poetry (ποιέ-ω make) φθί-σι-ς decay (φθί-ν-ω decay), δό-σι-ς act of giving or gift (δί-δω-μι giv<*> δο-, δω-), θέ-σι-ς placing (τί-θη-μι place, θε-, θη-), τά-σι-ς tension (fo<*> τṇ-σι-ς 35 b, from τείνω stretch, τεν-). σι is derived from τι after vowel (115).

3. σια_ (nom. -σία_): in substantives from verbs in -αζω out of -αδ-ῖω; a<*> δοκιμασία_ examination (δοκιμάζω examine, δοκ μαδ-).

4. τυ (nom. -τύ_-ς 863 a. 17): rare, poetic and dialectic, ἐδ-η-τύ_ς eating (poet<*> ἔδ-ω eat), βοη-τύ_-ς shouting (βοά-ω shout).

5. μο (nom. -μό-ς, masc.): διωγ-μό-ς pursuit (διώκ-ω pursue), πταρ-μό-ς sneez<*> ing (πτάρ-νυ-μαι sneeze). On θ-μο see 832, σ-μο 836, τ-μο 837. Cp 861. 1.

6. μα_ (nom. -μη): γνώ-μη knowledge (γι-γνώ-σκω know), φή-μη report, omen (φη-μί say), τι_-μή honour (poet. τί_-ω honour), μνή-μη memory (μι-μνῄ-σκω remind). See also 861. 1.

7. μα_ (nom. -μα^): τόλ-μα daring (τλῆ-ναι dare).

8. ες (nom. -ος, neut.): δέ-ος fear, ῥῖγ-ος cold.

9. ια_ (nom. -ία_): primitive, from verb-stems, as μαν-ία_ madness (μαίνομαι rage, μαν-). Denominative: ἡγεμον-ία_ sovereignty (ἡγεμών leader), εὐεργεσία kind service (εὐεργετ-ια from εὐεργέτης doer of good deeds). Without any noun-stem: πολιορκία_ siege (πολιορκέω besiege). Verbs in -ευω derived from substantives, as παιδεύ-ω educate (παῖς child), show abstracts in -εία_ for ε-ια_ (43): παιδεία_ education, στρατεία_ campaign (στρατεύομαι take the field), βασιλεία_ reign, kingdom (βασιλεύ-ω am king).

10. ο, α: see 859. 1, 2.

b. Many feminine substantives expressing the abstract notion of the adjective are derived from adjective stems (a few from substantive or verb stems). Many of these denominatives express quality, cp. Eng. -ness, -hood.

1. ια_ (nom. -ια^): from adjectives in -ης and -οος, -ους, as ἀλήθεια truth for ἀληθεσ-ια from ἀληθής true; ἔνδεια want for ἐνδεεσ-ια from ἐνδεής needy, 44 a, 292 d; εὔνοια kindness for εὐνοο-ια from εὐνοο-ς εὔνους kind.

2. ια_ (nom. -ία_): εὐδαιμον-ία_ happiness (εὐδαίμων happy), συμμαχία_ alliance (σύμμαχος fighting along with), σοφ-ία_ wisdom (σοφό-ς wise). Since τ becomes ς before ια_ we have ἀθανασία_ immortality (ἀθάνατο-ς immortal). Cp. 859. 6.

3. συνα_ (nom. -σύνη): δικαιο-σύνη justice (δίκαιο-ς just). Abstracts in -συνη are properly fem. of adj. in -συνος, as γηθο-σύνη joy (γηθό-συνος joyful). -οσύνη by analogy in μαντ-οσύνη art of divination (μάντι-ς seer). See 865. 7.

4. τητ (nom. -της): φιλό-της, -τητος friendship (φίλο-ς friend), ἰσό-της, -τητος equality (ἴσο-ς equal), νεό-της youth (νέο-ς young), παχύ-της thickness (παχύ-ς thick).

5. αδ (nom. -άς): abstract substantives of number, as τρι-άς, -άδος triad (τρεῖς). μον-άς, -άδος unit (μόνο-ς alone, single). See also 863 b. 8.

c. Some neuter abstracts express quality: τάχ-ος speed (ταχ-ύ-ς swift), εὖρ-ος width (εὐρ-ύ-ς broad). See 840 a. 8.

d. A feminine adjective is used substantively in poet. πινυτή wisdom from πινυτό-ς wise; with recessive accent in ἔχθρα_ enmity from ἐχθρό-ς hostile, θέρμη warmth from θερμό-ς warm.

e. Some compound adjectives in -ής yield (by analogy) abstracts in -ια_ not in -εια^; as ἀτυχία_ misfortune from ἀ-τυχ-ής unfortunate. Fluctuation often occurs, as in κακοήθεια κακοηθία_ malignity from κακο-ήθης ill-disposed; Old Attic ἀληθεία_ ( = Ion. ἀληθείη) for ἀλήθεια.


The result or effect of an action is expressed by the primary suffixes

1. ες (nom. -ος, neut.): γέν-ος race, family, stem γεν-εσ- (γί-γν-ομαι am born, ἐ-γεν-όμην, γεν-), τέκ-ος child, stem τεκ-εσ- (τίκτω bring forth, τεκ-), ψεῦδ-ος lie, stem ψευδ-εσ- (ψεύδ-ω deceive).

2. ματ (nom. -μα, neut.): γράμ-μα thing written (γράφ-ω write), νόη-μα thought (νοέω think), ποίη-μα poem (ποιέ-ω make), δέρ-μα hide (δέρ-ω flay), τμῆ-μα section (τέμ-νω cut, τεμ-, τμη-, 128 a).


The instrument or means of an action is expressed by the primary suffixes

1. τρο (nom. -τρο-ν, neut.): ἄρο-τρο-ν plough (ἀρό-ω plough), λύ-τρο-ν ransom (λύ_-ω release, λυ_^-), σεῖ-σ-τρο-ν rattle (σεί-ω shake, 624 a), δί-δακ-τρο-ν teacher's pay (διδάσκω teach, διδαχ-), λου-τρό-ν bath (bathing-water; λού-ω wash).

2. θ-ρο (nom. -θρο-ν, neut.): κλεῖ-θρο-ν bar for closing a door (κλεί-ω shut, 832).

3. τρα_ (nom. -τρα_, fem.): μάκ-τρα_ kneading-trough (μάττω knead, μαγ-), ῥή-τρα_ compact (ἐρέω ἐρῶ shall say, ἐρ-, ῥε-), χύ-τρα_ pot (χέω pour, χυ-).

4. τηρ-ιο- (nom. -τηρ-ιο-ν, neut.): in a few words, as πο-τήρ-ιο-ν cup (πί_νω drink, πο- 529); θελκ-τήρ-ιο-ν spell, charm (θέλγ-ω charm). See 858. 14.

5. ειο (rare; nom. -εῖον, neut.): τροφεῖα pay for rearing. See 863 a. 8.

6. ρο (nom. -ρό-ν, neut.): πτ-ε-ρό-ν wing (πέτ-ομαι fly).


a. The person concerned or occupied with anything is denoted by a denominative formed by one of the following secondary suffixes:

1. ευ (nom. -εύ-ς, masc.): γραμ-ματ-εύ-ς secretary (γράμμα, -ατος anything written), ἱερ-εύ-ς priest (ἱερό-ς sacred), ἱππ-εύ-ς horseman (ἵππο-ς horse), χαλκεύ-ς coppersmith (χαλκό-ς copper).

2. τα_ (nom. -τη-ς, masc.): ναύ-τη-ς sailor (ναῦ-ς ship), τοξό-της bowman (τόξο-ν bow), οἰκέ-της house-servant (οἶκο-ς house, 834 f), δεσμώ-τη-ς prisoner (834 h).

N.—By analogy are formed: εὐν-έτη-ς bed-fellow (εὐνή bed), following οἰκέτη-ς; ὁπλ-ί_τη-ς heavy-armed soldier (ὅπλο-ν, ὅπλα armour) following πολί_-τη-ς from older πόλι_-ς; στρατι-ώτη-ς soldier (στρατιά_ army) following δεσμώ-τη-ς. See 834 g.

b. The following secondary suffixes form feminine substantives:

1. ια_ (nom. -ια^): corresponding to masculines in -εύ-ς, as ἱέρεια priestess for ἱερ-εῦ-ια (ἱερ-εύ-ς priest), βασίλεια queen (βασιλ-εύ-ς king). See -αινα below.

2. ιδ (nom. -ίς): φαρμακ-ίς sorceress (φάρμακο-ν charm, poison, φαρμακ-εύ-ς sorcerer), καπηλ-ίς female huckster (καπηλό-ς huckster), φυλακ-ίς female guard (φύλαξ).

3. τιδ (nom. -τις): corresponding to masculines in -τη-ς: οἰκέ-τις house-maid (οἰκέ-της), πολῖ-τις female citizen (πολί_-της).

4. ιττα_, ισσα_ (nom. -ιττα, -ισσα): from ῖα added to stems in τ or κ (112, 114), as θῆττα female serf from θητ-ῖα (θής, θητ-ός serf), Κίλισσα Cilician woman from Κιλικ-ῖα (Κίλιξ Cilician); later, by analogy, βασίλισσα queen.

5. αινα_ (nom. -αινα) corresponding to masculines in -ων: λέ-αινα lioness (λέ-ων lion), θεράπ-αινα handmaid (θεράπ-ων attendant), Λάκ-αινα woman of Laconia (Λάκ-ων a Laconian). By analogy, in ο stems: λύκ-αινα she-wolf (λύκο-ς). -αινα stands for -αν-ῖα, -αν being a weak form of -ων (833 e, 35 b).

N.—Names of dealers in anything usually end in -πώλης, -ου; fem. -πωλις, -ιδος (πωλέω sell), as βιβλιο-πώλης bookseller (βιβλίο-ν book), σι_το-πώλης graindealer (σῖτο-ς grain), ἀρτό-πωλις bread-woman (ἄρτο-ς bread). Cp. also καπηλίς under ιδ.


Gentiles are denominative nouns denoting belonging to or coming from a particular country, nation, or city. Gentiles are formed from proper nouns by secondary suffixes.

1. ευ (nom. -εύς, gen. -έως, masc.), ιδ (nom. -ίς, gen. ίδ-ος, fem.):

Πλαταιεύς -έως, Πλαταιΐς -ίδος a Plataean ( Πλάταια); Ἐρετριεύς an Eretrian ( Ἐρέτρια); Μεγαρεύς, Μεγαρίς a Megarian (τὰ Μέγαρα); Αἰολεύς Aeolian (Αἴολος, mythical ancestor of the Aeolians).

a. -ίς (-ίδος) may denote a land or a dialect: Δωρίς (γῆ) Doris; Αἰολίς (γλῶττα) the Aeolic dialect.

2. τα_ (nom. -τη-ς, masc.), τιδ (nom. -τις, fem.): Τεγεά_-της, Τεγεᾶ-τις of Tegea ( Τεγέα_); Σπαρτ-ιά_-της, Σπαρτ-ιᾶ-τις of Sparta ( Σπάρτα_); Αἰγι_νή-της, Αἰγι_νῆ-τις of Aegina ( Αἴγι_να); Συβαρ-ί_-της, Συβαρ-ῖ-τις Sybarite ( Σύβαρις); Σικελι-ώ-της, Σικελι-ῶ-τις Siciliote ( Σικελία_).

a. The endings -ι_της, -ωτης are due to analogy; see 843 a. N.

3. Other gentiles, properly adjectives, end in -ιος, -ια_, as Ἀθηναῖο-ς, -αία_ of Athens (αἱ Ἀθῆναι), Μι_λήσ-ιο-ς for Μι_λητ-ιο-ς of Miletus (Μί_λητος), Ὀπούντιο-ς of Opus (Ὀποῦς); (ικός, (ικά_, as Ἰων-ικός Ionic (Ἴων-ες Ionians); νό-ς, νή preceded by α_η), ι_, as Σαρδι-α_νό-ς of Sardis (Σάρδεις), Λαμψακ-ηνό-ς of Lampsacus (Λάμψακος), Βυζαντ-ῖνο-ς Byzantine (Βυζάντιον). See 863 b. 12.


Patronymics, or denominative proper names denoting descent from a father or ancestor, are formed from proper names of persons by means of the following suffixes:

1. δα_ (nom. -δη-ς, masc.), δ (nom. -ς, fem.):

Βορεα?́-δη-ςson of Boreasfem. Βορεα?́-ς, -δοςfrom Βορέα_-ς

Stems in α_ shorten α_ to α; from such forms arose

2. αδα_ (nom. -άδη-ς, masc.), αδ (nom. -άς, fem.):

Θεστι-άδη-ςson of Thestiusfem. Θεστι-άς, -άδοςfrom Θέστιο-ς

From this type arose a new formation:

3. ιαδα_ (nom. -ιάδη-ς, masc.), ιαδ (nom. -ιάς, fem.):

Φερητ-ιάδη-ςson of Pheresfem. Φερητ-ιάς, -ιάδ-οςfrom Φέρης (-ητος
Περση-ϊάδη-ςson of Perseus(fem. Περση-ΐς, -ίδ-οςfrom Περσεύ-ς
Τελαμων-ιάδη-ςson of Telamonfrom Τελαμών (-ῶνος

4. ιδα_ (nom. -ίδη-ς, masc.), :ιδ (nom. -ίς, fem.):

Τανταλ-ίδη-ςson of Tantalusfem. Τανταλ-ίς, -ίδ-οςfrom Τάνταλο-ς
Κεκροπ-ίδη-ςson of Cecropsfem. Κεκροπ-ίς, -ίδ-οςfrom Κέκροψ (-οπος
Οἰνε-ίδη-ςson of Oeneusfem. Οἰνη-ΐς, -ίδ-οςfrom Οἰνεύ-ς
Λητο-ΐδη-ςson of Letofem. Λητω-ΐς, -ίδ-οςfrom Λητώ (279

Stems in ο drop ο; stems in ευ (ηυ) drop υ; stems in οι (ωι) drop ι.

5. ι_ον or ι^ων (poetic and rare; nom. -ί_ων, masc.):

Κρον-ί_ων son of Cronus (also Κρον-ίδη-ς), gen. Κρον-ί_ον-ος or Κρον-ι?́ων-ος according to the metre, from Κρόνο-ς.

6. ιωνα_ or ι_να_ (poetic and rare; nom. -ιώνη or ί_νη, fem.):

Ἀκρισ-ιώνη daughter of Ἀκρίσιο-ςἈδρηστ-ί_νη daughter of Ἄδρηστο-ς

846. Variations occur especially in poetry: a. Hom. Πηλε-ίδη-ς, Πηλε-ΐδη-ς, Πηλη-ϊάδη-ς, and Πηλε-ΐων, son of Πηλεύ-ς; Ἀτρε-ίδη-ς, Ἀτρε-ΐδη-ς, and Ἀτρε-ΐων, son of Ἀτρεύ-ς.

b. Two patronymic endings: Ταλα-ϊ_ον-ίδη-ς son of Ταλαό-ς.

c. The stem drops or adds a syllable: Δευκαλ-ίδη-ς son of Δευκαλίων, -ίων-ος; Λαμπ-ετ-ίδη-ς son of Λάμπο-ς.

d. -ιδης is used in comic formations: κλεπτ-ίδη-ς son of a thief.

e. -νδα_ς occurs in the dialects, as Ἐπαμεινώνδα_-ς Epaminondas.

f. -ιος, -ειος, may indicate descent, as Τελαμώνιε παῖ oh son of Telamon, Τυνδαρεία_ θυγάτηρ daughter of Tyndareus; cp. Tennyson's “Niobean daughter.”

847. A patronymic may include the father, as Πεισιστρατ ίδαι the Peisistratidae (Peisistratus and his sons).

848. Most genuine patronymics are poetical and belong to the older language. In the classical period patrony mics rarely indicate descent in the case of historical persons; as Εὐρι_πίδης, Ἀριστείδης.

849. Metronymics denote descent from the mother, as Δα_να-ΐδη-ς son of Δα^νάη, Φι_λυρ-ίδη-ς son of Φι^λύρα_.

850. Relationship is sometimes denoted by the suffixes ιδεο (nom. -ιδοῦ-ς son of) and ιδεα_ (nom. -ιδῆ daughter of); as ἀδελφ-ιδοῦ-ς nephew, ἀδελφ-ιδῆ niece (ἀδελφό-ς brother).


851. Place may be expressed by the secondary suffixes

1. ιο (nom. -ιο-ν, neut.): Διονύ_σιον (scil. ἱερόν) temple of Dionysus, Ἥραιον Heraeum.

Also -ε-ιο (nom. -εῖο-ν, neut.): from substantives in -εύ-ς and by extension in others; as χαλκε-ῖο-ν forge (χαλκ-εύ-ς coppersmith), Θησε-ῖον Thesēum (Θησεύ-ς), λογ-εῖο-ν place for speaking (λόγο-ς speech), μουσ-εῖο-ν seat of the Muses (μοῦσα muse), Ὀλυμπι-εῖο-ν Olympiēum (Ὀλύμπιο-ς Olympian Zeus).

2. τηρ-ιο (nom. -τήρ-ιο-ν, neut.): derived from substantives in -τήρ (or -τής); as ἀκροα_τήρ-ιο-ν auditorium (ἀκροα_τήρ or ἀκροα_τής hearer), ἐργαστήρ-ιο-ν workshop (ἐργαστήρ workman), βουλευτήριον senate house (βουλευτήρ or βουλευτής councillor, senator). See 863 a. 8.

3. ων (nom. -ών, gen. -ῶν-ος, masc.): ἀνδρ-ών apartment for men (ἀνήρ, ἀνδρ-ός man), ἱππ-ών stable (ἵππο-ς horse), παρθεν-ών maiden's apartment, Parthenon, temple of Pallas (παρθένο-ς maiden), οἰν-ών wine-cellar (οἶνο-ς wine), ἀμπελ-ών vineyard (ἄμπελο-ς vine). Forms in -εών occur, as περιστερ-εών dove-cote (περιστερά_ dove), οἰνεών.

4. ι_τιδ (nom. -ῖτις, fem.): added to ων, ἀνδρων-ῖτις apartment for men, γυναικωνῖτις apartment for women.

5. ωνια_ (nom. -ωνιά_, fem.): ῥοδ-ωνιά_ rose-bed (ῥόδο-ν rose).

6. τρα_ (rare; nom. -τρα_, fem.): ὀρχή-σ-τρα_ dancing-place (ὀρχέ-ομαι dance), παλαί-σ-τρα_ wrestling-ground (παλαί-ω wrestle). Cp. 836.


852. Diminutives are denominatives formed from the stems of substantives by various secondary suffixes.

1. ιο (nom. -ιο-ν, neut.): παιδ-ίο-ν little child (παῖς, παιδ-ός), ὀρνί_θ-ιο-ν small bird (ὄρνι_ς, ὄρνι_θος), ἀσπίδ-ιο-ν small shield (ἀσπίς, ἀσπίδ-ος).

N.—Trisyllabic words are paroxytone if the first syllable is long by nature or position.

2. ιδ-ιο (nom. -ίδιο-ν, neut.): derived from such words as ἀσπίδ-ιο-ν; as ξιφ-ίδιο-ν dagger (ξίφος sword, stem ξιφεσ-), βο-ίδιο-ν small cow (βοῦ-ς), οἰκί_διο-ν small house, οἰκι ¨ ιδιον (οἰκία_), ἰχθύ_διο-ν small fish (ἰχθύ_ς). See 833 b.

3. αρ-ιο (nom. -άριον, neut.): παιδ-άριο-ν little child.

4. υδ-ριο (nom. -ύδριον, neut.): μελ-ύδριο-ν little song (μέλος).

5. υλλιο (nom. -ύλλιον, neut.): ἐπ-ύλλιο-ν little epic or cersicle (ἔπος).

6. ισκο, ισκα_ (nom. -ίσκος, masc., -ίσκη, fem.): ἀνθρωπ-ίσκο-ς manikin, παιδ-ίσκο-ς young boy, παιδ-ίσκη young girl. From this comes -ισκ-ιο in ἀσπιδ-ίσκιο-ν small shield.

853. Many other diminutives occur, as ακνα_: in πιθάκνη wine-jar (πίθος); ιδ, ι_δ: in ἁμαξίς, -ίδος small wagon (ἅμαξα), νησί_ς, -ῖδος islet (νῆσο-ς); ιδ-ευ: of the young of animals, as λυκ-ιδεύς wolf's whelp (λύκο-ς), also ὑϊδεύς son's son, grandson (υἱός); ιχο: ὀρτάλιχος young bird (ὀρταλίς) chick; ιχνα_: κυλίχνη (and κυλίχνιον, κυλιχνίς) small cup (κύλιξ). Rare or late are -α_κίδιον, -ά_σιον, -άφιον, -ιδάριον, -ισκάριον, ιον, 861. 19, -ύλος, and over 25 others. See λο, 860. 1.

854. Diminutives are often combined: παιδ-ισκ-άριον stripling, μειράκ-ιον, μειρακ-ίσκος, μειρακ-ύλλ-ιον, μειρακ-υλλ-ίδιον stripling (μεῖραξ lass), χλαν-ισκ-ίδιον cloaklet (χλανίς), ζῳδάριον insect (ζῷον animal).

855. Some words, especially such as denote parts of the body, are diminutive in form, but not in meaning; as κρα_νίον skull, θηρίον beast ( = θήρ), πεδίον plain (πέδον ground), all in Homer, who has no diminutives. Diminutives often employed tend to lose their diminutive value.

856. Diminutives may express affection, familiarity, daintiness, and sometimes pity or contempt (cp. dar-ling, lord-ling). See the examples under 852, and also πατρ-ίδιον daddy (πατήρ), ἀδελφ-ίδιο-ν dear little brother, Σωκρατ-ίδιον dear Socky, ἀνθρώπ-ιον manikin. Some endings often have an ironical force, as πλούτ-α_ξ rich churl, γάστρ-ων fat-belly.

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