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1190. The nominative of the personal pronoun is usually omitted except when emphatic, e.g. in contrasts, whether expressed or implied: ἐπεὶ ὑ_μεῖς ἐμοὶ οὐ θέλετε πείθεσθαι, ἐγω σὺν ὑ_μῖν ἕψομαι since you are not willing to obey me, I will follow along with you X. A. 1.3.6. In contrasts the first pronoun is sometimes omitted (930).

1191. Where there is no contrast the addition of the pronoun may strengthen the verb: ““εἰ μηδὲ τοῦτο βούλει ἀποκρί_νασθαι, σὺ δὲ τοὐντεῦθεν λέγεif you do not wish to reply even to this, tell me thenX. C. 5.5.21.

1192. The forms ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, and ἐμέ and the accented forms of the pronoun of the second person (325 a) are used when emphatic and usually after prepositions: ““καὶ πείσα_ς ἐμὲ πιστὰ ἔδωκάς μοι καὶ ἔλαβες παρ᾽ ἐμοῦand after prevailing on me you gave me pledges of faith and received them from meX. A. 1.6.7. Cp. 187 N. 2. On the reflexive use of the personal pronouns of the first and second persons, see 1222-1224.

1193. ἐγώ, σύ (ἐμός, σός) are rarely used of an imaginary person (‘anybody’): D. 9.17, X. R. A. 1.11.

1194. The nominative of the pronoun of the third person is replaced by ἐκεῖνος (of absent persons), ὅδε, οὗτος (of present persons), μέν . . . δέ (at the beginning of a sentence), and by αὐτός in contrasts. The oblique cases of the foregoing replace οὗ, etc., which in Attic prose are usually indirect reflexives (1228, 1229). οὗ and in Attic prose occur chiefly in poetical passages of Plato; in Attic poetry they are personal pronouns. The pronoun of the third person is very rare in the orators.

1195. Homer uses ἕο, οἷ, etc., as personal pronouns ( = αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ, etc., in Attic), in which case they are enclitic: διὰ μαντοσύνην, τήν οἱ πόρε Φοῖβος by the art of divination, which Phoebus gave to him A 72. Homer also uses ἕο, οἷ, etc., either as direct ( = ἑαυτοῦ, etc., 1218) or as indirect reflexives ( = αὐτοῦ, etc., 1225). In the former case they are orthotone; in the latter, either enclitic or orthotone. Thus, οί̂ παῖδα ἐοικότα γείνατο he begat a son like unto himself E 800, οὔ τινά φησιν ὁμοῖον οἶ ἔμεναι Δαναῶν he says there is no one of the Danaans like unto himself I 306. Hdt. agrees with Hom. except that εὗ, οἷ are not direct reflexives and orthotone; σφίσι (not σφί) is reflexive.


For the article with a possessive pronoun see 1182-1183.

1196. The possessive pronouns (330) of the first and second persons are the equivalents of the possessive genitive of the personal pronouns: ἐμός μου, σός σου, ἡμέτερος ἡμῶν, ὑ_μέτερος ὑ_μῶν.

a. When the possessives refer to a definite, particular thing, they have the article, which always precedes (1182); the personal pronouns have the predicate position (1185). Distinguish ἐμὸς φίλος, φίλος ἐμός, φίλος μου my friend from φίλος ἐμός, φίλος μου a friend of mine.

b. A word may stand in the genitive in apposition to the personal pronoun implied in a possessive pronoun. See 977.

1197. A possessive pronoun may have the force of an objective genitive (cp. 1331) of the personal pronoun: ““φιλίᾳ τῇ ἐμῇout of friendship for meX. C. 3.1.28. (φιλία_ ἐμή usually means my friendship (for others)).

1198. The possessive pronouns of the first and second persons are sometimes reflexive (when the subject of the sentence and the possessor are the same person), sometimes not reflexive.


1. Not reflexive (adjective my, thy (your); pronoun mine, thine (yours)).

ἐμός, σός: ὁρᾷ τὸν ἐμὸν φίλον he sees my friend, ὁρᾷ τὸν σὸν πατέρα she sees your father, στέργει τὸν ἐμὸν πατέρα he loves my father (or τὸν πατέρα τὸν ἐμόν or πατέρα τὸν ἐμόν; or τὸν πατέρα μου or μου τὸν πατέρα), ““οἱ ἐμοὶ ὀφθαλμοὶ καλλί_ονες ἂν τῶν σῶν εἴησανmy eyes will prove to be more beautiful than yoursX. S. 5. 5.

2. Reflexive (my own, thine (your) own).

a. ἐμαυτοῦ, σεαυτοῦ, in the attributive position (very common): ἔλαβον τὸν ἐμαυτοῦ μισθόν (or τὸν μισθὸν τὸν ἐμαυτοῦ) I received my (own) pay, τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν ἐμαυτοῦ ἔπεμψα I sent my (own) brother Aes. 2.94, κἀ_πὶ τοῖς σαυτῆς κακοῖσι κἀ_πὶ τοῖς ἐμοῖς γελᾷς; art thou laughing at thine own misery and at mine? S. El. 879.

b. ἐμός, σός (less common): στέργω τὸν ἐμὸν πατέρα I love my (own) father, στέργεις τὴν σὴν μητέρα you love your (own) mother, ““ ἐμὴ γυνὴmy wifeX. C. 7.2.28, ““ἀδελφὸς τῆς μητρὸς τῆς ἐμῆςbrother of my motherAnd. 1.117.

c. ἐμὸς αὐτοῦ, σὸς αὐτοῦ (poetical): τὸν ἐμὸν αὐτοῦ πατέρα (β 45, S. O. T. 416).

d. μου, σου (rare): τὸν πατέρα μου Ant. 1.23.

N.—When the possessor is not to be mistaken, the article alone is placed before the substantive and the possessive or reflexive pronoun is omitted (cp. 1121). Thus, στέργεις τὸν πατέρα you love your (own) father, στέργει τὸν πατέρα he loves his (own) father, στέργουσι τὸν πατέρα they love their (own) father.


1. Not reflexive (adjective our, your; pronoun ours, yours).

a. ἡμέτερος, ὑ_μέτερος: ἡμέτερος φίλος our friend (more common than φίλο<*> ἡμῶν), ὑ_μέτερος φίλος your friend (more common than φίλος ὑ_μῶν), ““ζήτησιν ποιούμενοι ὑ_μῶν τῶν ὑ_μετέρων τινόςmaking a search for you or for anything of yoursL. 12.30.

2. Reflexive (our own, your own).

a. ἡμέτερος, ὑ_μέτερος (common): στέργομεν τὸν ἡμέτερον φίλον we love our own friend, στέργετε τὸν ὑ_μέτερον φίλον you love your own friend.

b. Usually the intensive αὐτῶν is used with ἡμέτερος, ὑ_μέτερος in agreement with ἡμῶν (ὑ_μῶν) implied in the possessive forms. This gives a stronger form of reflexive. Thus:

ἡμέτερος αὐτῶν, ὑ_μέτερος αὐτῶν: στέργομεν τὸν ἡμέτερον αὐτῶν φίλον we love our own friend, ““οἰκοδόμημα τῶν φίλων τινὶ ἡμέτερον αὐτῶνa house either for some one of our friends or our ownP. G. 514b; στέργετε τὸν ὑ_μέτερον αὐτῶν φίλον you love your own friend, ““διδάσκετε τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ὑ_μετέρους αὐτῶνteach your own childrenI. 3.57.

c. ἡμῶν, ὑ_μῶν (rare): αἰτιώμεθατοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν let us accuse our (own) fathers P. Lach. 179c.

d. ἡμῶν αὐτῶν, ὑ_μῶν αὐτῶν (very rare): δίκαιον ἡμᾶς . . . φαίνεσθαι μήτε ἡμῶν ““αὐτῶν τῆς δόξης ἐνδεεστέρουςit is not right for us to show ourselves inferior to our own fameT. 2.11, ““τὰ τῶν ἵππων καὶ τὰ ὑ_μῶν αὐτῶν ὅπλαthe equipments both of your horses and yourselvesX. C. 6.3.21.


1. Not reflexive (his, her, its).

a. αὐτοῦ, αὐτῆς, αὐτοῦ in the predicate position (very common): ὁρῶ τὸν φίλον αὐτοῦ (αὐτῆς) I see his (her) friend, ““γιγνώσκων αὐτοῦ τὴν ἀνδρεία_νknowing his courageP. Pr. 310d.

b. ἐκείνου, etc., or τούτου, etc. in the attributive position (very common): ὁρῶ τὸν ἐμὸν φίλον, οὐ τὸν ἐκείνου I see my friend, not his, ““ἀφικνοῦνται παρ᾽ Ἀριαῖον καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου στρατιά_νthey come up with Ariaeus and his armyX. A. 2.2.8, ““παρεκάλεσέ τινας τῶν τούτου ἐπιτηδείωνhe summoned some of his friendsL. 3.11.

c. ὅς, , ὅν, Hom. ἑός, ἑή, ἑόν (poetical): ““τὴν γῆμεν ἑὸν διὰ κάλλοςhe married her because of her beautyλ 282. Hom. has εὗ rarely for αὐτοῦ, αὐτῆς.

2. Reflexive (his own, her own).

a. ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, in the attributive position (very common): στέργει τὸν ἑαυτοῦ φίλον he loves his own friend, ο:ρᾷ τὴν ἑαυτῆς μητέρα she sees her own mother, ““τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀδελφὴν δίδωσι Σεύθῃhe gives his own sister in marriage to SeuthesT. 2.101, ““ὑβρίζει γυναῖκα τὴν ἑαυτοῦhe misuses his own wifeAnd. 4.15. This is the only way in prose to express his own, her own.

b. ὅς (ἑός): poetical. Sometimes in Homer ὅς (ἑός) has the sense of own with no reference to the third person (1230 a).

c. ὃς αὐτοῦ, αὐτῆς (poetical): ὃν αὐτοῦ πατέρα (K 204).


1. Not reflexive (their).

a. αὐτῶν in the predicate position (very common): φίλος αὐτῶν their friend.

b. ἐκείνων, τούτων in the attributive position (very common): τούτων (ἐκείνων) φίλος their friend, ““διὰ τὴν ἐκείνων ἀπιστία_νbecause of distrust of themAnd. 3.2.

c. σφέων (Ionic): Hdt. 5.58.

2. Reflexive (their own).

a. ἑαυτῶν (very common): στέργουσι τοὺς ἑαυτῶν φίλους they love their own friends, ““τῶν ἑαυτῶν συμμάχων κατεφρόνουνthey despised their own alliesX. H. 4.4.7.

b. σφέτερος αὐτῶν, the intensive αὐτῶν agreeing with σφῶν implied in σφέτερος (common): ““οἰκέτα_ς τοὺς σφετέρους αὐτῶν ἐπικαλοῦνταιthey call their own slaves as witnessesAnt. 1.30.

c. σφῶν αὐτῶν, without the article (rare): ““τὰ ὀνόματα διαπρά_ττονται σφῶν αὐτῶν προσγραφῆναιthey contrived that their own names were addedL. 13.72. Cp. 1234. τὸν σφῶν αὐτῶν is not used.

d. σφέτερος (rare in prose): ““Βοιωτοὶ μέρος τὸ σφέτερον παρείχοντοthe Boeotians furnished their own contingentT. 2.12.

e. σφῶν in the predicate position, occasionally in Thucydides, as τοὺς ξυμμάχουι ἐδέδισαν σφῶν they were afraid of their own allies 5. 14. Cp. 1228 N. 2.

1203. Summary of possessive forms (poetical forms in parenthesis).

a. Not reflexive

his, herὄς Hom., rare)αὐτοῦ, -ῆς
εὗ Hom., rare)
σφέων Ionic)

N.—ἡμέτερος and ὑ_μέτερος are more used than ἡμῶν and ὑ_μῶν.

b. Reflexive

my own ἐμόςἐμὸς αὐτοῦ, -ῆςἐμαυτοῦ, -ῆς
thy own σόςσὸς αὐτοῦ, -ῆςσεαυτοῦ, -ῆς
his, her
own (ὅςὃς αὐτοῦ, -ῆςἑαυτοῦ, -ῆς
(poet. and
our ownἡμέτεροςἡμέτερος αὐτῶν
your ownὑ_μέτεροςυμέτερος αὐτῶν
their ownσφέτεροςσφέτερος αὐτῶν
(rare)ἑαυτῶν, σφῶν
σφῶν αὐτῶν

N.—In the plural ἡμῶν αὐτῶν, ὑ_μῶν αὐτῶν are replaced by ἡμέτερος αὐτῶν, ὑ_μέτερος αὐτῶν, and these forms are commoner than ἡμέτερος, ὑ_μέτερος. σφέτερος αὐτῶν is less common than ἑαυτῶν. σφέτερος in poetry may mean mine own, thine own, your own.


1204. αὐτός is used as an adjective and as a pronoun. It has three distinct uses: (1) as an intensive adjective pronoun it means self (ipse). (2) As an adjective pronoun, when preceded by the article, it means same (idem). (3) In oblique cases as the personal pronoun of the third person, him, her, it, them (eum, eam, id, eos, eas, ea).

1205. Only the first two uses are Homeric. In Hom. αὐτός denotes the principal person or thing, in opposition to what is subordinate, and is intensive by contrast: αὐτὸν καὶ θεράποντα the man himself and his attendant Z 18 (cp. σώσα_σ᾽ αὐτὸν καὶ παῖδας P. G. 511e and see 1208 d). On αὐτός as a reflexive, see 1228 a; on αὐτός emphatic with other pronouns, see 1233 ff.

1206. αὐτός is intensive (self)

a. In the nominative case, when standing alone: αὐτοὶ τὴν γῆν ἔσχον they (the Athenians) seized the land themselves T. 1.114. Here αὐτός emphasizes the word understood and is not a personal pronoun.

b. In any case, when in the predicate position (1168) with a substantive, or in agreement with a pronoun: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ, ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself, αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἀνδρός, τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτοῦ, etc.

1207. With a proper name or a word denoting an individual, the article is omitted: ““αὐτὸς ΜένωνMenon himselfX. A. 2.1.5, πρὸ αὐτοῦ βασιλέως in front of the Great King himself 1. 7. 11.

1208. The word emphasized may be an oblique case which must be supplied: ἔλεγε δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς Βρα_σίδα_ς τῇ Θεσσαλῶν γῇ καὶ αὐτοῖς (scil. τοῖς Θεσσαλοῖς) φίλος ὢν ἰέναι and Brasidas himself also said that he came as a friend to the country of the Thessalians and to the Thessalians themselves T. 4.78, δεῖ τοίνυν τοῦτ᾽ ἤδη σκοπεῖν (scil. ἡμᾶς) ““αὐτούςwe must forthwith consider this matter ourselvesD. 2.2.

1209. Special renderings of the emphatic αὐτός:

a. By itself, in itself, unaided, alone, etc.: ““αὐτὴ ἀλήθειαthe naked truthAes. 3.207, τὸ πλέον τοῦ χωρίου αὐτὸ καρτερὸν ὑπῆρχε the greater part of the place was strong in itself (without artificial fortification) T. 4.4. On αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσι men and all, see 1525. αὐτό with a noun of any gender is used by Plato to denote the abstract idea of a thing: αὐτὸ τὸ καλόν ideal beauty R. 493 e, αὐτὸ δικαιοσύνη ideal justice 472 c.

b. Just, merely: ““αὐτὸ τὸ δέονjust what we wantX. A. 4.7.7, ““αὐτὰ τάδεmerely thisT. 1.139.

c. Voluntarily: ““ἄνδρας οἳ καὶ τοῖς μὴ ἐπικαλουμένοις αὐτοὶ ἐπιστρατεύουσιmen who uninvited turn their arms even against those who do not ask their assistanceT. 4.60.

d. The Master (said by a pupil or slave): Αὐτὸς ἔφα_ the Master (Pythagoras) said it (ipse dixit) Diog. Laert. 8.1. 46, ““τίς οὗτος; Αὐτός. τίς Αὐτός; ΣωκράτηςWho's this? The Master. Who's the Master? SocratesAr. Nub. 220.

e. With ordinals: ᾑρέθη πρεσβευτὴς δέκατος αὐτός he was chosen envoy with nine others (i.e. himself the tenth) X. H. 2.2.17.

1210. After the article, in the attributive position (1154), αὐτός in any case means same.

Thus αὐτὸς ἀνήρ, rarely () ἀνὴρ αὐτός the same man; ““τοῦ αὐτοῦ θέρουςin the same summerT. 4.58, ““τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦταthese same thingsX. A. 1.1.7, ““οἱ τοὺς αὐτοὺς αἰεὶ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν λόγους λέγοντεςthe people who are continually making the same speeches about the same thingsAnt. 5.50.

a. So as a predicate: ἐγὼ μὲν αὐτός εἰμι, ἱ_μεῖς δὲ μεταβάλλετε I am the same, it is you who change T. 2.61.

1211. In Hom. αὐτός, without the article, may mean the same: ““ἦρχε δὲ τῷ αὐτὴν ὁδόν, ἥνπερ οἱ ἄλλοιand he guided him by the same way as the others had goneθ 107.

1212. αὐτός when unemphatic and standing alone in the oblique cases means him, her, it, them. ““ἐκέλευον αὐτὴν ἀπιέναιthey ordered her to departL. 1.12.

1213. Unemphatic αὐτοῦ, etc., do not stand at the beginning of a sentence.

1214. αὐτοῦ, etc., usually take up a preceding noun (the anaphoric use): καλέσα_ς δὲ Δάμνιππον λέγω πρὸς αὐτὸν τάδε summoning Damnippus, I speak to him as follows L. 12.14. But an oblique case of αὐτός is often suppressed where English employs the pronoun of the third person: ἐμπιπλὰ_ς ἁπάντων τὴν γνώμην<*> ἀπέπεμπε having satisfied the minds of all he dismissed them X. A. 1.7.8.

1215. αὐτοῦ, etc., may be added pleonastically; ““πειρά_σομαι τῷ πάππῳ, κράτιστος ὢν ἱππεύς, συμμαχεῖν αὐτῷI will try, since I am an excellent horseman, to be an ally to my grandfatherX. C. 1.3.15.

1216. αὐτοῦ, etc., are emphatic (= αὐτοῦ τούτου, etc.) in a main clause when followed by a relative clause referring to αὐτοῦ, etc.: εἴρηκας αὐτό, δι᾽ ὅπερ ἔγωγε ““τὰ ἐμὰ ἔργα πλείστου ἄξια νομίζω εἶναιyou have mentioned the very quality for which I consider my work worth the highest priceX. M. 3.10.14. But when the relative clause precedes, αὐτοῦ, etc., are not emphatic: ““οὓς δὲ μὴ εὕρισκον, κενοτάφιον αὐτοῖς ἐποίησανthey built a cenotaph for those whom they could not findX. A. 6.4.9.

1217. αὐτοῦ, etc., are often used where, after a conjunction, we expect the oblique case of a relative pronoun: ““ μὴ οἶδε μηδ᾽ ἔχει αὐτοῦ σφρα_γῖδαwhich he does not know nor does he have the seal of itP. Th. 192a.


1218. Direct Reflexives.—The reflexive pronouns are used directly when they refer to the chief word (usually the subject) of the sentence or clause in which they stand.

““γνῶθι σεαυτόνlearn to know thyselfP. Charm. 164e, ““σφάττει ἑαυτήνshe kills herselfX. C. 7.3.14, καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς βουλευσάμενοι τὰ ὅπλα παρέδοσαν καὶ σφᾶς αὐτούς after deliberating apart by themselves they surrendered their arms and themselves (their persons) T. 4.38. Less commonly the reference is to the object, which often stands in a prominent place: ““τοὺς δὲ περιοίκους ἀφῆκεν ἐπὶ τὰ_ς ἑαυτῶν πόλειςbut the perioeci he dismissed to their own citiesX. H. 6.5.21.

1219. The direct reflexives are regular in prose if, in the same clause, the pronoun refers emphatically to the subject and is the direct object of the main verb: ἐμαυτὸν (not ἐμὲ) ἐπαινῶ I praise myself. The usage of poetry is freer: ““στένω σὲ μᾶλλον ᾿μέI mourn thee rather than myselfE. Hipp. 1409.

1220. The reflexives may retain or abandon their differentiating force. Contrast the third example in 1218 with παρέδοσαν σφᾶς αὐτούς they surrendered (themselves) T. 7.82.

1221. The reflexives of the first and second persons are not used in a subordinate clause to refer to the subject of the main clause.

1222. The personal pronouns are sometimes used in a reflexive sense: ““θρηνοῦντός τέ μου καὶ λέγοντος πολλὰ καὶ ἀνάξια ἐμοῦwailing and saying much unworthy of myselfP. A. 38e (contrast ““ἀκούσει πολλὰ καὶ ἀνάξια σαυτοῦyou will hear much unworthy of yourselfP. Cr. 53e), δοκῶ μοι ἀδύνατος εἶναι I (seem to myself to be) think I am unable P. R. 368b (less usually δοκῶ ἐμαυτῷ). So in Hom.: ἐγὼν ἐμὲ λύ_σομαι I will ransom myself K 378. Cp. 1195.

1223. ἐμέ, σέ, not ἐμαυτόν, σεαυτόν, are generally used as subject of the infinitive: ““ἐγὼ οἶμαι καὶ ἐμὲ καὶ σὲ τὸ ἀδικεῖν τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι κάκι_ον ἡγεῖσθαιI think that both you and I believe that it is worse to do wrong than to be wrongedP. G. 474b.

1224. The use in 1222, 1223 generally occurs when there is a contrast between two persons, or when the speaker is not thinking of himself to the exclusion of others. Cp. 1974.

1225. Indirect Reflexives.—The reflexive pronouns are used indirectly when, in a dependent clause, they refer to the subject of the main clause.

Ὀρέστης ἔπεισεν Ἀθηναίους ἑαυτὸν κατάγειν Orestes persuaded the Athenians to restore him (self) T. 1.111, ““ἐβούλετο Κλέαρχος ἅπαν τὸ στράτευμα πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ἔχειν τὴν γνώμηνClearchus wished the entire army to be devoted to himselfX. A. 2.5.29. Cp. sibi, se.

1226. When the subject of the leading clause is not the same as the subject of the subordinate clause or of the accusative with the infinitive (1975), the context must decide to which subject the reflexive pronoun refers: ( κατήγορος) ἔφη . . . ἀναπείθοντα τοὺς νέους αὐτὸν . . . οὕτω διατιθέναι τοὺς ἐαυτῷ συνόντας κ.τ.λ. the accuser said that, by persuading the young, he (Socrates) so disposed his (i.e. Socrates') pupils, etc. X. M. 1.2.52.

1227. ἑαυτοῦ, etc., are rarely used as indirect reflexives in adjectival clauses: τὰ ναυά_για, ὅσα πρὸς τῇ ἑαυτῶν (γῇ) ““ἦν, ἀνείλοντοthey took up the wrecks, as many as were close to their own landT. 2.92.

1228. Instead of the indirect ἑαυτοῦ, etc., there may be used

a. The oblique cases of αὐτός: ““ἐπειρᾶτο τοὺς Ἀθηναίους τῆς ἐς αὐτὸν ὀργῆς παραλύ_εινhe tried to divert the Athenians from their anger against himselfT. 2.65. When ἑαυτοῦ, etc. precede, αὐτοῦ, etc. are usual instead of the direct reflexive: ““τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γνώμην ἀπεφαίνετο Σωκράτης πρὸς τοὺς ὁμι_λοῦντας αὐτῷSocrates was wont to set forth his opinion to those who conversed with himX. M. 4.7.1.

b. Of the forms of the third personal pronoun, οἷ and σφίσι (rarely οὗ, σφεῖς, σφῶν, and σφᾶς). Thus, ““ἠρώτα_ αὐτὴν εἰ ἐθελήσοι δια_κονῆσαί οἱhe asked her if she would be willing to do him a serviceAnt. 1.16, ““τοὺς παῖδας ἐκέλευον τοῦ Κύ_ρου δεῖσθαι διαπρά_ξασθαι σφίσινthey ordered their boys to ask Cyrus to get it done for themX. C. 1.4.1, ““κελεύουσι γὰρ ἡμᾶς κοινῇ μετὰ σφῶν πολεμεῖνfor they urge us to make war in common with themAnd. 3.27, ἔφη δέ, ἐπειδὴ οὗ ἐκβῆναι τὴν ψυ_χὴν . . . . . . ἀφικνεῖσθαι σφᾶς εἰς τόπον τινὰ δαιμόνιον he said that when his soul had departed out of him, they (he and others) came to a mysterious place P. R. 614b. See 1195.

N. 1.—σφεῖς may be employed in a dependent sentence if the pronoun is itself the subject of a subordinate statement, and when the reference to the subject of the leading verb is demanded by way of contrast or emphasis: ““εἰσαγαγὼν τοὺς ἄλλους στρατηγοὺς . . . λέγειν ἐκέλευεν αὐτοὺς ὅτι οὐδὲν ἂν ἧττον σφεῖς ἀγάγοιεν τὴν στρατιὰ_ν Ξενοφῶνafter bringing in the rest of the generals he urged them to say that they could lead the army just as well as XenophonX. A. 7.5.9. Here αὐτοί (ipsi) is possible. In the singular αὐτός is necessary.

N. 2.—Thucydides often uses the plural forms in reference to the nearest subject: τοὺς ξυμμάχους ἐδέδισαν σφῶν they were afraid of their own allies ( = σφῶν αὐτῶν) 5. 14.

N. 3.—ἑαυτοῦ, etc., are either direct or indirect reflexives, οἷ and σφίσι are only indirect reflexives.

1229. οὗ, σφίσι, etc., and the oblique cases of αὐτός are used when the subordinate clause does not form a part of the thought of the principal subject. This is usual in subordinate indicative clauses, and very common in ὅτι and ὡς clauses, in indirect questions, and in general in subordinate clauses not directly dependent on the main verb: τῶν πρέσβεων, οἳ σφίσι (1481) περὶ τῶν σπονδῶν ἔτυχον ἀπόντες, ἠμέλουν they thought no more about their envoys, who were absent on the subject of the truce T. 5.44, ἐφοβοῦντο μὴ ἐπιθοῖντο αὐτοῖς οἱ πολέμιοι they were afraid lest the enemy should attack them (selves) X. A. 3.4.1.

1230. The reflexive pronoun of the third person is sometimes used for that of the first or second: ““δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀνερέσθαι ἑαυτούςwe must ask ourselvesP. Ph. 78b, ““παράγγελλε τοῖς ἑαυτοῦgive orders to your menX. C. 6.3.27.

a. In Homer ὅς his is used for ἐμός or σός: ““οὔτοι ἔγωγε ἧς γαίης δύναμαι γλυκερώτερον ἄλλο ἰδέσθαιI can look on nothing sweeter than my own landι 28.

1231. Reciprocal Reflexive.—The plural forms of the reflexive pronouns are often used for the reciprocal ἀλλήλων, ἀλλήλοις, etc.: ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς διαλεξόμεθα we will converse with (ourselves) one another D. 48.6.

1232. But the reciprocal must be used when the idea ‘each for or with himself’ is expressed or implied: μᾶλλον χαίρουσιν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀλλήλων κακοῖς τοῖς αὑτῶν ἰδίοις ἀγαθοῖς ( = ἐπὶ τοῖς αὑτοῦ ἕκαστος ἀγαθοῖς) they take greater pleasure in one another's troubles than each man in his own good fortune I. 4.168, ““οὔτε γὰρ ἑαυτοῖς οὔτε ἀλλήλοις ὁμολογοῦσινthey are in agreement neither with themselves nor with one anotherP. Phae. 237c. Reciprocal and reflexive may occur in the same sentence without difference of meaning (D. 48.9). The reflexive is regularly used when there is a contrast (expressed or implied) with ἄλλοι: φθονοῦσιν ἑαυτοῖς μᾶλλον τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀνθρώποις they envy one another more than (they envy) the rest of mankind X. M. 3.5.16.


1233. Of the plural forms, ἡμῶν αὐτῶν, etc. may be either emphatic or reflexive; αὐτῶν ἡμῶν, etc. are emphatic only; but σφῶν αὐτῶν is only reflexive (αὐτῶν σφῶν is not used). In Hom. αὐτόν may mean myself, thyself , or himself, and αὐτόν, οἷ αὐτῷ, etc. are either emphatic or reflexive.

1234. ἡμῶν (ὑ_μῶν, σφῶν) αὐτῶν often mean ‘their own men,’ ‘their own side’: φυλακὴν σφῶν τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων καταλιπόντες leaving a garrison (consisting) of their own men and of the allies T. 5.114.

1235. αὐτός, in agreement with the subject, may be used in conjunction with a reflexive pronoun for the sake of emphasis: ““αὐτοὶ ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν ἐχώρουνthey marched by themselvesX. A. 2.4.10, ““αὐτὸς . . . ἑαυτὸν ἐν μέσῳ κατετίθετο τοῦ στρατοπέδουhe located himself in the centre of the campX. C. 8.5.8.

1236. αὐτός may be added to a personal pronoun for emphasis. The forms ἐμὲ αὐτόν, αὐτόν με, etc. are not reflexive like ἐμαυτόν, etc. Thus, ““τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἐμοὺς ᾔσχυ_νε καὶ ἐμὲ αὐτὸν ὕ_βρισεhe disgraced my children and insulted me myselfL. 1.4. Cp. αὐτῷ μοι ἐπέσσυτο he sprang upon me myself E 459. Cp. 329 D.

1237. The force of αὐτός thus added is to differentiate. Thus ἐμὲ αὐτόν means myself and no other, ἐμαυτόν means simply myself without reference to others. ὑ_μᾶς αὐτούς is the usual order in the reflexive combination; but the differentiating you yourselves (and no others) may be ὑ_μᾶς αὐτούς or αὐτοὺς ὑ_μᾶς.


1238. The demonstrative pronouns are used substantively or adjectively: οὗτος, or οὗτος ἀνήρ, this man.

1239. A demonstrative pronoun may agree in gender with a substantive predicated of it, if connected with the substantive by a copulative verb (917) expressed or understood: αὕτη (for τοῦτο) ““ἀρίστη διδασκαλία_this is the best manner of learningX. C. 8.7.24, εἰ δέ τις ταύτην (for τοῦτο) ““εἰρήνην ὑπολαμβάνειbut if any one regards this as peaceD. 9.9.

a. But the unattracted neuter is common, especially in definitions where the pronoun is the predicate: τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν δικαιοσύνη this is (what we call) justice P. R. 432b. So οὐχ ὕβρις ταῦτ᾽ ἐστί; is not this insolence? Ar. Ran. 21.

1240. οὗτος and ὅδε this usually refer to something near in place, time, or thought; ἐκεῖνος that refers to something more remote. οὑτοσί_ and ὁδί_ are emphatic, deictic (333 g) forms (this here).

1241. Distinction between οὗτος and ὅδε.—ὅδε hic points with emphasis to an object in the immediate (actual or mental) vicinity of the speaker, or to something just noticed. In the drama it announces the approach of a new actor. ὅδε is even used of the speaker himself as the demonstrative of the first person (1242). οὗτος iste may refer to a person close at hand, but less vividly, as in statements in regard to a person concerning whom a question has been asked. When ὅδε and οὗτος are contrasted, ὅδε refers to the more important, οὗτος to the less important, object. Thus, ““ἀλλ᾽ ὅδε βασιλεὺς χωρεῖbut lo! here comes the kingS. Ant. 155, αὕτη πέλας σοῦ here she (the person you ask for) is near thee S. El. 1474, ““καὶ ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούειν κἄ_τι τῶνδ᾽ ἀλγί_οναso that we obey both in these things and in things yet more grievousS. Ant. 64. See also 1245. οὗτος has a wider range of use than the other demonstratives.

1242. ὅδε is used in poetry for ἐγώ: τῆσδέ ( = ἐμοῦ) ““γε ζώσης ἔτιwhile I still liveS. Tr. 305. Also for the possessive pronoun of the first person: ““εἴ τις τούσδ᾽ ἀκούσεται λόγουςif any one shall hear these my wordsS. El. 1004.

1243. οὗτος is sometimes used of the second person: τίς οὑτοσί_; who's this here? ( = who are you?) Ar. Ach. 1048. So in exclamations: οὗτος, τί ποιεῖς; you there! what are you doing? Ar. Ran. 198.

1244. τάδε, τάδε πάντα (ταῦτα πάντα) are used of something close at hand: ““οὐκ Ἴωνες τάδε εἰσίνthe people here are not IoniansT. 6.77.

1245. οὗτος (τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος, and οὕτως) generally refers to what precedes, ὅδε (τοιόσδε, τοσόσδε, τηλικόσδε, and ὧδε) to what follows.

Thus, τοιάδε ἔλεξεν he spoke as follows, but τοιαῦτα (τοσαῦτα) εἰπών after speaking thus. Cp. ““ Κῦρος ἀκούσα_ς τοῦ Γωβρύου τοιαῦτα τοιάδε πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔλεξεCyrus after hearing these words of Gobryas answered him as followsX. C. 5.2.31.

1246. καὶ οὗτος meaning (1) he too, likewise; (2) and in fact, and that too, points back: ““Ἀγία_ς καὶ Σωκράτης . . . καὶ τούτω ἀπεθανέτηνAgias and Socrates . . . they too were put to deathX. A. 2.6.30; ἀπόρων ἐστὶ . . . καὶ τούτων πονηρῶν it is characteristic of men without resources and that too worthless 2. 5. 21 (cp. 1320). On καὶ ταῦτα see 947.

1247. But οὗτος, etc. sometimes (especially in the neuter) refer to what follows, and ὅδε, etc. (though much less often) refer to what precedes: ““μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον εἰ_πε τοσοῦτονbut after him he spoke as followsX. A. 1.3.14, ““τοιούτους λόγους εἶπενhe spoke as followsT. 4.58, τοιάδε παρακελευόμενος exhorting them thus (as set forth before) 7. 78, ὧδε θάπτουσιν they bury them thus (as described before) 2. 34, οὕτως ἔχει the case is as follows (often in the orators).

1248. οὗτος (especially in the neuter τοῦτο) may refer forward to a word or sentence in apposition: ὡς μὴ τοῦτο μόνον ἐννοῶνται, τί πείσονται that they may not consider this alone (namely) what they shall suffer X. A. 3.1.41. So also οὕτως. ἐκεῖνος also may refer forward: ἐκεῖνο κερδαίνειν ἡγεῖται τὴν ἡδονήν this (namely) pleasure, it regards as gain P. R. 606b. Cp. 990.

1249. οὗτος (τοιοῦτος, etc.) is regularly, ὅδε (τοιόσδε, etc.) rarely, used as the demonstrative antecedent of a relative: ““ὅταν τοιαῦτα λέγῃς, οὐδεὶς ἂν φήσειεν ἀνθρώπωνwhen you say such things as no one in the world would sayP. G. 473e. οὗτος is often used without a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence.

1250. When ὅδε retains its full force the relative clause is to be regarded as a supplementary addition: ““οὗ δὴ οὖν ἕνεκα λέγω ταῦτα πάντα τόδ᾽ ἐστίbut here's the reason why I say all this!P. Charm. 165a.

1251. The demonstratives οὗτος, etc., when used as antecedents, have an emphatic force that does not reproduce the (unemphatic) English demonstrative those, e.g. in you released those who were present. Here Greek uses the participle (τοὺς παρόντας ἀπελύ_σατε L. 20.20) or omits the antecedent.

1252. οὗτος (less often ἐκεῖνος) may take up and emphasize a preceding subject or object. In this use the pronoun generally comes first, but may be placed after an emphatic word: ποιήσαντες στήλην ἐψηφίσαντο εἰς ταύτην ἀναγράφειν τοὺς α᾽:λιτηρίους having made a slab they voted to inscribe on it the (names of the) offenders Lyc. 117, ““ ἂν εἴπῃς, ἔμμενε τούτοιςwhatever you say, hold to itP. R. 345b. The anaphoric αὐτός in its oblique cases is weaker (1214).

1253. τοῦτο, ταῦτα (and αὐτό) may take up a substantive idea not expressed by a preceding neuter word: οἳ τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἠλευθέρωσαν: ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐδ᾽ ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς βεβαιοῦμεν αὐτό (i.e. τὴν ἐλευθερία_ν) who freed Greece; whereas we cannot secure this (liberty) even for ourselves T. 1.122.

1254. οὗτος (less frequently ἐκεῖνος) is used of well known persons and things. Thus, Γοργία_ς οὗτος this (famous) Gorgias P. Hipp. M. 282b (cp. ille), τούτους τοὺς συ_κοφάντα_ς these (notorious) informers P. Cr. 45a (cp. iste), τὸν Ἀριστείδην ἐκεῖνον that (famous) Aristides D. 3.21, Καλλία_ν ἐκεῖνον that (infamous) Callias 2. 19. ἐκεῖνος may be used of a deceased person (P. R. 368a).

1255. When, in the same sentence, and referring to the same object, οὗτος (or ἐκεῖνος) is used more than once, the object thus designated is more or less emphatic: θεὸς ἐξαιρούμενος τούτων τὸν νοῦν τούτοις χρῆται ὑπηρέταις the god deprives them of their senses and employs them as his ministers P. Ion 534 c. For the repeated οὗτος (ἐκεῖνος) an oblique case of αὐτός is usual.

1256. τοῦτο μέν . . . τοῦτο δέ first . . . secondly, partly . . . partly has, especially in Hdt., nearly the sense of τὸ μέν . . . τὸ δέ (1111).

1257. ἐκεῖνος refers back (rarely forward, 1248), but implies remoteness in place, time, or thought.

““Κῦρος καθορᾷ βασιλέα_ καὶ τὸ ἀμφ᾽ ἐκεῖνον στῖφοςCyrus perceives the king and the band around himX. A. 1.8.26, νῆες ἐκεῖναι ἐπιπλέουσιν yonder are ships sailing up to us T. 1.51.

1258. ἐκεῖνος may refer to any person other than the speaker and the person addressed; and may be employed of a person not definitely described, but referred to in a supposed case. It is even used of the person already referred to by αὐτός in an oblique case: ““ἂ_ν αὐτῷ διδῷς ἀργύριον καὶ πείθῃς ἐκεῖνονif you give him money and persuade himP. Pr. 310d. ἐκεῖνος, when so used, usually stands in a different case than αὐτός. The order ἐκεῖνος . . . αὐτός is found: ““πρὸς μὲν ἐκείνους οὐκ εῖπεν ἣν ἔχοι γνώμην, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπέπεμψεν αὐτούςhe did not tell them the plan he had, but dismissed themX. H. 3.2.9.

1259. When used to set forth a contrast to another person, ἐκεῖνος may even refer to the subject of the leading verb (apparent reflexive use): ὅταν ἐν τῇ γῇ ὁρῶσιν ἡμᾶς δῃοῦντάς τε καὶ τἀ_κείνων φθείροντας when they (the Athenians) see us (the Dorians) in their land plundering and destroying their property ( = τὰ ἑαυτῶν) T. 2.11, ἔλεξε τοῖς Χαλδαίοις ὅτι ἥκοι οἴτε ἀπολέσαι ἐπιθυ_μῶν ἐκείνους οὔτε πολεμεῖν δεόμενος he said to the Chaldaeans that he had come neither with the desire to destroy them (ἐκείνους is stronger than αὐτούς) nor because he wanted to war with them X. C. 3.2.12.

1260. In the phrase ὅδε ἐκεῖνος, ὅδε marks a person or thing as present, ἐκεῖνος a person or thing mentioned before or well known: ““ὅδ᾽ ἐκεῖνος ἐγώlo! I am heS. O. C. 138. Colloquial expressions are τοῦτ᾽ ἐκεῖνο there it is! (lit. this is that) Ar. Ach. 41, and ““τόδ᾽ ἐκεῖνοI told you soE. Med. 98.

1261. Distinction between οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος.—When reference is made to one of two contrasted objects, οὗτος refers to the object nearer to the speaker's thought, or to the more important object, or to the object last mentioned. Thus, ὥστε πολὺ ἂν δικαιότερον ἐκείνοις τοῖς γράμμασιν τούτοις πιστεύοιτε so that you must with more justice put your trust in those lists (not yet put in as evidence) than in these muster-rolls (already mentioned) L. 16.7, ““εἰ δὲ τοῦτό σοι δοκεῖ μι_κρὸν εἶναι, ἐκεῖνο κατανόησονbut if this appear to you unimportant, consider the followingX. C. 5.5.29. ἐκεῖνος may refer to an object that has immediately preceded: καὶ (δεῖ) τὸ βέλτιστον ἀεί, μὴ τὸ ῥᾷστον, ἅπαντας λέγειν: ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνο μὲν (i.e. τὸ ῥᾷστον) γὰρ φύσις αὐτὴ βαδιεῖται, ἐπὶ τοῦτο δὲ (τὸ βέλτιστον) ““τῷ λόγῳ δεῖ προάγεσθαι διδάσκοντα τὸν ἀγαθὸν πολί_τηνit is necessary that all should speak what is always most salutary, not what is most agreeable; for to the latter nature herself will incline; to the former a good citizen must direct by argument and instructionD. 8.72.


1262. The interrogative pronouns are used substantively τίς; who? or adjectively τίς ἀνήρ; what man?

1263. The interrogatives (pronouns and adverbs, 340, 346) are used in direct and in indirect questions. In indirect questions the indefinite relatives ὅστις, etc., are generally used instead of the interrogatives.

τί βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι; for what purpose does he desire to employ us? X. A. 1.3.18, οὐκ οἶδα τι ἄν τις χρήσαιτο αὐτοῖς I do not know for what service any one could employ them 3. 1. 40, A. πηνίκ᾽ ἐστὶν ἄρα τῆς ἡμέρας; B. ὁπηνίκα; A. What's the time of day? B. (You ask), what time of day it is? Ar. Av. 1499.

N.—For peculiarities of Interrogative Sentences, see 2666, 2668.

1264. τί is used for τίνα as the predicate of a neuter plural subject when the general result is sought and the subject is considered as a unit: ταῦτα δὲ τί ἐστιν; but these things, what are they? Aes. 3.167. τίνα emphasizes the details: τίν᾽ οὖν ἐστι ταῦτα; D. 18.246.

1265. τίς asks a question concerning the class, τί concerning the nature of a thing: ““εἰπὲ τίς τέχνηsay of what sort the art isP. G. 449a, τί σωφροσύνη, τί πολι_τικός; what is temperance, what is a statesman? X. M. 1.1.16, φθόνον δὲ σκοπῶν τι εἴη considering what envy is (quid sit invidia) X. M. 3.9.8.


1266. The indefinite pronoun τὶς, τὶ is used both substantively (some one) and adjectively (any, some). τὶς, τὶ cannot stand at the beginning of a sentence (181 b).

1267. In the singular, τὶς is used in a collective sense: everybody (for anybody); cp. Germ. man, Fr. on: ““ἀλλὰ μι_σεῖ τις ἐκεῖνονbut everybody detests himD. 4.8. ἕκαστός τις, πᾶς τις each one, every one are generally used in this sense. τὶς may be a covert allusion to a known person: δώσει τις δίκην some one (i.e. you) will pay the penalty Ar. Ran. 554. It may also stand for I or we. Even when added to a noun with the article, τὶς denotes the indefiniteness of the person referred to: ὅταν δ᾽ κύ_ριος παρῇ τις, ὑ_μῶν ὅστις ἐστὶν ἡγεμών κτλ. but whenever your master arrives, whoever he be that is your leader, etc. S. O. C. 289. With a substantive, τὶς may often be rendered a, an, as in ““ἕτερός τις δυνάστηςanother dignitaryX. A. 1.2.20; or, to express indefiniteness of nature, by a sort of, etc., as in εἰ μὲν θεοί τινές εἰσιν οἱ δαίμονες if thedaimonesare a sort of gods P. A. 27d.

1268. With adjectives, adverbs, and numerals, τὶς may strengthen or weaken an assertion, apologize for a comparison, and in general qualify a statement: ““δεινός τις ἀνήρa very terrible manP. R. 596c, ““μύωψ τιςa sort of gad-flyP. A. 30e, ““σχεδόν τιpretty nearlyX. O. 4.11, ““τριά_κοντά τινεςabout 30T. 8.73. But in παρεγένοντό τινες δύο νῆες the numeral is appositional to τινές (certain, that is, two ships joined them) T. 8.100.

1269. τὶς, τὶ sometimes means somebody , or something, of importance: ““τὸ δοκεῖν τινὲς εἶναιthe seeming to be somebodyD. 21.213, ““ἔδοξέ τι λέγεινhe seemed to say something of momentX. C. 1.4.20.

1270. τὶ is not omitted in ““θαυμαστὸν λέγειςwhat you say is wonderfulP. L. 657a. τις οὐδείς means few or none X. C. 7.5.45, ““ τι οὐδένlittle or nothingP. A. 17b.


1271. ἄλλος strictly means other (of several), ἕτερος other (of two). On ἄλλος, οἱ ἄλλοι see 1188.

a. ἕτερος is sometimes used loosely for ἄλλος, but always with a sense of difference; when so used it does not take the article.

1272. ἄλλος, and ἕτερος (rarely), may be used attributively with a substantive, which is to be regarded as an appositive. In this sense they may be rendered besides, moreover, as well: οἱ ἄλλοι Ἀθηναῖοι the Athenians as well (the others, i.e. the Athenians) T. 7.70, ““τοὺς ὁπλί_τα_ς καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ἱππέα_ςthe hoplites and the cavalry besidesX. H. 2.4.9, γέρων χωρεῖ μεθ᾽ ἑτέρου νεα_νίου an old man comes with (a second person, a young man) a young man besides Ar. Eccl. 849. Cp. “And there were also two other malefactors led with him to be put to death” St. Luke 23. 32.

1273. ἄλλος other, rest often precedes the particular thing with which it is contrasted: τά τε ἄλλα ἐτί_μησε καὶ μυ_ρίους ἔδωκε δα_ρεικούς he gave me ten thousand darics besides honouring me in other ways (lit. he both honoured me in other ways and etc.) X. A. 1.3.3, ““τῷ μὲν ἄλλῳ στρατῷ ἡσύχαζεν, ἑκατὸν δὲ πελταστὰ_ς προπέμπειwith the rest of the army he kept quiet, but sent forward a hundred peltastsT. 4.111.

1274. ἄλλος followed by another of its own cases or by an adverb derived from itself (cp. alius aliud, one . . . one, another . . . another) does not require the second half of the statement to be expressed: ἄλλος ἄλλα λέγει one says one thing, another (says) another X. A. 2.1.15 (lit. another other things). So ἄλλοι ἄλλως, ἄλλοι ἄλλοθεν.

a. Similarly ἕτερος, as συμφορὰ_ ἑτέρα_ ἑτέρους πιέζει one calamity oppresses one, another others E. Alc. 893.

1275. After ἄλλος an adjective or a participle used substantively usually requires the article: ““τἆλλα τὰ μέγισταthe other matters of the highest momentP. A. 22d. Here τὰ μέγιστα is in apposition to τἆλλα (1272). οἱ ἄλλοι πάντες οἱ, τἆλλα πάντα τά sometimes omit the final article.

1276. ἄλλος often means usual, general: παρὰ τὸν ἄλλον τρόπον contrary to my usual disposition Ant. 3. β. 1.


1277. The pronoun ἀλλήλοιν expresses reciprocal relation: ““ὡς δ᾽ εἰδέτην ἀλλήλους γυνὴ καὶ Ἀβραδάτα_ς, ἠσπάζοντο ἀλλήλουςwhen Abradatas and his wife saw each other, they mutually embracedX. C. 6.1.47.

1278. To express reciprocal relation Greek uses also (1) the middle forms (1726); (2) the reflexive pronoun (1231); or (3) a substantive is repeated: ἀνὴρ ἕλεν ἄνδρα man fell upon man O 328.

On Relative Pronouns see under Complex Sentences (2493 ff.).

hide References (159 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (159):
    • Aeschines, On the Embassy, 94
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 167
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 207
    • Andocides, On the Peace, 2
    • Andocides, On the Mysteries, 117
    • Andocides, On the Peace, 27
    • Andocides, Against Alcibiades, 15
    • Antiphon, Against the Stepmother for Poisoning, 16
    • Antiphon, Against the Stepmother for Poisoning, 23
    • Antiphon, Against the Stepmother for Poisoning, 30
    • Antiphon, On the murder of Herodes, 50
    • Aristophanes, Acharnians, 1048
    • Aristophanes, Acharnians, 41
    • Aristophanes, Birds, 1499
    • Aristophanes, Clouds, 220
    • Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae, 849
    • Aristophanes, Frogs, 21
    • Aristophanes, Frogs, 198
    • Aristophanes, Frogs, 554
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 2, 2
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 3, 17
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 3, 9
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 3, 21
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 1, 8
    • Demosthenes, On the Chersonese, 72
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 246
    • Demosthenes, Against Midias, 213
    • Demosthenes, Against Olympiodorus, 6
    • Demosthenes, Against Olympiodorus, 9
    • Euripides, Alcestis, 893
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 1409
    • Euripides, Medea, 98
    • Herodotus, Histories, 5.58
    • Homer, Odyssey, 2.1
    • Homer, Odyssey, 2.45
    • Homer, Odyssey, 8.107
    • Isocrates, Panegyricus, 168
    • Isocrates, Nicocles or the Cyprians, 57
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 14
    • Lysias, For Polystratus, 20
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 30
    • Lysias, Against Agoratus, 72
    • Lysias, For Mantitheus, 7
    • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, 12
    • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, 4
    • Lysias, Against Simon, 11
    • Pseudo Xenophon, Constitution of the Athenians, 1.11
    • Plato, Laws, 657a
    • Plato, Republic, 432b
    • Plato, Republic, 606b
    • Plato, Republic, 345b
    • Plato, Republic, 368a
    • Plato, Republic, 368b
    • Plato, Republic, 596c
    • Plato, Republic, 614b
    • Plato, Apology, 22d
    • Plato, Apology, 27d
    • Plato, Apology, 30e
    • Plato, Apology, 38e
    • Plato, Crito, 45a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 78b
    • Plato, Apology, 17b
    • Plato, Crito, 53e
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 192a
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 237c
    • Plato, Charmides, 164e
    • Plato, Charmides, 165a
    • Plato, Laches, 179c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 449a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 473e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 474b
    • Plato, Gorgias, 511e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 514b
    • Plato, Protagoras, 310d
    • Plato, Greater Hippias, 282b
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 64
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 155
    • Sophocles, Electra, 1474
    • Sophocles, Electra, 879
    • Sophocles, Electra, 1004
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 289
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 138
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 416
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 305
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.111
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.114
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.122
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.139
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.51
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.101
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.11
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.12
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.61
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.92
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.38
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.58
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.60
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.78
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.44
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.77
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.70
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.82
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.73
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.20
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.14
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.18
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.6
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.7.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.26
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.1.15
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.1.5
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.2.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.4.10
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.29
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.6.30
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.41
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.4.1
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.7.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 6.4.9
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.5.9
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.3
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.6.7
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.2.31
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.1.47
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.5.45
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.5.8
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.3.15
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.4.1
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.4.20
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.1.28
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.2.12
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.5.21
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.5.29
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.3.21
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.3.27
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.2.28
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.3.14
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.7.24
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.2.17
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 3.2.9
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.4.7
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.21
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.9
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.16
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.2.52
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.10.14
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.5.16
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.9.8
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.7.1
    • Xenophon, Economics, 4.11
    • Xenophon, Symposium, 5
    • Homer, Odyssey, 11.282
    • Homer, Odyssey, 9.28
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.65
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.111
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.114
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.100
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