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Chapter V


The Infinitive.

741. The infinitive is originally a verbal noun, expressing the simple idea of the verb. As a verb, it has voices and tenses; it has a subject (expressed or understood), which may define its number and person; it may have an object and other adjuncts, and, further, it is qualified by adverbs, and not by adjectives. It may have ἄν in a potential sense. It thus expresses the verbal idea with much greater definiteness than the corresponding substantives; compare, for example, πράττειν and πρᾶξαι with πρᾶξις, as expressions of the idea of doing.

742. The origin of the infinitive in a verbal noun is beyond question. In the oldest Sanskrit certain verbal nouns in the dative express purpose, that is, the object to or for which something is done, and are almost identical in form with the equivalent infinitives in the older Greek. Thus vidma/ne, dative of vidman, knowledge (from root vid), may mean for knowing or in order to know (old English for to know); and in Homer we have ϝίδμεναι (= Attic ἰδεῖν) from the same root ϝιδ. So Sanskrit dAva/ne, dative of dAvan, giving (from root da), is represented in Greek by the Cyprian δόϝεναι (= Attic δοῦναι) from root δο.1 It is safe to assume, therefore, that the Greek infinitive was originally developed in a similar way, chiefly from the dative of a primitive verbal noun; that in the growth of the language this case-form became obscured, its origin as a dative was forgotten, and it came to be used for other cases of the verbal noun, especially the accusative; that it was allowed to take an object, like the corresponding verb, and afterwards a subject (in the accusative) to make the agent more distinct; that in course of time, as its relation to the verb became closer, it developed tenses like those of the verb, so as to appear as a regular mood of the verb. The final step, taken when the use of the definite article was established, was to allow the half-noun and half-verb to have the article and so be declined like a noun in four cases, while it still retained its character as a verb. This last step was taken after Homer; but the earlier stages were already passed, more or less decidedly, before the Homeric period, so that they cannot be traced historically. Thus, although the infinitive in Homer retained some of its uses as a dative more distinctly than the later infinitive, it is hardly possible that those who used the Homeric language retained any consciousness of the original dative; for the infinitive was already established as an accusative and a nominative, it had formed its various tenses to express present, past, and future time, and it could even be used with ἄν (683). Indeed, the condition in which the infinitive appears in indirect discourse in Homer seems utterly inconsistent with any conscious survival of its force as a dative (see examples in 683).

743. The later addition of the article enlarged the uses of the infinitive and extended it to new constructions, especially to the use with prepositions. It thus gained a new power of taking adjuncts, not merely single words, but whole dependent clauses. (See examples in 806.) In all the constructions which were developed before the article came into use with the infinitive, as when it is the subject or the object of a verb, or follows adjectives or nouns, the infinitive continued to be used regularly without the article, although even in these constructions the article might be added to emphasise the infinitive more especially as a noun, or to enable it to carry adjuncts which would otherwise be cumbrous; in other words, all constructions in which the original force of the noun had become obscured or forgotten before the article began to be used generally remained in their original form. On the other hand, newer expressions, in which the infinitive was distinctly felt as a noun in the structure of the sentence, generally added the article to designate the case.

744. The subject of the infinitive, if expressed, is in the accusative. The most indefinite infinitive, so far as it is a verb, must at least have a subject implied; but as the infinitive has no person or number in itself, its subject can remain more obscure than that of a finite verb. Thus καλόν ἐστιν ἀποθανεῖν, it is glorious to die, may imply a subject in any number or person, according to the context, while ἀποθνῄσκεις or ἀπέθανε is restricted to thou or he as its subject. Still, in the former case, ἀποθανεῖν must have an implied subject in the accusative; and if this is not pointed out by the context, we can supply τινά or τινάς, as sometimes appears when a predicate word agrees with the omitted subject, as in φιλάνθρωπον εἶναι δεῖ (sc. τινά), one must be humane, ISOC. ii. 15, and δρῶντας ἥδιον θανεῖν (sc. τινάς), it is sweeter to die acting, EUR. Hel. 814.The infinitive of indirect discourse, which seems to have been developed originally by the Greek language, must always refer to a definite subject, as it represents a finite verb in a definite mood, tense, number, and person. Other infinitives, both with and without the article, may have a subject whenever the sense demands it, although sometimes the meaning of the leading verb makes it impossible to express an independent subject, as in πειρᾶται μανθάνειν, he tries to learn. In general, when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject or object of the leading verb, or when it has been clearly expressed elsewhere in the sentence, it is not repeated with the infinitive.2


Infinitive without the Article: Infinitive as Subject, Predicate, or Appositive.

745. The infinitive may be the subject nominative of a finite verb, or the subject accusative of another infinitive. It is especially common as subject of an impersonal verb or of ἐστί. It may also be a predicate nominative or accusative, and it may stand in apposition to a noun in the nominative or accusative. E.g. Συνέβη αὐτῷ ἐλθεῖν, it happened to him to go. Οὐκ ἔνεστι τοῦτο ποιῆσαι, it is not possible to do this. Ἀδύνατόν ἐστι τοῦτο ποιῆσαι. Ἐξῆν αὐτῷ μένειν, he might have remained (i.e. to remain was possible for him). Δεῖ μένειν. Οὐ μὴν γάρ τι κακὸν βασιλευέμεν, for it is no bad thing to be a king. Od. i. 392. Ἀεὶ γὰρ ἡβᾷ τοῖς γέρουσιν εὖ μαθεῖν. AESCH. Ag. 584. Πολὺ γὰρ ῥᾷον ἔχοντας φυλάττειν κτήσασθαι πάντα πέφυκεν. DEM. ii. 26. (Compare i. 23, quoted in 790.) Ἡδὺ πολλοὺς ἐχθροὺς ἔχειν; Id. xix. 221. Δοκεῖ οἰκονόμου ἀγαθοῦ εἶναι εὖ οἰκεῖν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ οἶκον. XEN. Oec. i. 2. Φησὶ δεῖν τοῦτο ποιῆσαι, he says that it is necessary to do this. (Here ποιῆσαι as accusative is subject of δεῖν.) Τὸ γνῶναι ἐπιστήμην που λαβεῖν ἐστιν, to learn is to acquire knowledge (pred. nom.). PLAT. Theaet. 209E. Ξυνέβη τοὺς Ἀθηναίους θορυβηθῆναι, “it chanced that the Athenians fell into confusion.” THUC. v. 10. Οὐ φάσκων ἄνεκτον εἶναι ξυγκεῖσθαι κρατεῖν βασιλέα τῶν πόλεων. Id. viii. 52. (Here κρατεῖν βασιλέα τῶν πόλεων is subject of ξυγκεῖσθαι, which is subject of εἶναι, the whole being object of φάσκων.) Εἷς οἰωνὸς ἄριστος, ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ πάτρης, one omen is best, to fight for our country. Il. xii. 243.

For the subject infinitive in indirect discourse, see 751.


Infinitive as Object.

746. The infinitive may be the object of a verb, generally appearing as the accusative of the direct object, sometimes as the accusative of kindred meaning. Here belong (1) the infinitive after verbs of wishing, commanding, and the like (not in indirect discourse), and (2) the infinitive in indirect discourse as the object of verbs of saying and thinking.

For the infinitive in indirect discourse, see 751.


Object Infinitive not in Indirect Discourse.

747. The verbs which take the ordinary object infinitive are in general the same in Greek as in English. Any verb whose action directly implies another action or state as its object, if this object is to be expressed by a verb and not by a noun, may take the infinitive.

Such are verbs signifying to wish, ask, advise, entreat, exhort, command, persuade, compel, teach, learn, accustom, cause, intend, begin, attempt, effect, permit, decide, dare, prefer, choose; those expressing willingness, unwillingness, eagerness, caution, neglect, danger, postponement, forbidding, hindrance, escape, etc.; and all implying ability, fitness, desert, qualification, sufficiency, necessity, or their opposites. E.g.

Διδάσκουσιν αὐτὸν βάλλειν, they teach him to shoot. Ἔμαθον τοῦτο ποιῆσαι, they learned to do this. Βούλεται ἐλθεῖν. Παραινοῦμέν σοι πείθεσθαι. Αἱροῦνται πολεμεῖν. πόλις κινδυνεύει διαφθαρῆναι, the city is in danger of being destroyed. Δύναται ἀπελθεῖν. Τοῖς ξυμμάχοις ἔφραζον ἰέναι ἐς τὸν Ἰσθμόν, “they told the allies to go to the Isthmus.” THUC. iii. 15. Δέομαι ὑμῶν συγγνώμην μοι ἔχειν. Εἶπε στρατηγοὺς ἑλέσθαι, he proposed to choose generals. Ἀπαγορεύουσιν αὐτοῖς μὴ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι, they forbid them to do this (815, THUC. 1). Τί κωλύσει αὐτὸν βαδίζειν ὅποι βούλεται; what will prevent him from marching whither he pleases? Ἀξιῶ λαμβάνειν τοῦτο, I claim the right to take this. Ἀξιοῦται θανεῖν, he is thought to deserve death. Οὐ πέφυκε δουλεύειν, he is not born to be a slave. Ἀναβάλλεται τοῦτο ποιεῖν, he postpones doing this.

Λαοὺς δ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδης ἀπολυμαίνεσθαι ἄνωγεν, “and the son of Atreus ordered the hosts to purify themselves.” Il. i. 313. Βούλομ᾽ ἐγὼ λαὸν σόον ἔμμεναι ἀπολέσθαι, I wish that the people may be safe, rather than that they perish. Il. i. 117. Ἔπειθεν αὐτὸν πορεύεσθαι. XEN. An. vi. 2, 13. Ἔδοξε πλεῖν τὸν Ἀλκιβιάδην, “it was decided that Alcibiades should sail.” THUC. vi. 29. Φυλακὴν εἶχε μήτ᾽ ἐκπλεῖν μηδένα μήτ᾽ ἐσπλεῖν, he kept guard against any one's sailing out or in (815, THUC. 1). Id. ii. 69.Τί δῆτα μέλλεις μὴ οὐ γεγωνίσκειν τὸ πᾶν;” “why do you hesitate to speak out the whole?” AESCH. Prom. 627 .

This use of the infinitive is too familiar to need more illustration. The tenses commonly used are the present and aorist (87), for examples of which see 96; for the perfect see 109 and 110; for the exceptional future see 113; and for the infinitive with ἄν (seldom used in this construction) see 211. For μή and μὴ οὐ with the infinitive (as used above) see 815-817.

748. The poets, especially Homer, allow an infinitive after many verbs which commonly do not take this construction. The meaning of the verb, however, makes the sense clear. E.g. Ὀδύρονται οἶκόνδε νέεσθαι, they mourn (i.e. long) to go home. Il. ii. 290. Ἐπευφήμησαν Ἀχαιοὶ αἰδεῖσθαι ἱερῆα, the Achaeans shouted with applause, (commanding) that they should reverence the priest. Il. i. 22. Ὄφρα τις ἐρρίγῃσι κακὰ ῥέξαι, that one may shudder (dread) to do evil. Il. iii. 353. Ἕκτορα μεῖναι μοῖρα πέδησεν, Fate bound (fettered) Hector to remain. Il. xxii. 5.

For the infinitive of direct object after verbs of fearing and caution, see 373. For the infinitive (not in indirect discourse) after χράω and other verbs meaning to give an oracle, see 98.

749. When a noun and a verb (especially ἐστί) form an expression which is equivalent to any of the verbs above mentioned (747), they may take the infinitive. Some other expressions with a similar force may have the infinitive. E.g. Ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ πάντας ἀπελθεῖν. Κίνδυνος ἦν αὐτῷ παθεῖν τι. Ὄκνος ἐστί μοι τοῦτο ποιῆσαι. Φόβος ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ἐλθεῖν. Οὐ μάντις εἰμὶ τἀφανῆ γνῶναι, I am not enough of a prophet to decide, etc. EUR. Hipp. 346. (Here ability is implied in μάντις εἰμί.) Ἅμαξα ἐν αὐταῖς ἦν, κώλυμα οὖσα (τὰς πύλαςπροσθεῖναι, a wagon, which prevented them from shutting the gates. THUC. iv. 67.So ἐπεγένετο δὲ ἄλλοις τε ἄλλοθι κωλύματα μὴ αὐξηθῆναι, “obstacles to their increase.” Id. i. 16. (See 815, Id. 1.) Τοῖς στρατιώταις ὁρμὴ ἐνέπεσε ἐκτειχίσαι τὸ χωρίον. Id. iv. 4. Τὸ ἀσφαλὲς καὶ μενειν καὶ ἀπελθεῖν αἱ νῆες παρέξουσιν, “safety both to remain and to depart.” Id. vi. 18. Ἔχοντα τιθασεύεσθαι φύσιν, capable by nature of being tamed (=πεφυκότα τιθασεύεσθαι). PLAT. Polit. 264A. Τίς μηχανὴ μὴ οὐχὶ πάντα καταναλωθῆναι εἰς τὸ τεθνάναι; i.e. how can it be effected that all things shall not be destroyed in death? Plat. Phaed. 72D. (See 815, 2) Δέδοικα μὴ πολλὰ καὶ χαλεπὰ εἰς ἀνάγκην ἔλθωμεν ποιεῖν, “lest we may come to the necessity of doing.” DEM. i. 15. Ὥρα ἀπιέναι, it is time to go away (like χρὴ ἀπιέναι, we must go away). PLAT. Ap. 42A. Ἐλπίδας ἔχει τοῦτο ποιῆσαι (=ἐλπίζει τοῦτο ποιῆσαι), he hopes to do this. But ἐλπὶς τοῦ ἑλεῖν, THUC. ii. 56(798). Οἱ δὲ ζῶντες αἴτιοι θανεῖν, “and the living are those who caused them to die.” SOPH. Ant. 1173.We might also have αἴτιοι τοῦ τούτους θανεῖν or αἴτιοι τὸ τούτους θανεῖν. (See 101.) So in phrases like πολλοῦ (or μικροῦ) δέω ποιεῖν τι, I want much (or little) of doing anything; παρὰ μικρὸν ἦλθον ποιεῖν τι, they came within a little of doing anything; where the idea of ability, inability, or sufficiency appears: so in THUC. vii. 70, βραχὺ γὰρ ἀπέλιπον διακόσιαι γενέσθαι. So ἐμποδὼν τούτῳ ἐστὶν ἐλθεῖν (=κωλύει τοῦτον ἐλθεῖν), it prevents him from going; where τοῦ ἐλθεῖν may be used (807).

The infinitive depending on a noun is generally an adnominal genitive with the article τοῦ. See the examples above, and 798.

750. In laws, treaties, proclamations, and formal commands, the infinitive is often used in the leading sentences, depending on some word like ἔδοξε, it is enacted, or κελεύεται, it is commanded; which may be either expressed in a preceding sentence or understood. E.g. Ταμίας δὲ τῶν ἱερῶν χρημάτων αἱρεῖσθαι μὲν ἐκ τῶν μεγίστων τιμημάτων: τὴν δὲ αἵρεσιν τούτων καὶ τὴν δοκιμασίαν γίγνεσθαι καθάπερ τῶν στρατηγῶν ἐγίγνετο, and (it is enacted) that treasurers of the sacred funds be chosen, etc. Leg. 759E. So in most of the laws (genuine or spurious) standing as quotations in the text of the orators, as in DEM. xxiii. 22: δικάζειν δὲ τὴν ἐν Ἀρείῳ πάγῳ φόνου καὶ τραύματος ἐκ προνοίας, κ.τ.λ. See AR. Av. 1661. Ἔτη δὲ εἶναι τὰς σπονδὰς πεντήκοντα, “and that the treaty shall continue fifty years.” THUC. v. 18. Ἀκούετε λεῴ: τοὺς ὁπλίτας νυνμενὶ ἀνελομένους θὤπλ᾽ ἀπιέναι πάλιν οἴκαδε. AR. Av. 448.


Infinitive in Indirect Discourse.

751. The infinitive in indirect discourse is generally the object of a verb of saying or thinking or some equivalent expression. It may also be the subject of a passive verb of this class (as λέγεται), or of such a verb as φαίνεται, it appears, or δοκεῖ, it seems (see 754). Here each tense of the infinitive represents the corresponding tense of the indicative (with or without ἄν) or the optative (with ἄν). (See 664, 2.)

For examples see 683 and 689. For the various tenses of the infinitive with ἄν, representing the indicative or optative with ἄν, see 204-210.

752. Verbs of hoping, expecting, promising, swearing, and a few others of like meaning, form an intermediate class between this construction and that of 747. For examples of the infinitive (in both constructions) after these verbs, see 136.

753. 1. Of the three common verbs signifying to say, φημί is regularly followed by the infinitive in indirect discourse, εἶπον by ὅτι or ὡς and the indicative or optative, while λέγω allows either construction. The active voice of λέγω, however, generally has ὅτι or ὡς.

2. Exceptional cases of ὅτι or ὡς after φημί are very rare and strange: one occurs in LYS. vii. 19, ὅς φησιν ὡς ἐγὼ μὲν παρειστήκειν οἱ δ᾽ οἰκέται ἐξέτεμνον τὰ πρέμνα. See also XEN. Hell. vi. 3, 7 , and PLAT. Gorg. 487 D (where a clause with ὅτι precedes φῄς).

3. Cases of εἶπον with the infinitive of indirect discourse are less rare, but always exceptional. See Il. xxiv. 113, Il. xviii. 9, quoted in 683; HDT. ii. 30; THUC. vii. 35; PLAT. Gorg. 473 A, εἶπον τὸ ἀδικεῖν τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι κάκιον εἶναι. A remarkable case of οὐ μή with the infinitive after εἶπε occurs in EUR. Phoen. 1590 (quoted in 296). Εἶπον and the active voice of λέγω take the infinitive chiefly as verbs of commanding (747).

754. After many verbs of this class in the passive both a personal and an impersonal construction are allowed: thus, we can say λέγεται Κῦρος ἐλθεῖν, Cyrus is said to have gone, or λέγεται τὸν Κῦρον ἐλθεῖν, it is said that Cyrus went. Δοκέω in the meaning I seem (videor) usually has the personal construction, as in English; as οὗτος δοκεῖ εἶναι, he seems to be. When an infinitive with ἄν follows a personal verb like δοκέω, this must be translated by an impersonal construction, to suit the English idiom: thus, δοκεῖ τις ἂν ἔχειν τοῦτο must be translated it seems that some one would have this, although τις is the subject of δοκεῖ, since we cannot use would with our infinitive to translate ἔχειν ἄν.

755. When an indirect quotation has been introduced by an infinitive, a dependent relative or temporal clause sometimes takes the infinitive by assimilation, where we should expect an indicative or optative. The temporal particles ὡς, ὅτε, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, as well as the relative pronouns, are used in this construction. Herodotus uses even εἰ, if, and διότι, because, in the same way. E.g. Μετὰ δὲ, ὡς οὐ παύεσθαι, ἄκεα δίζησθαι (λέγουσι), and afterwards, when it did not cease, they say that they sought for remedies. HDT. i. 94. (Here we should expect ὡς οὐκ ἐπαύετο.) Ὡς δ᾽ ἀκοῦσαι τοὺς παρόντας, θόρυβον γενέσθαι (φασίν), they say that, when those present heard it, there was a tumult. DEM. xix. 195. Ἐπειδὴ δὲ γενέσθαι ἐπὶ τῇ οἰκίᾳ τῇ Ἀγάθωνος, (ἔφη) ἀνεῳγμένην καταλαμβάνειν τὴν θύραν. Symp. 174D. Ἔφη δὲ, ἐπειδὴ οὗ ἐκβῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν, πορεύεσθαι. Rep. 614 B. So ὡς φαίνεσθαι, as it appeared, 359 D. Λέγεται Ἀλκμαίωνι, ὅτε δὴ ἀλᾶσθαι αὐτὸν, τὸν Ἀπόλλω ταύτην τὴν γῆν χρῆσαι οἰκεῖν. THUC. ii. 102. Καὶ ὅσα αὖ μετ᾽ ἐκείνων βουλεύεσθαι, οὐδενὸς ὕστερον γνώμῃ φανῆναι (ἔφασαν). Id. i. 91. (Here ἐβουλεύοντο would be the common form.) Ἡγουμένης δὴ ἀληθείας οὐκ ἄν ποτε φαῖμεν αὐτῇ χορὸν κακῶν ἀκολουθῆσαι, ἀλλ᾽ ὑγιές τε καὶ δίκαιον ἦθος, καὶ σωφροσύνην ἕπεσθαι. PLAT. Rep. 490 C.

Εἰ γὰρ δὴ δεῖν πάντως περιθεῖναι ἄλλῳ τέῳ τὴν βασιληίην, (ἔφη) δικαιότερον εἶναι Μήδων τέῳ περιβαλεῖν τοῦτο, for if he was bound (= εἰ ἔδει) to give the kingdom to any other, etc. HDT. i. 129. Εἰ ὦν εἶναι τῷ θεῳ τοῦτο μὴ φίλον, if this were (= εἰ ἦν) not pleasing to God. Id. ii. 64.So iii. 108 (εἰ μὴ γίνεσθαι = εἰ μὴ ἐγίνετο, had there not occurred); vii. 229 (εἰ ἀπονοστῆσαι, if he had returned); ii. 172 (εἰ εἶναι, if he was); iii. 105 (εἰ μὴ προλαμβάνειν = εἰ μὴ προλαμβάνοιμεν). Τιμᾶν δὲ Σαμίους ἔφη, διότι ταφῆναί οἱ τὸν πάππον δημοσίῃ ὑπὸ Σαμίων. Id. iii. 55.

756. In some cases, particularly when the provisions of a law are quoted, a relative is used with the infinitive, even when no infinitive precedes. E.g. Ἔθηκεν ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἐξεῖναι ἀποκτιννύναι, “he enacted on what conditions it is allowed to kill.” DEM. xx. 158. Καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, ἄν τις ἀποκτείνῃ τινὰ, τὴν βουλὴν δικάζειν ἔγραψε, καὶ οὐχ ἅπερ, ἂν ἁλῷ, εἶναι, “and he did not enact what should be done if he should be convicted.” Id. xxiii. 26. (Here εἶναι, the reading of Cod. Σ, is amply defended by the preceding example, in which all allow ἐξεῖναι.) Δέκα γὰρ ἄνδρας προσείλοντο αὐτῷ ξυμβούλους, ἄνευ ὧν μὴ κύριον εἶναι ἀπάγειν στρατιὰν ἐκ τῆς πόλεως. THUC. v. 63.

757. In narration, the infinitive often appears to stand for the indicative. It depends, however, on some word like λέγεται, it is said, expressed (or at least implied) in something that precedes. E.g. Ἀπικομένους δὲ τοὺς Φοίνικας ἐς δὴ τὸ Ἄργος τοῦτο, διατίθεσθαι τὸν φόρτον, and (they say) that the Phoenicians, when now they had come to this Argos, were setting out their cargo for sale. HDT. i. 1. (Here διατίθεσθαι is imperfect.) Ἀλλ̓, παῖ,” φάναι τὸν Ἀστυάγην, “οὐκ ἀχθόμενοι ταῦτα περιπλανώμεθα.” “Ἀλλὰ καὶ σὲ,” φάναι τὸν Κῦρον, “ὁρῶ,” κ.τ.λ. Καὶ τὸν Ἀστυάγην ἐπερέσθαι, “καὶ τίνι δὴ σὺ τεκμαιρόμενος λέγεις;” “Ὅτι σὲ,” φάναι, “ὁρῶ,” κ.τ.λ. Πρὸς ταῦτα δὲ τὸν Ἀστυάγην εἰπεῖν, κ.τ.λ. Καὶ τὸν Κῦρον εἰπεῖν, κ.τ.λ. XEN. Cyr. i. 3, 5 and 6. (Here all these infinitives, and twelve others which follow, depend on λέγεται in § 4.) Καὶ τὸν κελεῦσαι δοῦναι, “and he commanded him to give it.” Id. Cyr. i. 3, Id. Cyr. 9.So in HDT. i. 24 the story of Arion and the dolphin is told in this construction, the infinitives all depending on λέγουσι at the beginning.


Infinitive after Adjectives, Adverbs, and Nouns.

758. The infinitive may depend on adjectives denoting ability, fitness, desert, qualification, sufficiency, readiness, and their opposites; and, in general, those expressing the same relations as the verbs which govern the infinitive (747). The omitted subject of the infinitive is the same as the substantive to which the adjective belongs. E.g. Δυνατὸς ποιεῖν, able to do. Δεινὸς λέγειν, skilled in speaking. Ἄξιός ἐστι ταῦτα λαβεῖν, he deserves to receive this. Ἄξιος τιμᾶσθαι, worthy to be honoured. Οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν τοῦτο ἰδεῖν, he was not able to see this. Πρόθυμος λέγειν, eager to speak. Ἕτοιμος κίνδυνον ὑπομένειν, ready to endure danger.

Θεμιστοκλέα, ἱκανώτατον εἰπεῖν καὶ γνῶναι καὶ πρᾶξαι. LYS. ii. 42. Αἱ γὰρ εὐπραξίαι δειναὶ συγκρύψαι τὰ τοιαῦτα ὀνείδη. DEM. ii. 20. Κυρίαν ἐποίησαν ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τῆς εὐταξίας, they gave it (the Areopagus) power to superintend good order. ISOC. vii. 39. Βίην δὲ ἀδύνατοι ἦσαν προσφέρειν. HDT. iii. 138. Μαλακοὶ καρτερεῖν, “too effeminate to endure.” PLAT. Rep. 556B. Ταπεινὴ ὑμῶν διάνοια ἐγκαρτερεῖν ἔγνωτε, your minds are too dejected to persevere, etc. THUC. ii. 61. (In the last two examples, μαλακοί and ταπεινή govern the infinitive by the idea of inability implied in them.) Χρήματα πορίζειν εὐπορώτατον γυνή. AR. Eccl. 236. Σοφώτεροι δὴ συμφορὰς τὰς τῶν πέλας πάντες διαθρεῖν τύχας τὰς οἴκοθεν. EUR. Fr. 103.Ἐπιστήμων λέγειν τε καὶ σιγᾶν.PLAT. Phaedr. 276 A.Τἄλλα εὑρήσεις ὑπουργεῖν ὄντας ἡμᾶς οὐ κακούς.AR. Pax 430.

For examples of nouns followed by the infinitive in a similar sense, see 749. (See also 766.)

759. The infinitive after τοιοῦτος οἷος and τοσοῦτος ὅσος depends on the idea of ability, fitness, or sufficiency which is expressed in these combinations. The antecedent may be omitted, leaving οἷος with the infinitive in the sense of able, fit, likely, and ὅσος in that of sufficient. E.g.

Τοιοῦτοι οἷοι πονηροῦ τινος ἔργου ἐφίεσθαι, “capable of aiming at any vicious act.” XEN. Cyr. i. 2, 3. Τοιαύτας οἵας χειμῶνός τε στέγειν καὶ θέρους ἱκανὰς εἶναι. PLAT. Rep. 415E. Ἔφθασε τοσοῦτον ὅσον Πάχητα ἀνεγνωκέναι τὸ ψήφισμα, it came enough in advance (of the other ship) for Paches to have already read the decree (the fact that he had read it is inferred, but not expressed: see 584). THUC. iii. 49.

Εἶπεν ὡς ἐγώ εἰμι οἷος ἀεί ποτε μεταβάλλεσθαι, that I am (such) a man (as) to be always changing. XEN. Hell. ii. 3, 45. Οὐ γὰρ ἦν ὥρα οἵα τὸ πεδίον ἄρδειν, “for it was not the proper season to irrigate the land.” Id. An. ii. 3, Id. An. 13. Νεμόμενοι τὰ αὑτῶν ἕκαστοι ὅσον ἀποζῆν, each cultivating their own land enough (to an extent sufficient) to live upon it. THUC. i. 2. Ἐλείπετο τῆς νυκτὸς ὅσον σκοταίους διελθεῖν τὸ πεδίον, “there was left enough of the night for crossing the plain in the dark.” XEN. An. iv. 1, 5.

This construction suggests at once the analogous use of οὕτως ὥστε or ὥστε alone, in the sense of so as, with the infinitive (see 593). Here, as with ὥστε, the subject of the infinitive is not restricted as it is in 758.

760. In Homer, the pronominal adjectives τοῖος, τοιόσδε, τοιοῦτος, τόσος, τηλίκος, and ποῖος, without a relative, sometimes take an infinitive in the same way (759); as ἡμεῖς δ᾽ οὔ νύ τι τοῖοι ἀμυνέμεν, but we are not able to keep it off, Od. ii. 60; ποῖοι κ᾽ εἶτ᾽ Ὀδυσσῆι ἀμυνέμεν; Od. xxi. 195.See also Il. vi. 463; Od. iii. 205, Od. vii. 309, Od. xvii. 20.

761. Certain impersonal verbs (like ἔνεστι, πρέπει, προσήκει), which regularly take an infinitive as their subject (745), are used in the participle in a personal sense with the infinitive, the participle having the force of one of the adjectives of 758. Thus τὰ ἐνόντα εἰπεῖν is equivalent to ἔνεστι εἰπεῖν, what it is permitted to say; τὰ προσήκοντα ῥηθῆναι is equivalent to προσήκει ῥηθῆναι, what is proper to be said, as if it represented a personal construction like ταῦτα προσήκει ῥηθῆναι, these things are becoming to be said. E.g.

Κατιδὼν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἐνόντων εἰπεῖν, “seeing the number of things that may be said.” ISOC. v. 110. Τὸν θεὸν καλεῖ οὐδὲν προσήκοντ᾽ ἐν γόοις παραστατεῖν, “she is calling on the God who ought not to be present at lamentations.” AESCH. Ag. 1079. (Προσήκοντα is used like adjectives meaning fit, proper.) Φράζ, ἐπεὶ πρέπων ἔφυς πρὸ τῶνδε φωνεῖν. SOPH. O.T. 9.So τὰ ἡμῖν παραγγελθέντα διεξελθεῖν (= παρηγγέλθη ἡμῖν διεξελθεῖν). PLAT. Tim. 90 E.

762. In the same way (761) certain adjectives, like δίκαιος, ἐπικαίριος, ἐπιτήδειος, ἐπίδοξος, may be used personally with the infinitive; as δίκαιός ἐστι τοῦτο ποιεῖν, it is right for him to do this (equivalent to δίκαιόν ἐστιν αὐτὸν τοῦτο ποιεῖν). E.g. Φημὶ πολλῷ μειζόνων ἔτι τούτων δωρεῶν δίκαιος εἶναι τυγχάνειν, “I say that I have a right to receive even far greater rewards than these.” DEM. xviii. 53. Ἐδόκουν ἐπιτήδειοι εἶναι ὑπεξαιρεθῆναι, “they seemed to be convenient persons to be disposed of.” THUC. viii. 70. Θεραπεύεσθαι ἐπικαίριοι, “important persons to be taken care of.” XEN. Cyr. viii. 2, 25. Τάδε τοι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπίδοξα γενέσθαι, “it is to be expected that this will result from it.” HDT. i. 89. Πολλοὶ ἐπίδοξοι τωὐτὸ τοῦτο πείσεσθαί εἰσι, “it is to be expected that many will suffer this same thing.” Id. vi. 12 (for the future infinitive see 113).

763. Any adjective may take an infinitive to limit its meaning to a particular action; as αἰσχρὸν ὁρᾶν, disgraceful to look upon. The infinitive is here regularly active or middle, even when the passive would seem more natural. The omitted subject of the infinitive (except when it is passive) is distinct from that of the adjective. E.g. Αἰσχρὸν γὰρ τόδε γ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι, “for this is disgraceful even for future men to hear.” Il. ii. 119.So Il. i. 107 and 589. Τοὺς γὰρ ὑπὲρ τούτων λόγους ἐμοὶ μὲν ἀναγκαιοτάτους προειπεῖν ἡγοῦμαι, ὑμῖν δὲ χρησιμωτάτους ἀκοῦσαι, i.e. most necessary for me to speak, and most useful for you to hear. DEM. xxi. 24. Φοβερὸν προσπολεμῆσαι, “a terrible man to fight against.” Id. ii. 22. (Οἰκία) ἡδίστη ἐνδιαιτᾶσθαι, “a house most pleasant to live in.” XEN. Mem. iii. 8, 8. Χαλεπώτατα εὑρεῖν, hardest to find: ῥᾷστα ἐντυγχάνειν, “easiest to obtain.” Ib. i. 6, Ib. 9. (Πολιτεία) χαλεπὴ συζῆν, a form of government hard to live under: ἄνομος δὲ (μοναρχία) χαλεπὴ καὶ βαρυτάτη ξυνοικῆσαι. PLAT. Polit. 302B and E. Λόγος δυνατὸς κατανοῆσαι, a speech capable of being understood (which it is possible to understand). Plat. Phaed. 90D. χρόνος βραχὺς ἀξίως διηγήσασθαι, “the time is too short for narrating it properly.” Menex. 239B. ὁδὸς ἐπιτηδεία πορευομένοις καὶ λέγειν καὶ ἀκούειν, “convenient both for speaking and for hearing.” Symp. 173B. Πότερον δὲ λούσασθαι ψυχρότερον; which of the two (waters) is colder for bathing? XEN. Mem. iii. 13, 3.

(Passive.) (Κύνες) αἰσχραὶ ὁρᾶσθαι (instead of ὁρᾶν). Cyn. iii. 3. Ἔστι δ᾽ λόγος φιλαπεχθήμων μὲν, ῥηθῆναι δ᾽ οὐκ ἀσύμφορος. ISOC. xv. 115.

The infinitive with adjectives (here and in 758) shows distinct traces of its origin as a dative, though this origin was already forgotten. See 742 (end) and 767.

764.a) The infinitive after the comparative with depends on the idea of ability or inability implied in the expression. E.g. Τὸ γὰρ νόσημα μεῖζον φέρειν, “for the disease is too heavy to bear.” SOPH.O.T. 1293. (See 763, above.) ἀνθρωπίνη φύσις ἀσθενεστέρα λαβεῖν τέχνην ὧν ἂν ἄπειρος, “human nature is too weak to acquire the art of those things of which it has no experience.” PLAT. Theaet. 149 C. (See 758.)

b) Ὥστε or ὡς is sometimes expressed before this infinitive; as in XEN. Hell. iv. 8, 23 , ᾔσθοντο αὐτὸν ἐλάττω ἔχοντα δύναμιν ὥστε τοὺς φίλους ὠφελεῖν, and Cyr. vi. 4, Cyr. 17, τὰς ἀσπίδας μείζους ἔχουσιν ὡς ποιεῖν τι καὶ ὁρᾶν. (See 588.)

765. The infinitive may be used after adverbs which correspond to the adjectives of 763. E.g. Συνεβουλεύετο αὐτῷ πῶς ἂν τοῖς μὲν εὔνοις κάλλιστα ἰδεῖν ποιοῖτο τὴν ἐξέλασιν, τοῖς δὲ δυσμενέσι φοβερώτατα, he took counsel with him how he might proceed forth in a manner most splendid for the friendly to behold, and most terrible for the indisposed. XEN. Cyr. viii. 3, 5.

766. Certain nouns, which correspond in meaning to adjectives which take the infinitive as in 763, may themselves have the same construction. E.g. Θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι, a wonderful thing to behold (like θαυμαστὸν ἰδέσθαι). Od. viii. 366.See the examples under 749.

767. In Homer, verbs expressing excellence or fitness sometimes take a limiting infinitive, like adjectives of similar meaning. E.g. Ἕκτορος ἥδε γυνὴ, ὃς ἀριστεύεσκε μάχεσθαι, this is the wife of Hector, who was the first (= ἄριστος ἦν) in fighting. Il. vi. 460. Ὁμηλικίην ἐκέκαστο ὄρνιθας γνῶναι καὶ ἀναίσιμα μυθήσασθαι, “he excelled all of his age in knowledge of birds and in declaring fate.” Od. ii. 158. Οἳ περὶ μὲν βουλὴν Δαναῶν, περὶ δ᾽ ἐστὲ μάχεσθαι, “ye who excel the Danai in counsel and excel them in battle.” Il. i. 258. (Here βουλήν shows that μάχεσθαι was already felt as a limiting accusative, notwithstanding its primitive force as a dative. See 763, and 742, end.)

768. Even in Attic Greek a limiting infinitive, like the Homeric infinitive just mentioned (767), is sometimes found. Especially ἀκούειν, ἀκοῦσαι, in sound, and ὁρᾶν, ἰδεῖν, in appearance, are used in this way. E.g. Δοκεῖς οὖν τι διαφέρειν αὐτοὺς ἰδεῖν χαλκέως φαλακροῦ καὶ σμικροῦ; “ do you think that they differ at all in appearance from a bald little tinker?” PLAT. Rep. 495E. Ἀκοῦσαι παγκάλως ἔχει, “it is very fine to hear.” DEM. xix. 47. Πράγματα παρέξουσιν (οἱ ἵπποι) ἐπιμέλεσθαι, “the horses will be troublesome to tend.” XEN. Cyr. iv. 5. 46.

769. The Homeric use of ὁμοῖος, equal, like, with the infinitive belongs here. E.g. Λευκότεροι χιόνος, θείειν δ᾽ ἀνέμοισιν ὁμοῖοι, (horseswhiter than snow, and like the winds in swiftness (lit. to run). Il. x. 437. Οὐ γάρ οἵ τις ὁμοῖος ἐπισπέσθαι ποσὶν ἦεν, ἀνδρῶν τρεσσάντων, “for none was like him for following with his feet when men fled.” Il. xiv. 521.


Infinitive of Purpose.

770. The infinitive may express a purpose. E.g.

Τρώων ἄνδρα ἕκαστον (εἰἑλοίμεθα οἰνοχοεύειν, “if we should choose every man of the Trojans to be our cup-bearers.” Il. ii. 127. Χέρνιβα δ᾽ ἀμφίπολος προχόῳ ἐπέχευε φέρουσα, νίψασθαι, i.e. brought and poured water for washing. Od. i. 136.So Il. i. 338, δὸς ἄγειν, and Il. 107, Il. 108. Τὴν ἐξ Ἀρείου πάγου βουλὴν ἐπέστησαν ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τῆς εὐκοσμίας, i.e. to guard good order. ISOC. vii. 37. Οἱ ἄρχοντες, οὓς ὑμεῖς εἵλεσθε ἄρχειν μου, the rulers, whom you chose to rule me. PLAT. Ap. 28E. Δέκα δὲ τῶν νεῶν προὔπεμψαν ἐς τὸν μέγαν λιμένα πλεῦσαί τε καὶ κατασκέψασθαι, καὶ κηρῦξαι, κ.τ.λ., i.e. they sent them to sail and examine, and to proclaim, etc. THUC. vi. 50. Τοὺς ἱππέας παρείχοντο Πελοποννησίοις ξυστρατεύειν. Id. ii. 12. Ξυνέβησαν τοῖς Πλαταιεῦσι παραδοῦναι σφᾶς αὐτοὺς καὶ τὰ ὅπλα, χρήσασθαι τι ἂν βούλωνται, i.e. to do with them whatever they pleased. Id. ii. 4. Εἰ βουλοίμεθά τῳ ἐπιτρέψαι παῖδας παιδεῦσαι χρήματα διασῶσαι, “if we should wish to entrust to any one either children to instruct or money to keep.” XEN. Mem. i. 5, 2. Θεάσασθαι παρῆν τὰς γυναῖκας πιεῖν φερούσας, women bringing (something) to drink. Id. Hell. vii. 2. 9. Τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὴν ἄκραν φυλάττειν αὐτοῖς παρέδωκαν, “they delivered the city and the citadel to them to guard.” Ib. iv. 4. 15. Ὃς γὰρ ἂν ὑμᾶς λάθῃ, τοῦτον ἀφίετε τοῖς θεοῖς κολάζειν. DEM. xix. 71.

θύρα ἐμὴ ἀνέῳκτο εἰσιέναι τῷ δεομένῳ τι ἐμοῦ.XEN. Hell. v. 1, 14Οὐκ εἶχον ἀργύριον ἐπισιτίζεσθαι,” “they had no money to buy provisions.” Id. An. vii. 1, 7Ἀριστάρχῳ ἔδοτε ἡμέραν ἀπολογήσασθαι,” “i.e., a day to defend himself in.” Id. Hell. i. 7,28Ἐμαυτόν σοι ἐμμελετᾶν παρέχειν οὐ πάνυ δέδοκται,” “i.e. to practise on.” PLAT. Phaedrus 228 E.Οἷς ἐνευδαιμονῆσαι τε βίος ὁμοίως καὶ ἐντελευτῆσαι ξυνεμετρήθη,” “for enjoyment as well as for death.” THUC. ii. 44.

771. Here, as in 763, the infinitive is generally active or middle, even where the passive would seem more natural; as κτανεῖν ἐμοί νιν ἔδοσαν, “they gave her to me to be killed.” EUR. Tro. 874.

772.a) The infinitive is thus used in prose chiefly after verbs signifying to choose or appoint, to give or take, to express the purpose for which anything is given or taken; and also after those signifying to send or bring. (See examples in 770.) With the last class the future participle is still more common (840). A final clause after ἵνα etc. may also be used in the same sense.

b) In poetry, the same construction occurs after verbs of motion, like εἶμι, ἥκω, and βαίνω; and also after εἰμί, ἔπειμι, and πάρειμι (to be, to be at hand), expressed or understood. E.g. Ἀλλά τις εἴη εἰπεῖν Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι, ποιμένι λαῶν, “but let some one go to tell Agamemnon.” Od. xiv. 496. Βῆ δὲ θέειν, “and he started to run.” Il. ii. 183. Οὐδέ τις ἔστιν ἀρὴν καὶ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι, “nor is there any one to keep off curse and ruin.” Il. xxiv. 489. Πολλοὶ δ᾽ αὖ σοὶ Ἀχαιοὶ ἐναιρέμεν ὅν κε δύνηαι, i.e. for you to slay whomsoever you can. Il. vi. 229. Οὐ γὰρ ἔπ᾽ ἀνὴρ οἷος Ὀδυσσεὺς ἔσκεν, ἀρὴν ἀπὸ οἴκου ἀμῦναι. Od. ii. 59.Μανθάνειν γὰρ ἥκομεν,” “for we are come to learn.” SOPH. O.C. 12.

c) Even in prose, the infinitive occasionally occurs after εἰμί in this sense, as in PLAT. Phaedr. 229A,ἐκεῖ σκιά τ᾽ ἐστὶ, καὶ πόα καθίζεσθαι ἂν βουλώμεθα κατακλιθῆναι” , there is grass to sit upon, etc. See also XEN. An. ii. 1, 6 , πολλαὶ δὲ καὶ πέλται καὶ ἅμαξαι ἦσαν φέρεσθαι ἔρημοι, i.e. they were left to be carried away.

773. In Homer and Herodotus εἶναι is often introduced to denote a purpose, where in Attic Greek a simple noun, connected directly with the leading verb, would be sufficient. E.g. Θώρηκα, τόν ποτέ οἱ Κινύρης δῶκε ξεινήιον εἶναι, i.e. which they gave him as a present (lit. to be a present). Il. xi. 20. Λίθον εἵλετο χειρὶ παχείῃ, τόν ῤ̔ ἄνδρες πρότεροι θέσαν ἔμμεναι οὖρον ἀρούρης, which former men had placed (to be) as a boundary of the land. Il. xxi. 405. Δαρεῖος καταστήσας Ἀρταφέρνεα ὕπαρχον εἶναι Σαρδίων. HDT. v. 25.So in the passive construction: Γέλων ἀπεδέχθη πάσης τῆς ἵππου εἶναι ἵππαρχος. Id. vii. 154.

774. Even in Attic prose, this use of εἶναι (773) sometimes occurs; as in DEM. xxix. 25, μνημονεύουσιν ἀφεθέντα τοῦτον ἐλεύθερον εἶναι τότε, they remember his having been then manumitted (so as) to be a freeman. So ἀφίησιν αὐτὰ δημόσια εἶναι, he gives them up to be public property, THUC. ii. 13.

775. The simple infinitive in Homer may express a result as well as a purpose, as ὥστε is seldom used there in the sense of so as (589). It thus follows many expressions which would not allow it in Attic Greek. E.g. Τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι; i.e. who brought them into conflict, so as to contend? Il. i. 8.So i. 151; and ἐριζέμεναι, Il. ii. 214. Ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ κοίλη νηῦς ἤχθετο τοῖσι νέεσθαι, when now their ship was loaded, so as (to be ready) to sail. Od. xv. 457.

For the infinitive in consecutive sentences with ὥστε or ὡς, and ἐφ᾽ or ἐφ᾽ ᾧτε, see 582-600; 608-610.

For the infinitive with πρίν, see 626-631.


Absolute Infinitive.

Absolute Infinitive.3

776. The infinitive may stand absolutely in certain parenthetical phrases, expressing a limitation or qualification of some word or of the whole sentence.

777. 1. Most frequent are the simple ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν and ὡς εἰπεῖν, so to speak; and ὡς εἰπεῖν or εἰπεῖν with an adverb or other adjunct, sometimes with an object. E.g. Καὶ ἔργου, ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, οὐδενὸς προσδέονται βραχέος πάνυ, and of action, so to speak, they need either none or very little. PLAT. Gorg. 450D. Plato uses ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν 77 times. Ὡς εἰπεῖν ἔπος, “so to speak.” AESCH. Pers. 714: so EUR. Hipp. 1162, EUR. Her. 167 (see EUR. Or. 1). Ὡς δὲ συντόμως εἰπεῖν, “to speak concisely.” ISOC. vii. 26: so PLAT. Tim. 25E. Ὡς συνελόντι εἰπεῖν. XEN. Mem. iii. 8, 10. Ὡς εἰπεῖν. PLAT. Phaedr. 258E : so PLAT. Rep. 619D. Ὡς ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν, “to speak simply.” ISOC. iv. 154. Ὡς ἐν κεφαλαίῳ εἰπεῖν. Symp. 186C. Ὡς τὸ ὅλον εἰπεῖν γένος. Crat. 192C. Ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πᾶν εἰπεῖν. Leg. 667D. So ὡς περὶ ὅλης εἰπεῖν ψυχῆς, Rep. 577E. Ὥς γε τὸ δικαιότατον εἰπεῖν. Leg. 624A. Ὡς πόλιν εἰπεῖν, “speaking of a state.” Rep. 577C. Without ὡς: τὸ σύμπαν εἰπεῖν, HDT. ii. 91; THUC. i. 138, THUC. vii. 49. Ἐς τὸ ἀκριβὲς εἰπεῖν. Id. vi. 82. Σὺν θεῷ εἰπεῖν. PLAT. Prot. 317B. Τὸ δ᾽ ὀρθὸν εἰπεῖν, ἀνέπνευσα, SOPH. O.T. 1220.

2. Other verbs of saying are used in the same way with ὡς. E.g. Ὡς τορῶς φράσαι. AESCH. Ag. 1584. Ὡς ἐκ τοῦ παραχρῆμα λέγειν. PLAT. Crat. 399D. Ὥς γε ἐν τῷ νῦν παρόντι λέγειν. Leg. 857C. Ὡς ἓν φράζειν. Id. Polit. 282B Ὡς πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰρῆσθαι, i.e. between ourselves. Rep. 595B. Ὥς γε πρὸς σὲ εἰρῆσθαι τἀληθῆ. Prot. 339E. Ὡς ἐν τύπῳ, μὴ δἰ ἀκριβείας, εἰρῆσθαι. Rep. 414A.

For ὡς λόγῳ εἰπεῖν in Herodotus, see 782.

778. Ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν or (less frequently) ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν means in my opinion, it seems to me. Other similar expressions are (ὡς) εἰκάσαι, to make a guess; (ὡς) συμβάλλειν, to compare, if we may compare; (ὡςἀκοῦσαι, to the ear; ὡς ἰδεῖν or ὅσον ἰδεῖν, to the eye, in appearance; ὅσον ἐμὲ εἰδέναι, so far as my knowledge goes; ὡς τεκμήρασθαι, so far as one can judge. E.g.

Ἀλλ᾽ ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, τάχ᾽ εἴσει, but, methinks, you will soon know. AESCH. Pers. 246: so SOPH. El. 410. Αὐτόχθονες δοκέειν ἐμοί εἰσι. HDT. i. 172. Ἀπεπέμπετο στρατιὴ, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκέειν, ἐπὶ Λιβύης καταστροφῇ. Id. iv. 167. Δοκεῖν δ᾽ ἐμοί. THUC. viii. 64: so vii. 87. Ἀληθῆ, ἔμοιγε δοκεῖν. PLAT. Men. 81 A. See Rep. 432 B,ὥς γε οὑτωσὶ δόξαι” .

Χῶρος ὅδ᾽ ἱρὸς, ὡς ἀπεικάσαιSOPH. O.C. 16.Ὡς θύραθεν εἰκάσαιEUR. H.F. 713. See HDT. i. 34. Ὡς μικρὸν μεγάλῳ εἰκάσαι. THUC. iv. 36.Once εἰκάσαι alone: SOPH. O.T. 82. Ὕδωρ γε ἓν πρὸς ἓν συμβάλλειν, i.e. to compare the waters one with the other. HDT. iv. 50 (cf. ἓν πρὸς ἕν, THUC. ii. 97). Ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο οὑτωσὶ μὲν ἀκοῦσαι λόγον τιν᾽ ἔχον, i.e. on first hearing it. DEM. xx. 18. Ἄτοπα, ὡς οὕτω γ᾽ ἀκοῦσαι. PLAT. Euthyph. 3 B. Ὥς γε ἐντεῦθεν ἰδεῖν, “as it looks from this point.” Rep. 430 E. Ὅσσον ἴδην. Fr. 101. Ὅσα γ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἰδεῖν. Pac. 856.Οὐχ, ὅσον γέ μ᾽ εἰδέναι,” “no, as far as I know.” Aristoph. Nub. 1252. See also Aristoph. Eccl. 350, τι κἄμ᾽ εἰδέναι, and Thesm. 34, ὥστε (ὥς τε) κἀμέ γ᾽ εἰδέναι, in the same sense. “Ὥς γε τῷ ποδὶ τεκμήρασθαι.PLAT. Phaedr. 230 B.

See also ὥς γ᾽ ἐμοὶ χρῆσθαι κριτῇ, EUR. Alc. 801; ὥς γε κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν δόξαν ἀποφήνασθαι, PLAT. Polit. 272 D. See further, for Herodotus, 782.

779.a) Here belong ὀλίγου δεῖν and μικροῦ δεῖν, wanting little, almost, and the rare πολλοῦ δεῖν, far from. E.g.

Πολλῶν λόγων γιγνομένων ὀλίγου δεῖν καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἐκκλησίαν, “when many speeches are made almost in every assembly.” DEM. ix. 1. Μικροῦ δεῖν ὅμοιόν ἐστι τῷ ὀνειδίζειν. Id. xviii. 269; so ISOC. iv. 144, ISOC. viii. 44, ISOC. 89. Ἵν᾽ εἰδῆτε πολλοῦ δεῖν ἄξιον ὄντα, that you may know that he is far from deserving, etc. DEM. xxiii. 7 (the only case of πολλοῦ δεῖν).

b) Here δεῖν is often omitted, leaving ὀλίγου or μικροῦ in the sense of almost. E.g.

Ὀλίγου φροῦδος γεγένημαι,” “I am almost gone myself,” AR. Nub. 722 , and μικροῦ κατηκόντισαν ἅπαντας, “they came near shooting them all.” DEM. xviii. 151.

780. In many expressions εἶναι is used absolutely, and it often seems to us superfluous. The most common case is that of ἑκὼν εἶναι, so far as being willing goes, or willingly, used almost exclusively in negative sentences. E.g. Οὔτε αὐτὸς ἔφη ἑκὼν εἶναι δουλεύσειν. HDT. viii. 116.See THUC. ii. 89, THUC. vi. 14. Ἑκὼν γὰρ εἶναι οὐδὲν ψεύσομαι, “willingly I will tell no falsehood.” Symp. 215A Οὐκ ᾤμην γε κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς ὑπὸ σοῦ ἑκόντος εἶναι ἐξαπατηθήσεσθαι. Gorg. 499C. (Ἀνάγκη ἔχειντὴν ἀψεύδειαν καὶ τὸ ἑκόντας εἶναι μηδαμῇ προσδέχεσθαι τὸ ψεῦδος. Id. Rep. 485C: see 336 E. One positive sentence occurs, HDT. vii. 164.

781. Other cases of absolute εἶναι are τὸ ἐπὶ σφᾶς (ἐπὶ ἐκείνοις, ἐπὶ τούτοις, κατὰ τοῦτον) εἶναι, so far as they were concerned, etc. THUC. iv. 28, THUC. viii. 48; XEN. An. i. 6, 9 , XEN. Hell. iii. 5, 9 ;—κατὰ (εἰςδύναμιν εἶναι, ISAE. ii. 32; PLAT. Polit. 300C ;—κατὰ τοῦτο εἶναι, “so far as concerns this.” Id. Prot. 317A;—τὴν πρώτην εἶναι, at first, HDT. i. 153.So especially τὸ νῦν εἶναι, at present (τό belonging to νῦν): see ISOC. xv. 270; PLAT. Lach. 201 C, PLAT. Rep. 506 E; XEN Cyr. v. 3, Cyr. 42; also τὸ τήμερον εἶναι, to-day, PLAT. Crat. 396 E In Aristotle's τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, the εἶναι is probably absolute, and τί ἦν may be a “philosophic” imperfect (40), the expression meaning the original essence (thewhat was it?”).

Two expressions have ὡς: ὡς πάλαια εἶναι, considering their antiquity, THUC. i. 21; and ὥς γε διακόνους εἶναι πόλεως, considering that they were servants of a state, i.e. for servants, PLAT. Gorg. 517 B.

782. Herodotus has a remarkable variety of expressions of this kind. Besides those already quoted, see the following:—

Τὸ Δέλτα ἐστὶ κατάρρυτόν τε καὶ νεωστὶ, ὡς λόγῳ εἰπεῖν, ἀναπεφηνός, and recently, so to speak, has appeared above water. ii. 15. (Ὡς λόγῳ εἰπεῖν is peculiar to Herodotus.) Καὶ ὡς ἐμὲ εὖ μεμνῆσθαι τὰ ἑρμηνεύς μοι ἔφη, so far as I remember rightly what the interpreter told me, etc. ii. 125. Ὡς ἐμὲ κατανοέειν, as I understand it. ii. 28. Ὡς μέν νυν ἐν ἐλαχίστῳ δηλῶσαι, πᾶν εἴρηται: ὡς δὲ ἐν πλέονι λόγῳ δηλῶσαι, ὧδε ἔχει. ii. 24 and 25. Μετὰ δὲ, οὐ πολλῷ λόγῳ εἰπεῖν, χρόνος διέφυ. i. 61. Ὡς ἐμὲ συμβαλλόμενον εὑρίσκειν, so far as I find by conjecture. vii. 24. Ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκέειν συμβαλλομένῳ. iv. 87. Ὡς εἶναι ταῦτα σμικρὰ μεγάλοισι συμβάλλειν, so far as I may (εἶναι) compare these small things with great ones. iv. 99: see ii. 10. Ὡς Σκύθας εἶναι, for Scythians, considering that they are Scythians. iv. 81. Ὡς εἶναι Αἰγύπτου, for Egypt, i.e. for a land like Egypt. ii. 8. Μεγάλα ἐκτήσατο χρήματα ὡς ἂν εἶναι Ῥοδῶπιν, she gained great sums of money for a Rhodopis. ii. 135. (The force of ἄν is very doubtful here; and Ῥοδῶπιν is often emended to Ῥοδώπιος or Ῥοδώπι, neither of which is satisfactory.)

783. The absolute infinitive was probably felt as a limiting accusative; and in Pac. 232, ἐξιέναι γνώμην ἐμὴν μέλλει, we might substitute ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν for γνώμην ἐμήν.4 Ὡς as used here can hardly be expressed in English; but it resembles some uses of ὥστε and ὡς with the infinitive after adjectives in 588. It cannot be demonstrative, as might be supposed from our inadequate translation of ὡς εἰπεῖν, so to speak.


Infinitive in Commands and Prohibitions for the Imperative. Infinitive in Wishes and Exclamations.

784. 1. The infinitive is sometimes used in the sense of the second person of the imperative, especially in Homer. E.g. Τῷ νῦν μή ποτε καὶ σὺ γυναικί περ ἤπιος εἶναι: μή οἱ μῦθον ἅπαντα πιφαυσκέμεν, ὅν κ᾽ ἐὺ εἰδῇς, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν φάσθαι, τὸ δὲ καὶ κεκρυμμένον εἶναι, now therefore be thou never indulgent to thy wife, etc. Od. xi. 441.So Il. i. 20, Il. 582, Il. ii. 10, Il. xvii. 501; Od. x. 297, Od. xi. 72, Od. xvii. 278, Od. xviii 106, Od. xxii. 287.Οἷς μὴ πελάζειν,” “do not approach these (= μὴ πέλαζε).AESCH. Prom. 712. Πρὶν δ᾽ ἂν τελευτήσῃ, ἐπισχεῖν μηδὲ καλέειν κω ὄλβιον, wait, and do not yet call him happy. HDT. i. 32. Σὺ δὲ τὰς πύλας ἀνοίξας ὑπεκθεῖν καὶ ἐπείγεσθαι, and do you open the gates, and rush out and press on. THUC. v. 9. Ἐὰν οἷοί τε γενώμεθα εὑρεῖν, φάναι ἡμᾶς ἐξευρηκέναι, “say that we have found it.” PLAT. Rep. 473 A. Τοῦτο παρ᾽ ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς βεβαίως γνῶναι, “understand this in your own minds.” DEM. viii. 39.

2. In the cases of the second person just given (1), the subject is in the nominative. But when the infinitive is equivalent to the third person of the imperative, its subject is in the accusative, as if some word like δός, grant, were understood. E.g. Εἰ μέν κεν Μενέλαον Ἀλέξανδρος κακαπέφνῃ, αὐτὸς Ἑλένην ἐχέτω: εἰ δέ κ᾽ Ἀλέξανδρον κτείνῃ Μενέλαος, Τρῶας ἔπειθ᾽ Ἑλένην ἀποδοῦναι, i.e. let him keep Helen himself,—and let the Trojans surrender Helen. Il. iii. 281-285. Τεύχεα συλήσας φερέτω, σῶμα δὲ οἴκαδ᾽ ἐμὸν δόμεναι πάλιν (sc. αὐτόν). Il. vii. 78.

These examples follow the construction of the infinitive in wishes (785).

785. The infinitive with a subject accusative is sometimes used for the optative in the expression of a wish referring to the future. This occurs chiefly in poetry. E.g. Ζεῦ πάτερ, Αἴαντα λαχεῖν Τυδέος υἱόν, Father Zeus, may the lot fall on Ajax or on the son of Tydeus (= Αἴας λάχοι). Il. vii. 179. Ζεῦ ἄνα, Τηλέμαχόν μοι ἐν ἀνδράσιν ὄλβιον εἶναι, καί οἱ πάντα γένοιθ̓ ὅσσα φρεσὶν ᾗσι μενοινᾷ (εἶναι = εἴη is followed by γένοιτο). Od. xvii. 354. Μὴ πρὶν ἐπ᾽ ἠέλιον δῦναι καὶ ἐπὶ κνέφας ἐλθεῖν. Il. ii. 413. Αἰεὶ δὲ τοιαύταν αἶσαν διακρίνειν ἔτυμον λόγον ἀνθρώπων. PIND. Py. i. 67. Θεοὶ πολῖται, μή με δουλείας τυχεῖν (= μὴ τύχοιμι). Sept. 253. Δήμητερ, εὐδαιμονεῖν με Θησέα τε παῖδ᾽ ἐμόν. EUR. Supp. 3. Ἑρμᾶ μ̓πολαῖε, τὰν γυναῖκα τὰν ἐμὰν οὕτω μ᾽ ἀποδόσθαι τάν τ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ ματέρα, “O that I could sell my wife and my mother at this rate!” AR. Ach. 816. Ζεῦ, ἐκγενέσθαι μοι Ἀθηναίους τίσασθαι, “may it be permitted me to punish the Athenians.” HDT. v. 105. Ὁκότεροι δ᾽ ἂν ἡμέων νικήσωσι, τούτους τῷ ἅπαντι στρατοπέδῳ νικᾶν, i.e. let their victory count for the whole army. Id. ix. 48.

This construction, like the preceding (784, 2), is often explained by an ellipsis of δός, grant; see Il. iii. 351, δὸς τίσασθαι. Aristarchus supplied γένοιτο or εἴη.

786. In two passages of the Odyssey, we find the infinitive in a wish introduced by αἲ γάρ, once in the sense of the optative and once in that of a past tense of the indicative, with the subject (understood) in the nominative:—

Αἲ γὰρ, τοῖος ἐὼν οἷός ἐσσι, . . . παῖδά τ᾽ ἐμὴν ἐχέμεν καὶ ἐμὸς γαμβρὸς καλέεσθαι, O that, being such as you now are, you might have (= ἔχοις) my daughter and be called my son-in-law. Od. vii. 311. Αἲ γὰρ, οἷος Νήρικον εἷλον, . . . τοῖος ἐών τοι χθιζὸς ἐφεστάμεναι καὶ ἀμύνειν ἄνδρας μνηστῆρας: τῷ κε σφέων γούνατ᾽ ἔλυσα, “O that I had stood by you yesterday and had punished the suitors; then would I have loosened their knees.” Od. xxiv. 376.So also AESCH. Cho. 362-366, and 368.

These passages agree in construction with the second person of the infinitive in commands (784, 1).

787. The infinitive, with its subject accusative, may be used in exclamations of surprise or indignation. E.g. Ἐμὲ παθεῖν τάδε, φεῦ, ἐμὲ παλαιόφρονα, κατά τε γᾶν οἰκεῖν, ἀτίετον, φεῦ, μύσος, that I should suffer this, alas! I, with my thoughts of old; and that I should dwell in this land, alas! an unhonoured plague! AESCH. Eum. 837. Ἀλλὰ τούσδ᾽ ἐμοὶ ματαίαν γλῶσσαν ὧδ᾽ ἀπανθίσαι κἀκβαλεῖν ἔπη τοιαῦτα, that these should thus cast at me the flowers of their idle tongues, etc. Id. Ag. 1662. δυστάλαινα, τοιάδ᾽ ἄνδρα χρησιμὸν φωνεῖνSOPH. Aj. 410.Τοιουτονὶ τρέφειν κύνα,” “to keep a dog like that!” AR. Vesp. 835. Τοῦτον δὲ ὑβρίζειν: ἀναπνεῖν δέ, and that he should be thus insulting, and should draw his breath! DEM. xxi. 209.

Compare “Mene incepto desistere victam!VERG. Aen. i. 37. This infinitive often has the article τό (805).


Infinitive with the Article.

Infinitive with the Article.5

788. It has been seen that the infinitive without the article was already established in the Homeric language, in nearly all the constructions in which it was most frequently used in later times. In this simple form it developed its various tenses, and their uses became fixed, especially in indirect discourse; so that the infinitive gradually came to be more of a verb and less of a noun.

When the definite article had become common with nouns, it was soon prefixed to the infinitive, which thus, with all its attributes as a verb unimpaired, was restored to new life as a neuter verbal noun.6 As a nominative and accusative, it could be used with τό in all the constructions in which the simple infinitive was already familiar as subject or object, although here the older form was preferred except when it was desired to emphasise the infinitive especially as a nominative or accusative. But in other constructions (especially in the genitive, dative, and accusative with prepositions), and in its wonderful capacity for carrying dependent clauses and adjuncts of every kind, the articular infinitive appears as a new power in the language, of which the older simple infinitive gave hardly an intimation.

As might be expected, the articular infinitive found its chief use in the rhetorical language, as in Demosthenes and in the speeches of Thucydides. It appears first in Pindar (for τό in Od. xx. 52 and Frag. HES. clxxi. can hardly be the article), but always as a subject nominative, with one doubtful exception. In the dramatists and Herodotus it is not uncommon, being generally a nominative or accusative with τό, although it occurs also as a genitive or dative with τοῦ or τῷ; and it is found even with prepositions. In Thucydides (especially in the speeches), we find the nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative all used with the greatest freedom (in 135 cases), besides the accusative, genitive, and dative with prepositions (in 163 cases). Its fully developed power of taking dependent clauses must be seen in the Orators, especially in Demosthenes.7


Articular Infinitive as Subject or Object.

789. Although the infinitive, as subject or object of a verb, generally stands without the article, the article may be prefixed to make the infinitive more prominent as a noun in the structure of the sentence.

790. The infinitive with τό may stand as a subject, especially of ἐστίν. E.g. Τὸ γνῶναι ἐπιστήμην που λαβεῖν ἐστιν, “to learn is to acquire knowledge.” PLAT. Theaet. 209 E. Τὸ δίκην διδόναι πότερον πάσχειν τί ἐστιν ποιεῖν; Gorg. 476 D. (In the last two examples the subject infinitive has the article to emphasise it, while the predicate infinitive stands alone.) Τὸ δὲ παθεῖν εὖ πρῶτον ἀέθλων. PIND. Py. i. 99. Οὔτοι ἡδύ ἐστι τὸ ἔχειν χρήματα οὕτως ὡς ἀνιαρὸν τὸ ἀποβάλλειν. XEN. Cyr. viii. 3, 42. Πολλάκις δοκεῖ τὸ φυλάξαι τἀγαθὰ τοῦ κτήσασθαι χαλεπώτερον εἶναι, “to keep advantages often seems to be harder than gaining them.” DEM. i. 23 (cf. ii. 26, quoted in 745, for both construction and sense). Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἀδικεῖν, τὸ πλέον τῶν ἄλλων ζητεῖν ἔχειν. PLAT. Gorg. 483 C. Ἀλλ᾽ οἶμαι, νῦν μὲν ἐπισκοτεῖ τούτοις τὸ κατορθοῦν. DEM. ii. 20. Τὸ γὰρ θάνατον δεδιέναι οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν δοκεῖν σοφὸν εἶναι μὴ ὄντα: δοκεῖν γὰρ εἰδέναι ἐστὶν οὐκ οἶδεν. PLAT. Ap. 29 A. See also 29 C.

It will be seen by comparison that most of these examples would admit the construction without the article by making the infinitive less prominent as a subject nominative. Compare οὔτε κλαίειν οὔτ᾽ ὀδύρεσθαι πρέπει, AESCH Sept. 656, with τοῖς δ᾽ ὀλβίοις γε καὶ τὸ νικᾶσθαι πρέπει, Ag. 941.

791. The infinitive with τό can stand as an accusative of the direct object, sometimes as an accusative of kindred meaning. The relation of such an infinitive with τό to the verb is often less close than that of the simple infinitive in a similar case (see 811). E.g. Τλήσομαι τὸ κατθανεῖν, “I shall dare to die.” AESCH. Ag. 1290. Ἔστιν τις, ἔστιν, ὅς σε κωλύσει τὸ δρᾶν, “who will prevent you from acting.” SOPH. Ph. 1241.So ἐπισπεύδειν τὸ δρᾶν, SOPH. El. 467. Τὸ σπεύδειν δέ σοι παραινῶ. Id. Ph. 620.Τὸ δρᾶν οὐκ ἠθέλησαν,” “they were unwilling to act (would not act).” Id. O.C. 442. Τὸ δ᾽ αὖ ξυνοικεῖν τῇδ᾽ ὁμοῦ τίς ἂν γυνὴ δύναιτο, what woman would be able to live with her? (to live with her—what woman could do it?). Id. Tr. 545. Τὸ ὑπὸ οἴνου μὴ σφάλλεσθαι ἐπιμελεῖσθαι, “to take care not to be upset by wine.” Lac. v. 7. Αἰσχύνονται τὸ τολμᾶν. PLAT. Soph. 247 C. Συνεθίζεσθαι ταῖς ψυχαῖς τὸ τὴν πατρίδα φιλεῖν. LYCURG. 100. Καὶ πῶς δὴ τὸ ἀρχιχοὺς εἶναι ἀνθρώπων παιδεύεις; XEN. Oec. xiii. 4: see also ix. 12. (So παιδεύω τινά τι.) Ἐπέσχον τὸ εὐθέως τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ἐπιχειρεῖν. THUC. vii. 33 (cf. τοῦτο ἐπέσχον, THUC. ii. 76). Οὐδέ τοι τῇ χειρὶ πείθομαι τὸ δρᾶν, nor am I persuaded by your violence to act (as you bid me). SOPH. Ph. 1253 (cf. οὐ πείθομαί σοι ταῦτα). Καρδίας ἐξίσταμαι τὸ δρᾶν, I withdraw from my resolution (i.e. I consent) to do it. Id. Ant. 1105: cf. φρονεῖν μετέγνω, i.e. changed his purpose (and resolved) to contemplate, AESCH. Ag. 221.

For τὸ μὴ οὐ with the infinitive after negatived verbs in this construction (e.g. AR. Ran. 68), see 815, 2, and 814.

792. The infinitive with τό as an object accusative may follow verbs which would not allow the simple infinitive in its place. E.g. Τὸ τελευτῆσαι πάντων πεπρωμένη κατέκρινε, τὸ δὲ καλῶς ἀποθανεῖν ἴδιον τοῖς σπουδαίοις ἀπένειμεν, “Fate condemned all mankind to death; but a glorious death she reserved for the virtuous.” ISOC. i. 43. Μόνον ὁρῶν τὸ παίειν τὸν ἁλισκόμενον, “seeing only the beating of the captive.” XEN. Cyr. i. 4, 21. Τὸ μὲν εὐνοέειν τε καὶ προορᾶν ἄγαμαί σευ. HDT. ix. 79.

The double character of the articular infinitive, as noun and verb, permits it to stand as an object wherever the object accusative of a noun would be allowed.

793. A few of the verbs included in 747, which govern the genitive of a noun, allow also the genitive of the infinitive with τοῦ (798), as well as the simple infinitive. This applies chiefly to ἀμελέω, ἐπιμελέομαι, and to the verbs of hindrance etc. included in 807. E.g. Ἀμελήσας τοῦ ὀργίζεσθαι. XEN. Mem. ii. 3, 9. (But ἀμελήσας λέγειν, PLAT. Phaed. 98 D. ) Most verbs of desiring and neglecting take only the simple infinitive. Ἐπιμελέομαι, which usually takes ὅπως with the future indicative (339), allows also the simple infinitive ( THUC. vi. 54), the infinitive with τό ( Lac. v. 7), and the infinitive with τοῦ ( Id. Mem. iii. 3, Id. Mem. 11). (See 361, Id. Mem. 791, and 798.)

794. The infinitive of indirect discourse after verbs of saying and thinking sometimes takes τό. Here each tense of the infinitive preserves its time, and even the infinitive with ἄν occurs. E.g. Ἦμεν δ᾽ ἑτοῖμοι θεοὺς ὀρκωμοτεῖν τὸ μήτε δρᾶσαι μήτε τῳ ξυνειδέναι τὸ πρᾶγμα βουλεύσαντι, to swear that we neither had done it (ἐδράσαμεν) nor were in the secret (ξύνισμεν) of any one who had plotted the deed. SOPH. Ant. 264. Ἐξομεῖ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι; “ will you swear that you have no knowledge?” Ib. 535.Καὶ τὸ προειδέναι γε τὸν θεὸν τὸ μέλλον καὶ τὸ προσημαίνειν βούλεται, τοῦτο πάντες καὶ λέγουσι καὶ νομίζουσιν.XEN. Ap. 13. See also XEN. Hell. v. 2, 36 (814).

(With ἄν.) Τῆς ἐλπίδος γὰρ ἔρχομαι δεδραγμένος, τὸ μὴ παθεῖν ἂν ἄλλο πλὴν τὸ μόρσιμον, “for I come clinging to the hope that I could suffer nothing except what is fated.” SOPH. Ant. 235.For the articular infinitive with ἄν in other constructions, see 212.


Infinitive with τό, after Adjectives and Nouns.

795. In some constructions in which the simple infinitive appears to preserve most distinct traces of its origin as a dative, especially after adjectives or nouns (758; 763; 766), the articular infinitive takes τό as an accusative. E.g. Τὸ δὲ βίᾳ πολιτῶν δρᾶν ἔφυν ἀμήχανος, “but I am helpless to act in defiance of the citizens.” SOPH. Ant. 79. Μακρὸς τὸ κρῖναι ταῦτα χὠ λοιπὸς χρόνος, “a long time to settle this.” Id. El. 1030 (cf. χρόνος βραχὺς διηγήσασθαι, a time short for narrating, under 763). Τὸ μὴ βλέπειν ἑτοίμα, “ready to cease beholding the light.” Ib. 1079 (see 758). Τὸ προσταλαιπωρεῖν οὐδεὶς πρόθυμος ἦν. THUC. ii. 53. Τὸ μὲν ἐς τὴν γῆν ἡμῶν ἐσβάλλειν, κἂν μὴ ἐκπλεύσωμεν, THUC. i ῾κανοί εἰσι. Id. vi. 17. Ἐς δέον πάρεσθ᾽ ὅδε Κρέων τὸ πράσσειν καὶ τὸ βουλεύειν, “he is here at the right moment to act and advise.” SOPH. O.T. 1416. Αἴτιος τὸ σὲ ἀποκρίνεσθαι μὴ τοῦτο. PLAT. Lach. 190 E. (This is rare, but see DEM. viii. 56, DEM. ix. 63. Αἴτιος generally has the infinitive with τοῦ, DEM. 798, or the simple infinitive, DEM. 749.

ναυμαχία οὐχὶ δικαίαν ἔχει τέκμαρσιν τὸ ἐκφοβῆσαι, “the seafight offers no just ground for alarm.” THUC. ii. 87.Οὐδὲ τοὐξανιστάναι ἐστὶ θάρσος,” “nor have I courage to remove you.” SOPH. O.C. 47.

The exact force given to these accusatives by those who used them is not always clear; but they come nearest to the accusative of respect or limitation (as εἶδος κάλλιστος, most beautiful in form). Sometimes the infinitive with τό has this force, where the simple infinitive could not be used; as in LYCURG. 91, ἐπεί γε τὸ ἐλθεῖν τοῦτον, οἶμαι θεόν τινα αὐτὸν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὴν ἀγαγεῖν τὴν τιμωρίαν, for, as to his departure, I think that some God led him directly to punishment.

796. We occasionally find τό with the infinitive in the Mss. in a similar loose construction, where we should expect the infinitive with τοῦ or τῷ in apposition with a preceding genitive or dative. See THUC. vii. 36, τῇ πρότερον ἀμαθίᾳ δοκούσῃ εἶναι, τὸ ἀντίπρῳρον ξυγκροῦσαι, and viii. 87, καταβοῆς ἕνεκα τῆς ἐς Λακεδαίμονα, τὸ λέγεσθαι ὡς οὐκ ἀδικεῖ, where most editors now read τῷ and τοῦ against the Mss. But Birklein defends the Mss. readings by HYPER. Epitaph. 2, ἄξιον δέ ἐστιν ἐπαινεῖν τὴν μὲν πόλιν ἡμῶν τῆς προαιρέσεως ἕνεκεν, τὸ προελέσθαι ὅμοια, . . . τοὺς δὲ τετελευτηκότας τῆς ἀνδρείας, τὸ μὴ καταισχῦναι τὰς τῶν προγόνων ἀρετάς, where the two infinitives with τό explain προαιρέσεως and ἀνδρείας. (See 804.)

797. The infinitive with τό appears in its greatest variety of meanings in the construction of τὸ μή or τὸ μὴ οὐ after verbs implying a negative (811). See also 813 and 814.


Infinitive with τοῦ, τῷ, and τό, as a Noun, in various Constructions.

798. The infinitive with τοῦ appears as an adnominal genitive, a genitive after verbs and adjectives and with comparatives, a partitive genitive, a genitive absolute, and a genitive expressing cause, purpose, or motive. E.g. Τοῦ πιεῖν ἐπιθυμία, “the desire to drink.” THUC. vii. 84. Πόνους δὲ τοῦ ζῆν ἡδέως ἡγεμόνας νομίζετε. XEN. Cyr. i. 5, 12. Πρὸς τὴν πόλιν προσβαλόντες ἐς ἐλπίδα ἦλθον τοῦ ἑλεῖν, i.e. hope of taking the city. THUC. ii. 56 (see 749). Τὸ γὰρ εὖ πράττειν παρὰ τὴν ἀξίαν ἀφορμὴ τοῦ κακῶς φρονεῖν τοῖς ἀνοήτοις γίγνεται, “for doing well beyond their deserts sets fools to thinking ill.” DEM. i. 23. δὲ διαγνώμη αὕτη τῆς ἐκκλησίας τοῦ τὰς σπονδὰς λελύσθαι, “this vote of the assembly that the treaty had been broken.” THUC. i. 87.See XEN. Cyr. i. 4, 4.

Δόξετε αἴτιοι εἶναι, ἄρξαντες τοῦ διαβαίνειν, “by having begun the passage of the river.” XEN. An. i. 4, 15. Ὀρεγόμενοι τοῦ πρῶτος ἕκαστος γίγνεσθαι, “being eager each to be first.” THUC. ii. 65. Παρεκάλει ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τοῦ ὡς φρονιμώτατον εἶναι. XEN. Mem. i. 2, 55 ; so iii. 3, XEN. Mem. 11. (See 793.) Ἐπέσχομεν τοῦ δακρύειν, “we ceased to weep.” PLAT. Phaed. 117 E. (See below, E. 807.) Καὶ γὰρ ἀήθεις τοῦ κατακούειν τινός εἰσιν, “for they are unused to obeying any one.” DEM. i. 23.See xxix. 17. Ἄξιος αὐτοῖς ἐδόκεις εἶναι τοῦ τοιαῦτ᾽ ἀκούειν. Id. xxi. 134. Τοὺς καρποὺς, οἳ τοῦ μὴ θηριωδῶς ζῆν ἡμᾶς αἴτιοι γεγόνασι, the fruits of the earth, which are the cause of our not living like beasts. ISOC. iv. 28. Κατηράσατο τῷ αἰτίῳ τοῦ μὴ πάλαι ἀποδεδόσθαι τὸν μισθόν, “he cursed him who was responsible for the wages not having been paid long before.” XEN. An. vii. 7, 48. (Αἴτιος may take the simple infinitive and even the infinitive with τό. See 749 and 795.) Πολλάκις δοκεῖ τὸ φυλάξαι τἀγαθὰ τοῦ κτήσασθαι χαλεπώτερον εἶναι. DEM. i. 23.So XEN. Cyr. i. 5, 13. Νέοις τὸ σιγᾶν κρεῖττόν ἐστι τοῦ λαλεῖν. MEN. Mon. 387. Τοῦ θαρσεῖν τὸ πλεῖστον εἰληφότες, i.e. having become most emboldened. THUC. iv. 34. Οὐδὲν οὔτε ἀναιδείας οὔτε τοῦ ψεύδεσθαι παραλείψει. DEM. xxxvii. 45. Εἰς τοῦτ᾽ ἐλήλυθε τοῦ νομίζειν. Id. xxii. 16. Τὸ μεγάλου ἔργου ὄντος τοῦ ἑαυτῷ τὰ δέοντα παρασκευάζειν μὴ ἀρκεῖν τοῦτο. XEN. Mem. ii. 1, 8 (see 806).

Ζηλῶ σε μᾶλλον ᾿μὲ τοῦ μηδὲν φρονεῖν, for want of knowledge. I. A. 677. (Μίνως) τὸ λῃστικὸν καθῄρει, τοῦ τὰς προσόδους μᾶλλον ἰέναι αὐτῳ, “in order that revenues might come in to him more abundantly.” THUC. i. 4.So ii. 22, THUC. 32, THUC. 75, THUC. 93; XEN. Cyr. i. 3, 9. Τοῦ μὴ τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖν, “to escape doing what was just.” DEM. xviii. 107. Πρὸς τὸ πρᾶγμα φιλονεικοῦντα λέγειν τοῦ καταφανὲς γενέσθαι. PLAT. Gorg. 457 E. This final use appears first and chiefly in Thucydides.

799. The infinitive with τῷ may express cause, manner, or means; or it may follow verbs, adjectives, and adverbs which take the dative. E.g. Οὐδὲ τῷ δύνασθαι καὶ εἰωθέναι λέγειν ἐπαρθείς. LYS. xxxi. 2. Οὐδενὶ τῶν πάντων πλέον κεκράτηκε Φίλιππος τῷ πρότερος πρὸς τοῖς πράγμασι γίγνεσθαι. DEM. viii. 11.See xxiii. 9, τῷ μὲν ἀκοῦσαι, τῷ δ᾽ ἔργῳ. Ἀλλὰ τῷ φανερὸς εἶναι τοιοῦτος ὤν, “by making it plain that he was such a man.” XEN. Mem. i. 2, 3. So Cyr. iv. 5, Cyr. 9. Οὐ γὰρ δὴ τῷ γε κοσμίως ζῆν ἄξιον πιστεύειν, “to trust in an orderly life.” ISOC. xv. 24.Ἵνα ἀπιστῶσι τῷ ἐμὲ τετιμῆσθαι ὑπὸ δαιμόνων,” “that they may distrust my having been honoured by divine powers.XEN. Ap. 14. Μεῖζον μέρος νέμοντες τῷ μὴ βούλεσθαι ἀληθῆ εἶναι. THUC. iii. 3. Ἴσον δὲ τῷ προστένειν. AESCH. Ag. 253. Τῷ ζῆν ἔστι τι ἐναντίον, ὥσπερ τῷ ἐγρηγορέναι τὸ καθεύδειν. PLAT. Phaed. 71 C. Ὅμοιόν ἐστι τῳ ὀνειδίζειν. DEM. xviii. 269. Τῷ πλουτεῖν ὑπήκοα, “obedient to wealth.” AR. Pl. 146. Ἅμα τῷ τιμᾶσθαι. PLAT. Rep. 468 D; so ἅμα τῷ τιμᾶν, 468 E

800. The infinitive with the article, as genitive, dative, or accusative, very often follows prepositions, or adverbs used as prepositions. E.g. Τοὺς γὰρ λόγους περὶ τοῦ τιμωρήσασθαι Φίλιππον ὁρῶ γιγνομένους, “for I see that the speeches are made about punishing Philip.” DEM. iii. 1. Πρὸ τοῦ τοὺς ὅρκους ἀποδοῦναι, “before taking the oaths.” Id. xviii. 26. Ἐκ τοῦ πρὸς χάριν δημηγορεῖν ἐνίους. Id. iii. 3. Ἀντὶ τοῦ πόλις εἶναι φρούριον κατέστη. THUC. vii. 28; so i. 69. Ἀπὸ τοῦ πεῖραν διδοὺς ξυνετὸς φαίνεσθαι. Id. i. 138. Ἕνεκα τοῦ πλείω ποιῆσαι τὴν ὑπάρχουσαν οὐσίαν. ISOC. i. 19. Πρὸς τῷ μηδὲν ἐκ τῆς πρεσβείας λαβεῖν, “besides receiving nothing from the embassy.” DEM. xix. 229. Ἐν τῷ πολίτην ποιεῖσθαι (Χαρίδημον), in making Charidemus a citizen. Id. xxiii. 188. Ἐθαυμάζετο ἐπὶ τῷ εὐθύμως ζῆν. XEN. Mem. iv. 8, 2. Ὅμως διὰ τὸ ξένος εἶναι οὐκ ἂν οἴει ἀδικηθῆναι, “on account of being a stranger.” Ib. ii. 1, Ib. 15. Πάντων διαφέρων ἐφαίνετο καὶ εἰς τὸ ταχὺ μανθάνειν δέοι καὶ εἰς τὸ καλῶς ἕκαστα ποιεῖν. Id. Cyr. i. 3, Id. Cyr. 1. Πρὸς τὸ μετρίων δεῖσθαι πεπαιδευμένος. Id. Mem. i. 2, Id. Mem. 1; so DEM. i. 4. Παρὰ τὸ αἰσχρόν τι ὑπομεῖναι. PLAT. Ap. 28 C.

801. The infinitive is not found with ἀνά in any case, with ἀμφί in accusative or dative, with κατά in genitive, with παρά in genitive or dative, with περί in dative, with πρός in genitive, with ὑπέρ in accusative, or with ὑπό in accusative or dative.

802. The genitive of the infinitive with ὑπέρ is often equivalent to a final clause. E.g. Τὰς δεήσεις αἷς κέχρηνταί τινες ὑπὲρ τοῦ τὰ μέτρια καὶ τὰ συνήθη μὴ γίγνεσθαι ἐν τῇ πόλει (= ἵνα μὴ γίγνηται), the solicitations which some have employed in order that moderate counsels and the ordinary principles may not prevail in the state. AESCHIN. iii. 1. Εἰς τὰς τριήρεις ἐμβάντες ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ τὸ κελευόμενον ποιῆσαι (= ἵνα μὴ ποιήσωσιν), embarking on shipboard that they might avoid doing what was bid. DEM. xviii. 204.

803. The article cannot ordinarily be omitted when the infinitive follows a preposition.

a) A singular exception occurs in a few cases of ἀντί with the simple infinitive in Herodotus. See ὃς ἀντὶ μὲν δούλων ἐποίησας ἐλευθέρους Πέρσας εἶναι, ἀντὶ δὲ ἄρχεσθαι ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων ἄρχειν ἁπάντων, i. 210, where the antithesis of ἀντὶ μὲν δούλων makes ἀντὶ δὲ ἄρχεσθαι more natural; also vi. 32 (with no antithesis). So vii. 170 (but with a various reading ἀντὶ τοῦ).

b) Πλήν, except, as an adverb, may have the simple infinitive; as τί ἄλλο πλὴν ψευδῆ λέγειν, SOPH. Ph. 100.So πλὴν γάμου τυχεῖν, AESCH. Eum. 737.

804. An infinitive, with the article in any case, may stand in apposition to a noun in the same case. E.g. τῶν παίδων ἀρχὴ, τὸ μὴ ἐᾶν ἐλευθέρους εἶναι, ἕως, κ.τ.λ., the government of children,—not permitting them to be free, until, etc. PLAT. Rep. 590 E. Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἀδικεῖν, τὸ πλέον τῶν ἄλλων ζητεῖν ἔχειν. Gorg. 483 C. Τοῦτο προσόμοιον ἔχουσι τοῖς τυράννοις, τὸ πολλῶν ἄρχειν. Id. Rep. 578 D. Τί τούτου μακαριώτερον, τοῦ γῇ μιχθῆναι; XEN. Cyr. viii. 7, 25. Δοκεῖ τούτῳ διαφέρειν ἀνὴρ τῶν ἄλλων ζώων, τῷ τιμῆς ὀρέγεσθαι. Id. Hier. vii. 3; so Id. Oec. xiv. 10.

For a few doubtful cases of the infinitive with τό, in apparent apposition with a genitive or dative, see 796.

805. The infinitive with τό is used in exclamations of surprise or indignation. E.g. “Τὸ δὲ μηδὲ κυνῆν οἴκοθεν ἐλθεῖν ἐμὲ τὸν κακοδαίμον᾽ ἔχοντα,” “but to think that I, wretched fellow, should come from home without even my cap!” AR. Nub. 268.Τῆς μωρίας: τὸ Δία νομίζειν, ὄντα τηλικουτονί,” “what folly! to believe in Zeus, now you are so big!” Ib. 819.

For the simple infinitive in these exclamations, see 787.

806. The infinitive with its subject, object, or other adjuncts (sometimes including dependent clauses) may be preceded by the article τό, the whole sentence standing as a single noun, either as the subject or object of a verb, as the object of a preposition, or in apposition with a pronoun like τοῦτο. E.g. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ πολλὰ ἀπολωλεκέναι κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον τῆς ἡμετέρας -ἀμελείας ἄν τις θείη δικαίως: τὸ δὲ μήτε πάλαι τοῦτο πεπονθέναι, πεφηνέναι τέ τινα ἡμῖν συμμαχίαν τούτων ἀντίρροπον, ἂν βουλώμεθα χρῆσθαι, τῆς παρ᾽ ἐκείνων εὐνοίας εὐεργέτημ᾽ ἂν ἔγωγε θείην. DEM. i. 10. Τὸ γὰρ πρὸς ἄνδρα θνητὸν καὶ διὰ καιρούς τινας ἰσχύοντα γράφοντας εἰρήνην ἀθάνατον συνθέσθαι τὴν κατὰ τῆς πόλεως αἰσχύνην, καὶ ἀποστερῆσαι μὴ μόνον τῶν ἄλλων ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν παρὰ τῆς τύχης εὐεργεσιῶν τὴν πόλιν, καὶ τοσαύτῃ περιουσίᾳ χρῆσθαι πονηρίας ὥστε μὴ μόνον τοὺς ὄντας Ἀθηναίους ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ὕστερόν ποτε μέλλοντας ἔσεσθαι πάντας ἠδικηκέναι, πῶς οὐχὶ πάνδεινον ἐστίν; Id. xix. 55.


Simple Infinitive and Infinitive with τοῦ, after Verbs of Hindrance, etc.

Simple Infinitive and Infinitive with τοῦ, after Verbs of Hindrance, etc.8

807. After verbs and other expressions which denote hindrance or freedom from anything, two forms are allowed, the simple infinitive, and the genitive of the infinitive with τοῦ.

Thus we can say (a) εἴργει σε τοῦτο ποιεῖν (747) and (b) εἴργει σε τοῦ τοῦτο ποιεῖν (798), both with the same meaning, he prevents you from doing this. As the infinitive, after verbs implying a negation, can take μή to strengthen the previous negation without otherwise affecting the sense (815, 1), we have a third and a fourth form, still with the same meaning: (c) εἴργει σε μὴ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, and (d) εἴργει σε τοῦ μὴ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, he prevents you from doing this. (For a fifth form, εἴργει σε τὸ μὴ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, with the same meaning, see 811.)

If the leading verb is itself negatived (or is interrogative with a negative implied), the double negative μὴ οὐ is generally used instead of μή in the form (c) with the simple infinitive, but probably never in the form (d) with the genitive of the infinitive; as οὐκ εἴργει σε μὴ οὐ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, he does not prevent you from doing this (815, 2), but not τοῦ μὴ οὐ τοῦτο ποιεῖν. (See also 811, for τὸ μὴ οὐ.) E.g.

a) Κακὸν δὲ ποῖον εἶργε τοῦτ᾽ ἐξειδέναι; SOPH. O.T. 129. Παιδὸς Φέρητος, ὃν θανεῖν ἐρρυσάμην. EUR. Alc. 11. Ἐπὶ Ὀλύνθου ἀποπέμπουσιν, ὅπως εἴργωσι τοὺς ἐκεῖθεν ἐπιβοηθεῖν. THUC. i. 62. Ἄλλως δέ πως πορίζεσθαι τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ὅρκους ἤδη κατέχοντας ἡμᾶς (ᾔδειν). XEN. An. iii. 1, 20. Εὐδοκιμεῖν ἐμποδὼν σφίσιν εἶναι. PLAT. Euthyd. 305 D. Εἰ τοῦτό τις εἴργει δρᾶν ὄκνος, “if any hesitation prevents you from doing this.” Soph. 242 A. Τὴν ἰδέαν τῆς γῆς οὐδέν με κωλύει λέγειν. Plat. Phaed. 108 D. Τὸν Φίλιππον παρελθεῖν οὐκ ἐδύναντο κωλῦσαι. DEM. v. 20.

b) Τοῦ δὲ δραπετεύειν δεσμοῖς ἀπείργουσι; XEN. Mem. ii. 1, 16. Τὸ γὰρ ψευδόμενον φαίνεσθαι καὶ τοῦ συγγνώμης τινὸς τυγχάνειν ἐμποδὼν μάλιστα ἀνθρώποις γίγνεται. Id. Cyr. iii. 1, Id. Cyr. 9. Εἶπεν ὅτι κωλύσειε (ἂν) τοῦ καίειν ἐπιόντας. Id. An. i. 6, Id. An. 2. Ἐπέσχομεν τοῦ δακρύειν. PLAT. Phaed. 117 E (cf. 117 C, quoted in 811). Ἀπεσχόμην τοῦ λαβεῖν τοῦ δικαίου ἕνεκα. DEM. xix. 223.

c) “Θνητούς γ᾽ ἔπαυσα μὴ προσδέρκεσθαι μόρονAESCH. Prom. 248.Τοὐμὸν φυλάξει σ᾽ ὄνομα μὴ πάσχειν κακῶςSOPH. O.C. 667. Ὅπερ ἔσχε μὴ τὴν Πελοπόννησον πορθεῖν, “which prevented him from ravaging the Peloponnesus.” THUC. i. 73. Διεκώλυσε μὴ διαφθεῖραι. Id. iii. 49. Ἐπεγένετο κωλύματα μὴ αὐξηθῆναι. Id. i. 16. Πέμπουσι κήρυκα, ὑποδεξάμενοι σχήσειν τὸν Σπαρτιήτην μὴ ἐξιέναι. HDT. ix. 12.Εἶργε μὴ βλαστάνειν.PLAT. Phaedr. 251 B.

Οὐ γὰρ ἔστι Ἕλλησι οὐδεμία ἔκδυσις μὴ οὐ δόντας λόγον εἶναι σοὺς δούλους. HDT. viii. 100. (See 815, HDT. 2; 816.) Οὐ δυνατοὶ αὐτὴν ἴσχειν εἰσὶ Ἀργεῖοι μὴ οὐκ ἐξιέναι. Id. ix. 12.Ὥστε ξένον γ᾽ ἂν οὐδέν᾽ ὄνθ᾽, ὥσπερ σὺ νῦν, ὑπεκτραποίμην μὴ οὐ συνεκσῴζειν.SOPH. O.C. 565. Τί ἐμποδὼν μὴ οὐχὶ ὑβριζομένους ἀποθανεῖν; XEN. An. iii. 1, 13. (Τί ἐμποδών implies οὐδὲν ἐμποδών.) Τίνος ἂν δέοιο μὴ οὐχὶ πάμπαν εὐδαίμων εἶναι; “ what would hinder you from being perfectly happy?” Id. Hell. iv. 1, Id. Hell. 36.

d) Πᾶς γὰρ ἀσκὸς δύο ἄνδρας ἕξει τοῦ μὴ καταδῦναι, i.e. will keep two men from sinking. XEN. An. iii. 5, 11. Ὃν οὐδείς πω προθεὶς τοῦ μὴ πλέον ἔχειν ἀπετράπετο. THUC. i. 76. Εἰ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐμποδών τι αὐτῷ ἐγένετο τοῦ μὴ εὐθὺς τότε δικάσασθαι. DEM. xxxiii. 25. Ἠπίστατο τὴν πόλιν μικρὸν ἀπολιποῦσαν τοῦ μὴ ταῖς ἐσχάταις συμφοραῖς περιπεσεῖν. ISOC. xv. 122. Ἀποσοβοῦντες ἂν ἐμποδὼν γίγνοιντο τοῦ μὴ ὁρᾶν αὐτοὺς τὸ ὅλον στράτευμα. XEN. Cyr. ii. 4, 23. Εἰδότες ὅτι ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ εἰσι τοῦ μηδὲν παθεῖν. Ib. iii. 3, Ib. 31 (cf. THUC. vi. 18, quoted in 749). Τοῦ δὲ μὴ (κακῶς) πάσχειν αὐτοὶ πᾶσαν ἄδειαν ἤγετε, “you were entirely free from fear of suffering harm.” DEM. xix. 149. Ἐνούσης οὐδεμιᾶς ἔτ᾽ ἀποστροφῆς τοῦ μὴ τὰ χρήματ᾽ ἔχειν ὑμᾶς, there being no longer any escape from the conclusion that you have taken bribes (from your having bribes). Id. xxiv. 9.

The last two examples show that the genitive of the infinitive can take μή, even after nouns implying hindrance or freedom. In the two following, the addition of μή is more peculiar:—

ἀπορία τοῦ μὴ ἡσυχάζειν, “the inability to rest.” THUC. ii. 49. Τῇ τοῦ μὴ ξυμπλεῖν ἀπιστίᾳ, through distrust of sailing with them; i.e. through unwillingness to sail, caused by distrust. Id. iii. 75.

808. The infinitive with τοῦ μή can be used as a genitive in its ordinary negative sense; as οὔτε ἔστιν οὐδεμία πρόφασις ἡμῖν τοῦ μὴ δρᾶν ταῦτα, “no ground for not doing this.” PLAT. Tim. 20 C. See also examples in 798.

809. Although μὴ οὐ is more common than μή after negatives in the form (c), the simple μή sometimes occurs. E.g. Οὐ πολὺν χρόνον μ᾽ ἐπέσχον μή με ναυστολεῖν ταχύ. SOPH. Ph. 349. Οὐδέ μ᾽ ὄμματος φρουρὰν παρῆλθε, τόνδε μὴ λεύσσειν στόλον. Id. Tr. 226.

810. The infinitive in the forms (a), (c), and (d), (but, according to Madvig, not in the form (b), with τοῦ without μή) may follow negatives in the construction of 807. See the examples.


Infinitive with τὸ μή, or τὸ μὴ οὐ.

811. The infinitive with τὸ μή is used after many verbs and expressions which denote or even imply hindrance, prevention, omission, or denial, the μή merely strengthening the negative idea of the leading verb. If the leading verb is itself negatived, or is interrogative with a negative implied, τὸ μὴ οὐ is generally used with the infinitive instead of τὸ μή (compare 807).

This infinitive with τὸ μή or τὸ μὴ οὐ is often less closely connected with the leading verb than the simple infinitive (see 791), and it sometimes denotes merely the result of a prevention or omission. It is sometimes an object accusative, as after expressions of denial; but it oftener resembles the accusative of respect or limitation. It adds a fifth expression, εἴργει σε τὸ μὴ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, to the four already given in 807 as equivalents of he prevents you from doing this; and a corresponding form, οὐκ εἴργει σε τὸ μὴ οὐ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, for he does not prevent you from doing this. E.g.

Τὸν πλεῖστον ὅμιλον εἶργον τὸ μὴ προεξιόντας τῶν ὅπλων τὰ ἐγγὺς τῆς πόλεως κακουργεῖν, they prevented them from injuring, etc. THUC.iii. 1. Τὸ δὲ μὴ λεηλατῆσαι ἑλόντας σφέας τὴν πόλιν ἔσχε τόδε, “this prevented them from plundering the city.” HDT. v. 101. Οἷοί τε ἦσαν κατέχειν τὸ μὴ δακρύειν, “to restrain their tears.” PLAT. Phaed. 117 C (cf. 117 E, quoted in 807). Φόβος τε ξυγγενὴς τὸ μὴ ἀδικεῖν σχήσει, “will check injustice.” AESCH. Eum. 691. Οὗτοί εἰσιν μόνοι ἔτι ἡμῖν ἐμποδὼν τὸ μὴ ἤδη εἶναι ἔνθα πάλαι ἐσπεύδομεν. XEN. An. iv. 8, 14. Κίμωνα παρὰ τρεῖς ἀφεῖσαν ψήφους τὸ μὴ θανάτῳ ζημιῶσαι, i.e. by three votes they allowed Cimon to escape the punishment of death. DEM. xxiii. 205. Τρεῖς δὲ μόναι ψῆφοι διήνεγκαν τὸ μὴ θανάτου τιμῆσαι, and only three votes prevented you from condemning him to death (lit. made the difference about condemning, etc.). Ib. 167.See XEN. Cyr. v. 1, 25 , and Ag. v. 4. Φόβος γὰρ ἀνθ᾽ ὕπνου παραστατεῖ τὸ μὴ βεβαίως βλέφαρα συμβαλεῖν ὕπνῳ, i.e. stands by to prevent my closing my eyes in sleep. AESCH. Ag. 15.

Οὐκ ἐναντιώσομαι τὸ μὴ οὐ γεγωνεῖν πᾶν ὅσον προσχρῄζετεProm. 786.Οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτῷ ταῦτ᾽ ἐπαρκέσει τὸ μὴ οὐ πεσεῖν ἀτίμως πτώματ᾽ οὐκ ἀνασχετά,” “this will not suffice to prevent him from falling, etc.” Ib. 918. Λείπει μὲν οὐδ᾽ πρόσθεν ᾔδεμεν τὸ μὴ οὐ βαρύστον᾽ εἶναι, “they have no lack of being heavily grievous.” SOPH. O.T. 1232. Μήτοι, κασιγνήτη, μ᾽ ἀτιμάσῃς τὸ μὴ οὐ θανεῖν τε σὺν σοὶ τὸν θανόντα θ᾽ ἁγνίσαι, do not think me too unworthy to die with thee, etc. Id. Ant. 544. (Compare Ant. 22, and O. C. 49.) Οὐκ ἀπεσχόμην τὸ μὴ οὐκ ἐπὶ τοῦτο ἐλθεῖν, “I did not refrain from proceeding to this subject.” PLAT. Rep. 354 B; see Crit. 43 C. Οὐκ ἀπέσχοντο οὐδ᾽ ἀπὸ τῶν φίλων τὸ μὴ οὐχὶ πλεονεκτεῖν αὐτῶν πειρᾶσθαι. XEN. Cyr. i. 6, 32. Αὐτὴν μὲν οὐ μισοῦντ᾽ ἐκείνην τὴν πόλιν τὸ μὴ οὐ μεγάλην εἶναι κεὐδαίμονα, not grudging that city its right to be great, etc. AR. Av. 36. (Compare μίσησέν μιν κυσὶ κύρμα γενέσθαι, Il. xvii. 272.) Οὐδεὶς ἀντιλέγει τὸ μὴ οὐ λέξειν τι ἕκαστος ἡγεῖται πλείστου ἄξιον ἐπίστασθαι, no one objects to saying, etc. Symp. iii. 3. Μὴ παρῇς τὸ μὴ οὐ φράσαι, “do not omit to speak of it.” SOPH. O.T. 283. Οὐδένα δύνασθαι κρύπτειν τὸ μὴ οὐχ ἡδέως ἂν καὶ ὠμῶν ἐσθίειν αὐτῶν, “that no one is able to prevent people from knowing that he would gladly even eat some of them raw.” XEN. Hell. iii. 3, 6.

812. The form τὸ μὴ is more common here when the leading verb is negative, where regularly τὸ μὴ οὐ would be used, than μή for μὴ οὐ in the corresponding case (809). E.g. Οὐκ ἂν ἐσχόμην τὸ μὴ ἀποκλῇσαι τοὐμὸν ἄθλιον δέμας. SOPH. O.T. 1387. Τίς σοῦ ἀπελείφθη τὸ μή σοι ἀκολουθεῖν; i.e. who failed to follow you? XEN. Cyr. v. 1, 25. Ἄκος δ᾽ οὐδὲν ἐπήρκεσαν τὸ μὴ πόλιν μὲν ὥσπερ οὖν ἔχει παθεῖν. AESCH. Ag. 1170. Καὶ φημὶ δρᾶσαι κοὐκ ἀπαρνοῦμαι τὸ μή. SOPH. Ant. 443. Οὐδ᾽ ἄρνησις ἔστιν αὐτοῖς τὸ μὴ ταῦθ᾽ ὑπὲρ Φιλίππου πράττειν, “it is not even possible for them to deny that they did these things in the interesi of Philip.” DEM. xix. 163; so xx. 135. So perhaps we may explain τὸ μὴ ἐπιβουλεύειν in HDT. i. 209 (see § 814).

813. Although the infinitive with τὸ μή is most frequently used (as in 811) after verbs containing a negative idea, it can also have a negative sense as the object of other verbs or with adjectives. See τὸ μὴ σφάλλεσθαι ἐπιμελεῖσθαι (quoted in 791), and τὸ μὴ βλέπειν ἑτοίμα (quoted in 795), in both of which the infinitive is really negatived by μή. We must distinguish also the use of τοῦ μή with the infinitive as an ordinary negative expression (see examples in 798) from that which is explained in 807. Compare, likewise, τὸ μὴ οὐ with the infinitive in 814 and in 811. The nature of the leading verb will always make the force of the negative plain. We have the same distinction, with the simple infinitive, between ἀναγκάζει σε μὴ ἐλθεῖν, he compels you not to go (747), and εἴργει σε μὴ ἐλθεῖν, he prevents you from going (807).

814. The infinitive with τὸ μὴ οὐ may be used in a negative sense in various constructions with verbs and expressions which do not have a negative meaning, provided these are themselves negatived or are interrogative implying a negative. Though τὸ μὴ οὐ is more common here, τὸ μή is also allowed. E.g. “Κουδείς γέ μ᾽ ἂν πείσειεν ἀνθρώπων τὸ μὴ οὐκ ἐλθεῖν ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν,” “and no man can persuade me not to go after him.” AR. Ran. 68. Οὐ μέντοι ἔπειθέ γε τὸ μὴ οὐ μεγαλοπράγμων τε καὶ κακοπράγμων εἶναι, “but he did not persuade them that he was not full of great and evil undertakings.” XEN. Hell. v. 2, 36. (For similar expressions with μὴ οὐ without τό, see 749 and 815, 2) Τοῖς θεοῖς οὐδὲν ἂν ἔχοιμεν μέμψασθαι τὸ μὴ οὐχὶ πάντα πεπραχέναι, we cannot blame the Gods for not having done everything. Id. Cyr. vii. 5. 42 (cf. “ταῦτ᾽ οὖν ὑμῖν μέμφομαι,AR. Nub. 525 ). Οὐδὲ ὅσιον ἔμοιγε εἶναι φαίνεται τὸ μὴ οὐ βοηθεῖν τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις πάντα ἄνδρα. Leg. 891 A. Ἄλογον τὸ μὴ οὐ τέμνειν. Soph. 219 E (see 817). Τοῖς δὲ οὐδὲ λόγος λείπεται τὸ μὴ οὐ πονηροῖς εἶναι. DEM. xxiv. 69.9

Οὔκων ἐστὶ μηχανὴ οὐδεμία τὸ μὴ ἐκεῖνον ἐπιβουλεύειν ἐμοί, “there is then no way by which I can believe that he is not plotting against me.” HDT. i. 209 (cf. PLAT. Phaed. 72 D). “Ἕξει τίνα γνώμην λέγειν τὸ μὴ εὐρύπρωκτος εἶναι;AR. Nub. 1084. Ἔφη οὐχ οἷόν τε εἶναι τὸ μὴ ἀποκτεῖναί με, “he said it was not possible not to condemn me to death.” PLAT. Ap. 29 C.


μὴ οὐ with Infinitive and Participle, and (Rarely) with Nouns.

815. 1. The use of μή with the infinitive in the forms (c) and (d) in 807 is to be referred to the general principle, by which the infinitive after all verbs expressing a negative idea (as those of denying, distrusting, ,concealing, forbidding, preventing, etc.) can always take μή, to strengthen the negation implied in the leading verb. Thus we say ἀρνεῖται μὴ ἀληθὲς εἶναι τοῦτο, he denies that this is true; ἀπηγόρευε μηδένα τοῦτο ποιεῖν, he forbade any one to do this. This μή can, however, be omitted without affecting the sense.

2. An infinitive which for any reason would take μή (either affecting the infinitive itself, as an ordinary negative, or strengthening a preceding negation, as in the case just mentioned) generally takes the double negative μὴ οὐ, if the verb on which it depends is itself negatived or is interrogative with a negation implied. Thus the example given above, ἀρνεῖται μὴ ἀληθὲς εἶναι τοῦτο, if we negative the leading verb, generally becomes οὐκ ἀρνεῖται μὴ οὐκ ἀληθὲς εἶναι τοῦτο, he does not deny that this is true. So, when the original μή really negatives the infinitive, as in δίκαιόν ἐστι μὴ τοῦτον ἀφιέναι, it is just not to acquit him, if we negative the leading verb, we commonly have οὐ δίκαιόν ἐστι μὴ οὐ τοῦτον ἀφιέναι, it is not just not to acquit him. E.g.

Ὡς οὐχ ὅσιόν σοι ὂν μὴ οὐ βοηθεῖν δικαιοσύνῃ, because (you said) it would be impious for you not to bring aid to Justice. PLAT. Rep. 427 E. Οὐκ ἂν πιθοίμην μὴ οὐ τάδ᾽ ἐκμαθειν σαφῶς, “I cannot consent not to learn the whole.” SOPH. O.T. 1065. Ἄνδρα δ᾽ οὐκ ἔστι μὴ οὐ κακὸν ἔμμεναι, “it is not possible for a man not to be base.” SIMON. v. 10.See also PLAT. Phaed. 72 D (in 749). For examples in which μὴ οὐ strengthens the negation of the leading verb, see 807.

This applies also to the infinitive with τὸ μή. See 811 and 814.

816. When μή or μὴ οὐ with the infinitive follows a verb of hindrance, etc. (807), neither μή nor μὴ οὐ can be translated. When μή really negatives the infinitive (as in the examples last given), μὴ οὐ must be translated by one negative. In PLAT. Rep. 368 B, the passage quoted in 427 E (815, 2, above), Socrates had said δέδοικα μὴ οὐδ᾽ ὅσιον . . . ἀπαγορεύειν καὶ μὴ βοηθεῖν, being prevented from saying μὴ οὐ βοηθεῖν by the previous μὴ οὐδ̓. In XEN. Ap. 34 we have οὔτε μὴ μεμνῆσθαι δύναμαι αὐτοῦ οὔτε μεμνημένος μὴ οὐκ ἐπαινεῖν.

817. Verbs and expressions which contain such negative ideas as impossibility, difficulty, unwillingness, or impropriety sometimes take μὴ οὐ (instead of the simple μή) with the infinitive, to express a real negation, even when the leading verb is not negatived. E.g. Δήμου ἄρχοντος ἀδύνατα μὴ οὐ κακότητα ἐγγίνεσθαι, it is impossible that vice should not come in (as if it were οὐ δυνατά). HDT. iii. 82. Δεινὸν ἐδόκεε εἶναι