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2039. The participle (μετοχή participation) is a verbal adjective, in part a verb, in part an adjective.

2040. The participle is like a verb herein:

a. It shows the distinctions of voice and tense. Its tenses mark action simply occurring, continuing, and completed.

b. It can have an object in the same case (genitive, dative, accusative) as the finite forms.

c. It is modified by adverbs, not by adjectives.

d. It may take ἄν, and, with that particle, represents ἄν with the indicative or ἄν with the optative (1845 ff.).

2041. The participle shows its adjectival nature by being inflected and by admitting the article before it, both of which characteristics give it the character of a noun. It follows the rules of agreement like other adjectives (1020). Unlike the adjective, it represents a quality in action (cp. 1857).

2042. The participle is always used in connection with a substantive or a substantive pronoun, which may be contained in a verbal form, as διάγουσι μανθάνοντες they spend their time in learning.

2043. The tenses of the participle (except the future) not in indirect discourse are timeless, and denote only stage of action (1872). When they stand in indirect discourse and represent the indicative, they denote time relatively to that of the main verb.

2044. The future participle marks an action as in prospect at the time denoted by the leading verb. Since it expresses an idea of will, it shows that an action is purposed, intended, or expected. With the article it denotes the person or thing likely (or able) to do something ( = μέλλων with inf. 1959). The nearest approach to mere futurity appears in general only after verbs of knowing and perceiving (2106, cp. 2112 b).

““ δ᾽ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς λαγὼς ᾤχετο θηρά_σωνbut her husband had gone to hunt haresX. A. 4.5.24, ἡγησόμενος οὐδεὶς ἔσται there will be no one to guide us 2. 4. 5, πολλὰ . . . δεῖ τὸν εὖ στρατηγήσοντα ( = τὸν μέλλοντα εὖ στρατηγήσειν) ἔχειν he who intends to be a good general must have many qualifications X. M. 3.1.6, θανουμένη γὰρ ἐξῄδη for I knew that I should (or must) die S. Ant. 460 (cp. 2106).

2045. The negative of the participle is οὐ, except when the participle has a general or conditional force, or occurs in a sentence which requires μή. See 2728.

2046. The participle has three main uses.

A. Attributive: as an attributive to a substantive.

B. Circumstantial (or Adverbial): denoting some attendant circumstance and qualifying the main verb like an adverbial phrase or clause.

C. Supplementary: as a supplement to a verbal predicate, which, without such a supplement, would be incomplete.

2047. The circumstantial and supplementary participles are predicate participles.

2048. The attributive and circumstantial participles are commonly not necessary to the construction; but the removal of a supplementary participle may make the construction incomplete. The circumstantial participle is used by way of apposition to the subject of the verb and, though strictly predicative, may agree attributively with a noun or pronoun. An attributive participle may be circumstantial, as οἱ μὴ δυνάμενοι διατελέσαι τὴν ὁδὸν ἐνυκτέρευσαν ἄσι_τοι those who (i.e. if any) were unable to complete the march passed the night without food X. A. 4.5.11. A participle may be both circumstantial and supplementary, as ἀδικούμενοι ὀργίζονται (T. 1.77) they are enraged at being wronged or because (when, if) they are wronged. Circumstantial and supplementary participles often cannot be sharply distinguished; as with verbs signifying to be angry, ashamed, content, pleased (2100), inferior to, do wrong (2101), endure (2098), come and go (2099). Thus, ἀδικῶ ταῦτα ποιῶν I do wrong in doing this or I am guilty in doing this: in the first case ταῦτα ποιῶν is appositive to the subject of the verb; in the second these words define the predicate adjective ἄδικος contained in ἀδικῶ ( = ἄδικός εἰμι).


2049. The attributive participle (with any modifier), with or without the article, modifies a substantive like any other adjective.

““ ἐφεστηκὼς κίνδυ_νος τῇ πόλειthe danger impending over the StateD. 18.176, οἱ ὄντες ἐχθροί the existing enemies 6. 15, παρὼν καιρός the present crisis 3. 3, ““τὸ Κοτύλαιον ὀνομαζόμενον ὄροςthe mountain called CotylaeumAes. 3.86, ““αἱ Αἰόλου νῆσοι καλούμεναιthe so-called islands of AeolusT. 3.88 (cp. 1170). For the position of an attributive participle with its modifiers, see 1166.

2050. The substantive with which the attributive participle (with the article) agrees directly, may be omitted, the participle thus becoming a substantive (1153 b, and N. 1); as, ““ οἴκαδε βουλόμενος ἀπιέναιwhoever wants to go homeX. A. 1.7.4. Neuter participles are often substantival, as τὰ δέοντα duties.

a. Substantives or relative clauses must often be used to translate such par ticiples, as φεύγων the exile or the defendant, τὸ μέλλον the future, οἱ νι_κῶντες the victors, κλέπτων the thief, οἱ θανόντες the dead, σωθείς the man who has been saved, οἱ δεδιότες those who are afraid, οἱ ἀδικούμενοι those who are (being) wronged, ““ τὴν γνώμην ταύτην εἰπώνthe one who gave this opinionT. 8.68, ““ ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν τάξα_ς τῆς πολι_τεία_ς εἴμ᾽ ἐγώthe man who took this position in the State was ID. 18.62. The participle with the article may represent a relative clause of purpose or result, as X. A. 2.4.5 cited in 2044.

2051. A participle may be modified by adjectives or take a genitive, when its verbal nature has ceased to be felt: ““τὰ μι_κρὰ συμφέροντα τῆς πόλεωςthe petty interests of the StateD. 18.28. Cp. συμφέρον ἦν τῇ πόλει it was advantageous to the State 19. 75 (here the participle is used like a predicate). Thucydides often uses in an abstract sense a substantival neuter participle where the infinitive would be more common, e.g., τὸ δεδιός fear, τὸ θαρσοῦν courage (for τὸ δεδιέναι, τὸ θαρσεῖν) 1. 36. See 1153 b, N. 2. In poetry many participles are used substantively, as τεκών father, τεκοῦσα mother, οἱ τεκόντες parents.

2052. The article with the participle is either generic or particular (1124). Thus, λέγων the definite speaker on a particular occasion, or orator in general. So οὐ δρά_σα_ς the definite person who did not do something, μὴ δρά_σα_ς any one who did not do something (a supposed case), ““ μὴ γαμῶν ἄνθρωπος οὐκ ἔχει κακάthe unmarried man has no troublesMen. Sent. 437. Generic are τυχών, βουλόμενος, 2050 a.

a. Participles having an indefinite force may, especially in the plural number, be used without the article. Thus, ““κατασκεψομένους ἔπεμπεhe sent men to reconnoitreX. C. 3.1.2, ““ἀδικοῦντα πειρα_σόμεθα . . . ἀμύ_νασθαιwe shall endeavour to avenge ourselves on any one who injures usX. A. 2.3.23.

2053. A participle and its substantive often correspond to a verbal noun with the genitive or to an articular infinitive. Cp. post urbem conditam and Milton's “Since created man.”

τῷ σί_τῳ ἐπιλείποντι ἐπιέζοντο they suffered from the failure of the crops ( = τῇ τοῦ σί_του ἐπιλείψει) T. 3.20, δι᾽ ὑ_μᾶς μὴ ξυμμαχήσαντας by reason of your not joining the alliance ( = διὰ τὸ ὑ_μᾶς μὴ ξυμμαχῆσαι) 6. 80, μετὰ Συρα_κούσα_ς οἰκισθείσα_ς after the foundation of Syracuse 6. 3, ““ἐλύ_πει αὐτὸν χώρα_ πορθουμένηthe ravaging of the country grieved himX. A. 7.7.12, ““ ὀργὴ σὺν τῷ φόβῳ λήγοντι ἄπεισιhis wrath will disappear with the cessation of his fearX. C. 4.5.21.

a. Except in expressions of time, such as ““ἅμα ἦρι ἀρχομένῳat the beginning of springT. 2.2, ἐπὶ Κόδρου βασιλεύοντος in the reign of Codrus Lyc. 84 (cp. 1689 b), this construction is in place only when the part. is necessary to the sense. In poetry: ““Ζεὺς γελοῖος ὀμνύμενοςswearing by Zeus is ridiculousAr. Nub. 1241; in Hom. A 601, I 682.


2054. The circumstantial participle is added, without the article, to a noun or pronoun to set forth some circumstance under which an action, generally the main action, takes place.

a. The circumstantial participle thus qualifies the principal verb of the sentence like an adverbial clause or supplementary predicate. Cp. μετὰ ταῦτα εἶπε afterwards he said with γελῶν εἶπε he said laughingly. Such participles usually have the force of subordinate clauses added to the main verb by conjunctions denoting time, condition, cause, etc.; but may often be rendered by adverbial phrases or even by a separate finite verb, which brings out distinctly the idea latent in the participle.

b. The circumstantial participle has no article. In agreement with a noun and its article, it stands before the article or after the noun (i.e. in the predicate position). By the agreement of the participle with a noun or pronoun, the predicate of the sentence is more exactly defined.

2055. The circumstantial participle has two main constructions each equivalent in meaning to a clause of time, condition, cause, etc.

2056. (I) The subject of the participle is identical with the noun or pronoun subject or object of the leading verb, and agrees with it in gender, number, and case.

οἱ ἄνθρωποι) λιπόντες τὴν ὁδὸν φεύγοντες ὀλίγοι ἀπέθνῃσκον by leaving the road and making off only a few were killed X. A. 4.2.7, ““προπέμψαντες κήρυ_κα πόλεμον προεροῦνταhaving sent a herald in advance to proclaim warT. 1.29.

2057. (II) Absolute participial clauses, in which a participle, and not a finite verb, forms the predicate. These are of two kinds.

2058. A. Genitive Absolute.—A participle agreeing in the genitive with its own subject, which is not identical with the subject of the leading verb, is said to stand in the genitive absolute. Cp. 2070.

““Κῦρος ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη οὐδενὸς κωλύ_οντοςCyrus ascended the mountains without any one preventing himX. A. 1.2.22.

N.—The English nominative absolute is represented by the Greek genitive absolute. Cp. Tennyson: “we sitting, as I said, the cock crew loud” = ἡμῶν καθημένων, ὅπερ ἔλεγον, μέγα ᾖσεν ἀλεκτρυών.

2059. B. Accusative Absolute.—When the participle has no definite subject (i.e. with impersonal verbs), the accusative absolute is used instead of the genitive absolute. Cp. 2076.

συνδόξαν τῷ πατρὶ καὶ τῇ μητρὶ γαμεῖ τὴν Κυαξάρου θυγατέρα on the approval of (lit. it seeming good to) his father and mother he married the daughter of Cyaxares X. C. 8.5.28.

2060. The circumstantial participle expresses simply circumstance or manner in general. It may imply various other relations, such as time, manner, means, cause, purpose, concession, condition, etc. But it is often impossible to assign a participle exclusively to any one of these relations (which are purely logical), nor can all the delicate relations of the participle be set forth in systematic form.

2061. Time.—The time denoted by the participle is only relative to that of the governing verb, and is to be inferred from the context. Each participial form in itself expresses only stage of action (1850).

ἀκούσα_σι τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ταῦτα ἔδοξε τὸ στράτευμα συναγαγεῖν on hearing this i<*> seemed best to the generals to collect the troops X. A. 4.4.19.

a. Several temporal participles have an adverbial force: ἀρχόμενος in the beginning, at first, τελευτῶν at last, finally, διαλιπὼν (or ἐπισχὼν) χρόνον after a while, διαλείπων χρόνον at intervals, χρονίζων for a long time. Thus, ““ἅπερ καὶ ἀρχόμενος εἶπονas I said at the outsetT. 4.64, ““τελευτῶν ἐχαλέπαινενat last he became angryX. A. 4.5.16. Note ἀρξάμενος ἀπό τινος beginning with or especially.

2062. Manner.—““παρήλαυνον τεταγμένοιthey marched past in orderX. A. 1.2.16, κραυγὴν πολλὴν ἐποίουν καλοῦντες ἀλλήλους they made a loud noise by calling to each other 2. 2. 17, ““προείλετο μᾶλλον τοῖς νόμοις ἐμμένων ἀποθανεῖν παρανομῶν ζῆνhe preferred rather to abide by the laws and die than to disobey them and liveX. M. 4.4.4, ““φατὲ μὲν εὐτυχεῖς εἶναι, ὡς καὶ ἐστὲ καλῶς ποιοῦντεςyou claim to be favoured by fortune as happily you are in factAes. 3.232. To characterize a preceding statement with the participle in apposition to the subject of the preceding sentence; thus, ὀρθῶς γε ταῦτα λέγοντες yes, and saying this correctly X. O. 16.2.

a. Several participles of manner have an idiomatic meaning, e.g. ἀνύσα_ς quickly (lit. having accomplished), ἔχων continually, persistently (lit. holding on), λαθών secretly, κλαίων to one's sorrow (lit. weeping), χαίρων with impunity (lit. rejoicing), φέρων hastily (lit. carrying off), φθάσα_ς before (lit. anticipating). Thus, ““ἄνοιγ᾽ ἀνύσα_ςhurry up and openAr. Nub. 181, ““ἔκπλουν ποιεῖται λαθὼν τὴν φυλακήνhe sailed out unobserved by the guardT. 1.65 (cp. 2096 f), ““φλυα_ρεῖς ἔχωνyou keep triflingP. G. 490e, τοῦτον οὐδεὶς χαίρων ἀδικήσει no one will wrong him with impunity 510 d, ἀνέῳξάς με φθάσα_ς you opened the door before I could knock Ar. Plut. 1102 (cp. 2096 e).

2063. Means (often the present participle).—““λῃζόμενοι ξῶσιthey live by pillagingX. C. 3.2.25, μὴ κρῖν᾽ ὁρῶν τὸ κάλλος, ἀλλὰ τὸν τρόπον judge by regarding not beauty, but (by regarding) character Men. Sent. 333.

2064. Cause.—““Παρύσατις . . . ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύ_ρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον τὸν βασιλεύοντα ἈρταξέρξηνParysatis favoured Cyrus because she loved him more than she did Artaxerxes the kingX. A. 1.1.4, ““ἀπείχοντο κερδῶν αἰσχρὰ νομίζοντες εἶναιthey held aloof from gains because they thought them disgracefulX. M. 1.2.22, τί γὰρ δεδιότες σφόδρα οὕτως ἐπείγεσθε; for what are you afraid of, that you are so desperately in haste? X. H. 1.7.26.

a. τί μαθών what induced him to (lit. having learned what?), τί παθών what possessed him to (lit. having experienced what?) are used with the general sense of wherefore? in direct (with τι in indirect) questions expressing surprise or disapprobation; as τί μαθόντες ἐμαρτυρεῖτε ὑ_μεῖς; what put it into your heads to give evidence? D. 45.38, τί παθόντε λελάσμεθα; what possessed us to forget? Λ 313. Cp. τί βουλόμενος.

b. τί ἔχων; what's the matter with you? (lit. having what?

2065. Purpose or Object.—The future (sometimes the present) participle is used to denote purpose, especially after verbs denoting to come, go, send, summon, etc. Thus, ““προπέμψαντες κήρυ_κα πόλεμον προεροῦνταhaving sent a herald in advance to proclaim warT. 1.29, βάρβαρος ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα δουλωσόμενος ἦλθεν the barbarians proceeded against Greece with the purpose of enslaving it 1. 18, συνεκάλεσαν ἀπὸ τῶν πόλεων ἁπα_σῶν ἀκουσομένους (2052 a) τῆς παρὰ βασιλέως ἐπιστολῆς they summoned from all the cities men to listen to the letter from the king X. H. 7.1.39. Present: ἔπεμπον . . . λέγοντας ὅτι κτλ. they sent men to say that, etc. X. H. 2.4.37.

2066. Opposition or Concession.—οὐδὲν ἐρῶ πρὸς ταῦτα ἔχων εἰπεῖν I will make no reply to this though I might (speak) do so P. Lach. 197c, ““πολλοὶ γὰρ ὄντες εὐγενεῖς εἰσιν κακοίfor many, albeit noble by birth, are ignobleE. El. 551.

2067. Condition (negative always μή).—σὺ δὲ κλύων ( = ἐὰ_ν κλύῃς) ““εἴσει τάχαbut if you listen you shall soon knowAr. Av. 1390, οὐκ ἂν δύναιο μὴ καμὼν ( = εἰ μὴ κάμοις) εὐδαιμονεῖν you cannot be happy unless you work E. fr. 461.

2068. Any Attendant Circumstance.—““συλλέξα_ς στράτευμα ἐπολιόρκει Μί_λητονhaving collected an army he laid siege to MiletusX. A. 1.1.7, παραγγέλλει τῷ Κλεάρχῳ λαβόντι ἥκειν ὅσον ἦν αὐτῷ στράτευμα he gave orders to Clearchus to come with all the force he had 1. 2. 1.

a. ἔχων having, ἄγων leading, φέρων carrying (mostly of inanimate objects), χρώμενος using, λαβών taking are used where English employs with. Thus, ““ἔχων στρατιὰ_ν ἀφικνεῖταιhe arrives with an armyT. 4.30, βοῇ χρώμενοι with a shout 2. 84, ἐκέλευσε λαβόντα ἄνδρας ἐλθεῖν ὅτι πλείστους he ordered him to come with all the men he could (or to take . . . and come) X. A. 1.1.11.

b. In poetry participles (especially) of verbs denoting motion are often added to verbs of giving, setting to make the action more picturesque (H. 304, S. Aj. 854).

2069. The force of these circumstantial participles does not lie in the participle itself, but is derived from the context. Unless attended by some modifying adverb, the context often does not decide whether the participle has a temporal, a causal, a conditional, a concessive force, etc.; and some participles may be referred to more than one of the above classes. Thus, πατὴρ δ᾽ ἀπειλῶν οὐκ ἔχει μέγαν φόβον (Men. fr. 454) may mean: a father by threatening ( = when or because or if or though, he threatens) does not excite much fear.


2070. Genitive Absolute.—A circumstantial participle agreeing with a genitive noun or pronoun which is not in the main construction of the sentence, stands in the genitive absolute. Like other circumstantial participles, the genitive absolute expresses time, cause, condition, concession, or simply any attendant circumstance.

a. Time: ““ταῦτ᾽ ἐπρά_χθη Κόνωνος στρατηγοῦντοςthese things were effected while Conon was in commandI. 9.56, ““τούτων λεχθέντων ἀνέστησανthis said, they roseX. A. 3.3.1, ““Ἠϊόνα . . . Μήδων ἐχόντων πολιορκίᾳ εἷλονthey blockaded and captured Eïon which was held by the MedesT. 1.98.

b. Cause: ““τῶν σωμάτων θηλυ_νομένων καὶ αἱ ψυ_χαὶ ἀρρωστότεραι γίγνονταιby the enfeebling of the body, the spirit too is made weakerX. O. 4.2.

c. Opposition or Concession: καὶ μεταπεμπομένου αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐθέλω ἐλθεῖν even though he is sending for me, I am unwilling to go X. A. 1.3.10. καίπερ is usually added (2083).

d. Condition: οἴομαι καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐπανορθωθῆναι ἂν τὰ πρά_γματα τούτων γιγνομέ- νων if these measures should be taken, I am of the opinion that even now our situation might be rectified D. 9.76.

e. Attendant Circumstance: Κῦρος ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη οὐδενὸς κωλύ_οντος Cyrus ascended the mountains without opposition (lit. no one hindering) X. A. 1.2.22 (or since no one opposed him).

2071. ἑκών willing, ἄ_κων unwilling are properly participles and are treated as such (cp. 2117 c). Thus, ““ἐμοῦ οὐχ ἑκόντοςwithout my consentS. Aj. 455.

a. ἄ_κων, ἀεκαξόμενος, ἀφρονέων, ἀελπτέων, ἀνάρμενος, ἀνομολογούμενος, ἀτίξων are the only cases in Greek showing the earlier method of negativing the participle with alpha privative. Elsewhere οὐ or μή is used.

2072. The genitive of the participle may stand without its noun or pronoun

a. When the noun or pronoun may easily be supplied from the context. Thus, οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι, προσιόντων (τῶν Ἑλλήνων, previously mentioned), ““τέως μὲν ἡσυχίαζονthe enemy, as they were approaching, for a while remained quietX. A. 5.4.16, ἐρώτα_, ἔφη, Κῦρε, . . . ὡς (ἐμοῦ) τἀ_ληθῆ ἐροῦντος put your question (said he), Cyrus, on the supposition that I will speak the truth X. C. 3.1.9.

b. When the noun or pronoun may easily be supplied otherwise; here, e.g., ἀνθρώπων or πρα_γμάτων is said to be supplied grammatically. Thus, ἰόντων εἰς μάχην when (men) are going into battle X. C. 3.3.54, τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον πρα_χθέντων τῆς πόλεως γίγνεται τὰ χρήματα when (things) have happened in this way, the property belongs to the State D. 24.12; and in ὕ_οντος (Διός, 934 a) ““πολλῷwhen it was raining hardX. H. 1.1.16. Quasi-impersonal verbs (933) thus take the genitive rather than the accusative absolute: ““οὕτως ἔχοντοςin this state of thingsP. R. 381c, influenced by οὕτως ἐχόντων X. A. 3.1.40.

c. When a subordinate clause with ὅτι follows upon the participle in the passive. Thus, ““ἐσαγγελθέντων ὅτι Φοίνισσαι νῆες ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς πλέουσινit having been announced that Phoenician ships were sailing against themT. 1.116, δηλωθέντος ὅτι ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τὰ πρά_γματα ἐγένετο it having been shown that the salvation of the Greeks depended on their navy 1. 74. The plural is used when the subject of the subordinate clause is plural, or when several circumstances are mentioned.

2073. Exceptionally, the subject of the genitive absolute is the same as that of the main clause. The effect of this irregular construction is to emphasize the idea contained in the genitive absolute. Thus, ““βοηθησάντων ὑ_μῶν προθύ_μως πόλιν προσλήψεσθε ναυτικὸν ἔχουσαν μέγαif you assist us heartily, you will gain to your cause a State having a large navyT. 3.13. The genitive absolute usually precedes the main verb.

a. The genitive absolute may be used where the grammatical construction demands the dative. Thus, ““διαβεβηκότος Περικλέους . . . ἠγγέλθη αὐτῷ ὅτι Μέγαρα ἀφέστηκεwhen Pericles had already crossed over, news was brought to him that Megara had revoltedT. 1.114 (in Latin: Pericli iam transgresso nuntiatum est).

b. The subject of the genitive absolute may be identical with the object of the leading verb: ““ἧλθον ἐπὶ τὴν Ἐπίδαυρον ὡς ἐρήμου οὔσης . . . αἱρήσοντεςthey came against Epidaurus expecting to capture it undefendedT. 5.56.

2074. Observe that the genitive absolute differs from the Latin ablative abso lute herein: 1. The subject need not be expressed (2072). 2. The subject may appear in the leading clause (2073 a). 3. With a substantive the participle ὤν is always added in prose, whereas Latin has to omit the participle. Thus, ““παίδων ὄντων ἡμῶνnobis puerisP. S. 173a. On ἐμοῦ ἄ_κοντος me invito, see 2071. 4. Because it has a present participle passive and an aorist and perfect participle active, Greek can use the genitive absolute where Latin, through lack of a past participle active, has to use a clause with dum, cum, etc. Thus, ““ὅλης τῆς πόλεως ἐν τοῖς πολεμικοῖς κινδύ_νοις ἐπιτρεπομένης τῷ στρατηγῷcum bellicis in periculis universa respublica imperatori committaturX. M. 3.1.3, τοῦ παιδὸς γελάσαντος cum puer risisset. Latin uses the absolute case more frequently than Greek because it employs the perfect participle passive where Greek uses the aorist participle active. Thus, Κῦρος συγκαλέσα_ς τοὺς στρατηγοὺς εἶπεν Cyrus, convocatis ducibus, dixit X. A. 1.4.8.

2075. The genitive absolute took its rise from such cases as Σαρπήδοντι δ᾽ ἄχος γένετο Γλαύκου ἀπιόντος but sorrow came on Sarpedon for Glaucus—departing M 392. The genitive, here properly dependent on ἄχος γένετο, ceased to be felt as dependent on the governing expression, and was extended, as a distinct construction, to cases in which the governing expression did not take the genitive. Cp. the development of the accusative with the infinitive (1981).

2076. Accusative Absolute.—A participle stands in the accusative absolute, instead of the genitive, when it is impersonal, or has an infinitive as its subject (as under C). When impersonal, such participles have no apparent grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence.

A. Impersonal verbs: δέον, ἐξόν, μετόν, παρόν, προσῆκον, μέλον, μεταμέλον, παρέχον, παρασχόν, τυχόν, δοκοῦν, δόξαν, or δόξαντα (ταῦτα), γενόμενον ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί as it was in my power.

οὐδεὶς τὸ μεῖζον κακὸν αἱρήσεται ἐξὸν τὸ ἔλα_ττον (αἱρεῖσθαι) no one will choose the greater evil when it is possible to choose the less P. Pr. 358d, ἧς (βουλῆς) ““νῦν ἀξιοῖ τυχεῖν οὐ μετὸν αὐτῷto which he now claims admission though he has no rightL. 31.32, ““δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι οἶσθα μέλον γέ σοιfor of course you know because it concerns youP. A. 24d, μετεμέλοντο ὅτι μετὰ τὰ ἐν Πύλῳ, καλῶς παρασχόν, οὐ ξυνέβησαν they repented that after what had occurred at Pylos, although a favourable occasion had presented itself, they had not come to terms T. 5.14. Cp. 2086 d, 2087.

N.—Apart from δόξαν, τυχόν, the accusative absolute of the aorist participle of impersonal verbs is very rare.

B. Passive participles used impersonally: γεγραμμένον, δεδογμένον, εἰρημένον, προσταχθέν, προστεταγμένον. Cp. Eng. granted this is so, this done, which said.

““εἰρημένον δ᾽ αὐταῖς ἀπαντᾶν ἐνθάδε . . . εὕδουσι κοὐχ ἥκουσινthough it was told them to meet here, they sleep and have not comeAr. Lys. 13, προσταχθέν μοι ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου Μένωνα ἄγειν εἰς Ἑλλήσποντον a command having been given (it having been commanded) me by the people to convey Menon to the Hellespont D. 50.12.

N.—The aorist participle passive is rarely used absolutely: ἀμεληθέν, ἀπορρηθέν, καταχειροτονηθέν, κυ_ρωθέν, ὁρισθέν, περανθέν, προσταχθέν, χρησθέν.

C. Adjectives with ὄν: ἄδηλον ὄν, δυνατὸν ὄν, ἀδύνατον ὄν, αἰσχρὸν ὄν, καλὸν ὄν, χρεών (χρεώ ¨ ὄν), etc.

““σὲ οὐχὶ ἐσώσαμεν . . . οἷόν τε ὂν καὶ δυνατόνwe did not rescue you although it was both feasible and possibleP. Cr. 46a, ὡς οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον (ὄν) ““τὸ κλέπτειν, αἰτιᾷ τὸν κλέπτονταon the ground that stealing is not necessary you accuse the thiefX. C. 5.1.13.

2077. The impersonal character of the above expressions would not be shown by the genitive since the participle in that case marks a distinction between masculine (neuter) and feminine. The accusative absolute, which occurs first in Herodotus and the Attic prose writers of the fifth century, is probably in its origin an internal accusative, developed, at least in part, by way of apposition (991-994), the neuter of a participle or of an adjective standing in apposition to an idea in the leading clause. Thus, προσταχθὲν αὐτοῖς οὐκ ἐτόλμησαν εἰσαγαγεῖν (Is. 1.22) they did not dare to bring him in—a duty that was enjoined (although it was enjoined) upon them. Cp. πείθει δ᾽ Ὀρέστην μητέρα . . . κτεῖναι, πρὸς οὐχ ἅπαντας εὔκλειαν φέρον he persuaded Orestes to slay his mother, a deed that brings not glory in the eyes of all E. Or. 30.

2078. The participle of a personal verb may be used absolutely if it is preceded by ὡς or ὥσπερ. Thus, ηὔχετο πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς τἀ_γαθὰ διδόναι, ὡς τοὺς θεοὺς κάλλιστα εἰδότας ὁποῖα ἀγαθά ἐστι (Socrates) prayed to the gods that they would give him good things, in the belief that the gods know best what sort of things are good X. M. 1.3.2, ““σιωπῇ ἐδείπνουν, ὤσπερ τοῦτο προστεταγμένον αὐτοῖςthey were supping in silence just as if this had been enjoined upon themX. S. 1. 11.

a. Cases without ὡς or ὥσπερ are rare. Thus, ““δόξαντα ὑ_μῖν ταῦτα εἵλεσθε ἄνδρας εἴκοσιon reaching this conclusion you chose twenty menAnd. 1.81; cp. δόξαν ταῦτα X. A. 4.1.13 (by analogy to ἔδοξε ταῦτα) and δοξάντων τούτων X. H. 1.7.30. Neuter participles so used come chiefly from impersonal verbs, but T. 4.125 has κυ_ρωθὲν οὐδὲν οἱ Μακεδόνες ἐχώρουν ἐπ᾽ οἴκου the Macedonians proceeded homewards, nothing having been accomplished. The neuter subject is a pronoun, very rarely a substantive (I. 5.12).


2079. Adverbs are often used to set forth clearly the relations of time, manner, cause, concession, etc., that are implied in the participle. They occur also with the genitive and accusative absolute. These adverbs modify either the principal verb or the participle itself.


2080. The adverbs ἔπειτα thereupon, τότε, εἶτα (less often ἐνταῦθα) then, ἤδη already, οὕτω so, when used with the verb of the sentence which contains a temporal participle, emphasize the temporal relation: (ὑ_μῶν δέομαι) ἀκροα_σαμένους διὰ τέλους τῆς ἀπολογία_ς τότε ἤδη ψηφίζεσθαι κτλ. (I beg you) when you have heard my defence to the end, then and not till then to vote, etc. And. 1.9, ὑπὲρ μεγίστων ““καὶ καλλίστων κινδυ_νεύσαντες οὕτω τὸν βίον ἐτελεύτησανthey incurred danger for a great and noble cause, and so ended their livesL. 2.79.

2081. ἅμα at the same time, αὐτίκα immediately, εὐθύς straightway, μεταξύ between, in the midst, though strictly modifying the main verb, are often placed close to a temporal participle which they modify in sense: ““ἅμα ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἀνέστηsaying this, he roseX. A. 3.1.47, τῷ δεξιῷ κέρᾳ τῶν Ἀθηναίων εὐθὺς ἀποβεβηκότι . . . ἐπέκειντο they fell upon the right wing of the Athenians as soon as it had disembarked (lit. upon the right wing when it had disembarked) T. 4.43, ““ἐξαναστάντες μεταξὺ δειπνοῦντεςgetting up in the middle of supperD. 18.169, πολλαχοῦ με ἐπέσχε λέγοντα μεταξύ it often checked me when the words were on my lips (in the very act of speaking) P. A. 40b.

2082. A participle implying opposition or concession (2066) may have its meaning rendered explicit by ὅμως yet, nevertheless (with or without καίπερ, 2083), εἶτα then or ἔπειτα afterwards to express censure or surprise (then, for all that): σὺν σοὶ ὅμως καὶ ἐν τῇ πολεμίᾳ ὄντες θαρροῦμεν with you, though we are in the enemies' country, nevertheless we have no fear X. C. 5.1.26, ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπολιπὼν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐνθάδε μενεῖς; and then, though you desert the gods, will you remain here? Ar. Pl. 1148. ὅμως may attach itself more closely to the participle, though belonging with the principal verb: ““πείθου γυναιξί, καίπερ οὐ στέργων ὅμωςtake the advice of women none the less though thou likest it notA. Sept. 712.

2083. With participles of opposition or concession (2066): καίπερ although, καί (infrequent), although καὶ ταῦτα (947) and that too. Thus, ““συμβουλεύω σοι καίπερ νεώτερος ὤνI give you advice though I am your juniorX. C. 4.5.32, ἀποπλεῖ οἴκαδε καίπερ μέσου χειμῶνος ὄντος he sailed off home though it was midwinter X. Ag. 2. 31, ““Κλέωνος καίπερ μανιώδης οὖσα ὑπόσχεσις ἀπέβηCleon's promise, insane though it was, was fulfilledT. 4.39, καὶ δοῦλος ὤν γὰρ τί_μιος πλουτῶν ἀνήρ for, slave though he be, the man of wealth is held in esteem E. fr. 142, ““ἀδικεῖς ὅτι ἄνδρα ἡμῖν τὸν σπουδαιότατον διαφθείρεις γελᾶν ἀναπείθων, καὶ ταῦτα οὕτω πολέμιον ὄντα τῷ γέλωτιyou do wrong in that you corrupt the most earnest man we have by tempting him to laugh, and that though he is such an enemy to laughterX. C. 2.2.16. On καίτοι see 2893 b.

a. In Homer the parts of καίπερ are often separated by the participle or an emphatic word connected with it: καὶ ἀχνύμενοί περ although distressed M 178. πέρ may stand alone without καί: ἀνάσχεο κηδομένη περ bear up, though vexed A 586. Both uses occur in tragedy. The part. with πέρ is not always concessive.

b. In a negative sentence, οὐδέ (μηδέ), with or without πέρ, takes the place of καί; as γυναικὶ πείθου μηδὲ τἀ_ληθῆ κλύων listen to a woman, though thou hearest not the truth E. fr. 440.

2084. With participles of cause (2064): οὕτως, διὰ τοῦτο (ταῦτα), ἐκ τούτου. Thus, ἀνελόμενοι τὰ ναυά_για . . . καὶ ὅτι αὐτοῖς . . . οὐκ ἀντεπέπλεον, διὰ ταῦτα τροπαῖον ἔστησαν because they had picked up the wrecks and because they (the enemy) did not sail against them, (for this reason) they set up a trophy T. 1.54.

2085. With participles of cause (2064): ἅτε (ἅτε δη), οἷα or οἷον (οἷον δή) inasmuch as, state the cause as a fact on the authority of the speaker or writer. Thus, Κῦρος, ἅτε παῖς ὤν, . . . ἥδετο τῇ στολῇ Cyrus, inasmuch as he was a child, was pleased with the robe X. C. 1.3.3, ἥκομεν ἑσπέρα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ στρατοπέδου, οἷον δὲ διὰ χρόνου ἀφι_γμένος ἐπὶ τὰ_ς συνήθεις διατριβά_ς I returned in the evening from the camp, and, as I arrived after a long absence, I proceeded to my accustomed haunts P. Charm. 153a, ““οἷα δὴ ἀπιόντων πρὸς δεῖπνον . . . τῶν πελταστῶν, . . . ἐπελαύνουσιinasmuch as the peltasts were going off to supper, they rode against themX. H. 5.4.39. ὥστε has the same force in Hdt.

2086. With participles of cause or purpose, etc. (2064, 2065): ὡς. This particle sets forth the ground of belief on which the agent acts, and denotes the thought, assertion, real or presumed intention, in the mind of the subject of the principal verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence, without implicating the speaker or writer.

a. Thus, ἀπῆλθον ὡς νι_κήσαντες may mean either they departed under the impression that they had been victorious (though as a matter of fact they may have been defeated) or pretending that they had been victorious (when they knew they had been defeated). The use of ὡς implies nothing as to the opinion of the speaker or writer. On the other hand ἀπῆλθον νι_κήσαντες means that, as a matter of fact, and on the authority of the writer, they had been victorious.

b. ὡς may be rendered as if (though there is nothing conditional in the Greek use, as is shown by the negative οὐ, not μή), by in the opinion (belief) that, on the ground that, under pretence of, under the impression that, because as he said (or thought; in the hope of, with the (avowed) intention of (with the future participle).

c. ““ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἔμενον ὡς τὸ ἄκρον κατέχοντες : οἱ δ᾽ ου᾽ κατεῖχον, ἀλλὰ μαστὸς ἦν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶνthere they remained in the belief that they were occupying the summit; but in fact they were not occupying it, since there was a hill above themX. A. 4.2.5, ταύτην τὴν χώρα_ν ἐπέτρεψε διαρπάσαι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ὡς πολεμία_ν οὖσαν he turned this country over to the Greeks to ravage on the ground that it was hostile 1. 2. 19, τὴν πρόφασιν ἐποιεῖτο ὡς Πι_σίδα_ς βουλόμενος ἐκβαλεῖν he made his pretence as if he wished (i.e. he gave as his pretext his desire) to expel the Pisidians 1. 2. 1, παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς πολεμήσοντες they made preparations to go to war (with the avowed intention of going to war) T. 2.7, συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν he seized Cyrus for the purpose (as he declared) of putting him to death X. A. 1.1.3, and often with the future participle. After verbs of motion ὡς is rarely used.

d. ὡς with the absolute participle: ““οὐ δεῖ ἀθυ_μεῖν ὡς οὐκ εὐτάκτων ὄντων Ἀθηναίωνwe must not be discouraged on the ground that the Athenians are not well disciplinedX. M. 3.5.20, ““ἔλεγε θαρρεῖν ὡς καταστησομένων τούτων ἐς τὸ δέονhe bade him be of good cheer in the assurance that this would arrange itself in the right wayX. A. 1.3.8, ““ὡς ἐξὸν ἤδη ποιεῖν αὐτοῖς τι βούλοιντο, πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινονin the belief that it was already in their power to do what they pleased, they put many to deathX. H. 2.3.21. Cp. also 2078, and 2122.

2087. ὥσπερ as, just as, as it were, an adverb of comparison, denotes that the action of the main verb is compared with an assumed case. Thus, ““κατακείμεθ᾽ ὥσπερ ἐξὸν ἡσυχία_ν ἄγεινwe lie inactive just as if it were possible to take one's easeX. A. 3.1.3, ὠρχοῦντο . . . ὥσπερ ἐπιδεικνύμενοι they danced as it were making an exhibition 5. 4. 34, οἱ δὲ ὡς ἤκουσαν, ὥσπερ συὸς ἀγρίου φανέντος, ἵ_ενται ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν but when they heard him, just as though a wild boar had appeared, they rushed against him 5. 7. 24. Cp. 2078.

a. Where a condition is meant, we have ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (ὡσπερανεί). Cp. 2480 a.

b. Hom. uses ὥς τε, ὡς εἰ, ὡς εἴ τε like ὥσπερ or ὡς. ὡς εἰ, ὡς εἴ τε occur also in tragedy, and do not have a conditional force. Thus, ““ὀλοφυ_ρόμενοι ὡς εἰ θανατόνδε κιόνταbewailing him as if he were going to deathΩ 328. Cp. 2481.


2088. The supplementary participle completes the idea of the verb by showing that to which its action relates.

2089. The supplementary participle agrees either with the subject or with the object of the main verb; with the subject when the verb is intransitive or passive, with the object when the verb is transitive.

““οὔποτ᾽ ἐπαυόμην ἡμᾶς οἰκτί_ρωνI never ceased pitying ourselvesX. A. 3.1.19, ““τοὺς πένητας ἔπαυσ᾽ ἀδικουμένουςI put a stop to the poor being wrongedD. 18.102, ἑώρων οὐ κατορθοῦντες καὶ τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς ἀχθομένους they saw that they (themselves) were not succeeding and that the soldiers were indignant T. 7.47, ““ἀδικοῦντα φίλιππον ἐξήλεγξαI proved that Philip was acting unjustlyD. 18.136, ““εὐθὺς ἐλεγχθήσεται γελοῖος ὤνhe will straightway be proved to be ridiculousX. M. 1.7.2.

a. When the object is the same as the subject, it is commonly suppressed, and the participle agrees with the subject. Thus, ““ὁρῶ ἐξαμαρτάνωνI see that I errE. Med. 350, ““ἴσθι ἀνόητος ὤνknow that you are a foolX. A. 2.1.13, οὐκ αἰσθάνεσθε ἐξαπατώμενοι; do you not perceive that you are being deceived? X. H. 7.1.12, ““ἐδήλωσε τῶν νόμων καταφρονῶνhe showed that he despised the lawsAnd. 4.14.

b. For the sake of emphasis or contrast (and to secure greater symmetry) the object may be expressed by the reflexive pronoun. Thus, ““οἶδα ἐμαυτὸν δικαίως κεχρημένον αὐτοῖςI know that I have presented my case honestlyI. 15.321, ““δεῖξον οὐ πεποιηκότα ταῦτα σαυτόνshow that you did not do this yourselfD. 22.29, ““ἀμφότερ᾽ οὖν οἶδε, καὶ αὑτὸν ὑ_μῖν ἐπιβουλεύοντα, καὶ ὑ_μᾶς αἰσθανομένουςnow he knows both—that he is himself plotting against you and that you are aware of itD. 6.18. Observe ἐλάνθανον αὑτοὺς ἐπὶ τῷ λόφῳ γενόμενοι (agreeing with the subject) without knowing it they found themselves on the hill X. A. 6.3.22. On the use with σύνοιδα, see 2108.

c. ἔοικα (the personal use for the impersonal ἔοικε, 1983) usually takes the participle in the dative; as, ““ἔοικας ὀκνοῦντι λέγεινyou seem reluctant to speakP. R. 414c; but also in the nominative (see 2133).

2090. Many verbs supplementing their meaning by the participle admit of the construction with the infinitive (often with a difference of meaning; see 2123 ff.) or with a substantive clause with ὅτι or ὡς.

2091. The present or perfect participle is often used as a simple predicate adjective, especially with εἰμί and γίγνομαι. The aorist participle is chiefly poetic.

““ἦσαν ἀπιστοῦντές τινες φιλίππῳthere were some who distrusted PhilipD. 19.53, (Κλέαρχος) φιλοκίνδυ_νός τ᾽ ἦν καὶ ἡμέρα_ς καὶ νυκτὸς ἄγων ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους Clearchus was both fond of danger and by day and by night led his men against the enemy X. A. 2.6.7, ἐγὼ τὸ πρᾶγμ᾽ εἰμὶ τοῦθ᾽ δεδρα_κώς I am the one who has done this deed D. 21.104, τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστι γιγνόμενον παρ᾽ ἡμῖν; or is not this something that takes place in us? P. Phil. 39c. So with adjectivized participles (1857), as ““συμφέρον ἦν τῇ πόλειit was advantageous to the StateD. 19.75. So with ὑπάρχω am, am assumed (D. 18.228).

a. Here the participle has the article when it designates the subject itself (third example; cp. 1152). But the article is not used when the participle marks a class in which the subject is included.

2092. The supplementary participle after certain verbs represents a dependent statement.

In ἤκουσε Κῦρον ἐν Κιλικίᾳ ὄντα he heard that Cyrus was in Cilicia ὄντα stands for ἐστί, what was heard being “Κῦρος ἐν Κιλικίᾳ ἐστί.” This is shown by the fact that the sentence might have been, according to the principles of indirect discourse, ἤκουσεν ὅτι Κῦρος ἐν Κιλικίᾳ εἴη (or ἐστί, 2615). With verbs not introducing indirect discourse, however, there is no such indirect statement; as in ““ἐπαύσαντο μαχόμενοιthey ceased fightingL. 23.9.

2093. Accordingly, from this point of view, the uses of the supplementary participle are two: (1) not in indirect discourse, and (2) in indirect discourse.

a. Some verbs take the participle either in indirect discourse or not in indirect discourse (2112). It is sometimes impossible to decide whether a participle stands in indirect discourse or not (2113); and the difference, especially after verbs of perceiving (2112 a, b), may be of no great importance to the sense.


2094. The supplementary participle not in indirect discourse is often like an object infinitive, the tenses denoting only stage of action and not difference of time (cp. 1850). Thus, compare παύομέν σε λέγοντα we stop you from speaking (of continued action) with κωλύ_ομέν σε λέγειν we prevent you from speaking (also of continued action).

2095. With verbs denoting being in some modified way (2096-2097).

2096. τυγχάνω (poet. κυρῶ) happen, am just now, λανθάνω escape the notice of, am secretly, φθάνω anticipate, am beforehand.

a. With these verbs the participle contains the main idea, and is often represented in translation by the finite verb with an adverbial phrase; thus, παρὼν ἐτύγχανε he happened to be there, or he was there by chance X. A. 1.1.2.

b. The action of φθάνω and λανθάνω usually coincides with that of the supplementary participle (present with present, aorist with aorist). But the aorist of a finite verb is occasionally followed by the present participle when it is necessary to mark an action or a state as continuing. οὐκ ἔλαθον is like an imperfect and may take the present participle. The aorist of τυγχάνω very often takes the present participle. With a present or imperfect of τυγχάνω, λανθάνω, φθάνω, the (rare) aorist participle refers to an action or state anterior to that of the present or imperfect. Many of the cases of the present of τυγχάνω with the aorist participle are historical presents; and in some cases the aorist participle is used for the perfect. With other tenses than present or imperfect, an aorist participle with these verbs refers to an action or state coincident in time (cp. 1873).

c. τυγχάνω often loses the idea of chance, and denotes mere coincidence in time (I am just now, I was just then) or simply I am (was).

d. Examples. τυγχάνω: ““προξενῶν τυγχάνωI happen to be proxenusD. 52.5, ““ἄριστα τυγχάνουσι πρά_ξαντεςthey happen to have fared the bestI. 4.103, ““ἐτύγχανον λέγωνI was just sayingX. A. 3.2.10, ““ὅστις ἀντειπών γε ἐτύγχανε καὶ γνώμην ἀποδεδειγμένοςwho happened to have spoken in opposition and to have declared his opinionL. 12.27, ἔτυχον καθήμενος ἐνταῦθα I was, by chance, sitting there P. Eu. 272e. λανθάνω: φονέα τοῦ παιδὸς ἐλάνθανε βόσκων he entertained the murderer of his son without knowing it (it escaped his notice that he was, etc.) Hdt. 1.44, ““ἔλαθον ἐσελθόντεςthey got in secretlyT. 2.2, οὐκ ἔλαθες ἀποδιδρά_σκων you did not escape notice in attempting to escape (your attempt at escape did not escape notice) P. R. 457e, ““ἔλαθεν ἀποδρά_ςhe escaped without being noticedX. H. 1.3.22, ““λήσετε πάνθ᾽ ὑπομείναντεςyou will submit to every possible calamity ere you are awareD. 6.27. φθάνω: οὐ φθάνει ἐξαγόμενος ἵππος κτλ. the horse is no sooner led out, etc. X. Eq. 5.10, φθάνουσιν (hist. pres.) ἐπὶ τῷ ἄκρῳ γενόμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους they anticipated the enemy in getting upon the summit (they got to the summit before the enemy) X. A. 3.4.49, ““οὐκ ἔφθασαν πυθόμενοι τὸν πόλεμον καὶ ἧκονscarcely had they heard of the war when they cameI. 4.86, ὁπότεροι φθήσονται τὴν πόλιν ἀγαθόν τι ποιήσαντες which party shall anticipate the other in doing some service to the State I. 4.79. Without regard to its mood, the present and imperfect of φθάνω are followed by the present participle (rarely by the perfect); the future, aorist, and historical present are followed by the aorist participle.

e. οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις (φθάνοιτε) with the participle is used in urgent, but polite, exhortations, as οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις λέγων the sooner you speak the better (i.e. speak at once) X. M. 2.3.11. Strictly this is equivalent to you would not be anticipating (my wish or your duty), if you should speak. λέγε φθάσα_ς might be said according to 2061.

f. λανθάνω and φθάνω (rarely τυγχάνω) may appear in the participle, thus reversing the ordinary construction, as ““διαλαθὼν ἐσέρχεται ἐς τὴν Μι_τυλήνηνhe entered Mitylene secretlyT. 3.25, ““φθάνοντες ἤδη δῃοῦμεν τὴν ἐκείνων γῆνwe got the start of them by ravaging their territoryX. C. 3.3.18. Cp. also 2062 a. The present participle is rare.

2097. διάγω, διαγίγνομαι, διατελῶ, διαμένω continue, keep on, am continually.

διάγουσι μανθάνοντες they are continually (they spend their time in) learning X. C. 1.2.6. ““κρέα_ ἐσθίοντες οἱ στρατιῶται διεγίγνοντοthe soldiers kept eating meatX. A. 1.5.6, ““διατελεῖ μι_σῶνhe continues to hateX. C. 5.4.35, ““θρηνοῦντες διετελοῦμενwe lamented continuallyI. 19.27, ““ ἥλιος λαμπρότατος ὢν διαμένειthe sun continues to be most brilliantX. M. 4.7.7.

2098. With verbs signifying to begin, cease, endure, grow weary of an action.

ἄρχομαι begin (2128), παύω cause to cease, παύομαι, λήγω cease, ἀπολείπω, διαλείπω, ἐπιλείπω leave off, ἐλλείπω support, καρτερῶ endure (do something patiently), κάμνω grow weary, ἀπαγορεύω give up, etc.

““ἄρξομαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγωνI will begin my speech with the healing artP. S. 186b, ““παύσω τοῦτο γιγνόμενονI will put a stop to this happeningP. G. 523c, παῦσαι λέγουσα lit. stop talking E. Hipp. 706, ““οὐπώποτε διέλειπον ζητῶνI never left off seekingX. Ap. 16, ἀνέχου πάσχων support thy sufferings E. fr. 1090, οὔτε τότ᾽ ἐκαρτέρουν ἀκούων κτλ. neither then did I listen patiently, etc., Aes. 3.118, ““μὴ κάμῃς φίλον ἄνδρα εὐεργετῶνdo not grow weary of doing good to your friendP. G. 470c, ““ἀπείρηκα . . . τὰ ὅπλα φέρων καὶ ἐν τάξει ἰὼν καὶ φυλακὰ_ς φυλάττων καὶ μαχόμενοςI am tired of carrying my arms and going in the ranks and mounting guard and fightingX. A. 5.1.2.

a. Verbs signifying to support, endure ordinarily take the present participle; but there are cases of the complexive aorist in reference to acts to which one must submit despite all resistance: so, with ἀνέχομαι, X. C. 6.2.18, D. 41.1; cp. οὐκ ἠνέσχεσθε ἀκούσαντες L. 13.8 (Hdt. 5.89) with οὐκ ἠνείχοντο ἀκούοντες X. H. 6.5.49. The aorist participle seems not to be used with the object of ἀνέχομαι.

2099. With some verbs of coming and going the participle specifies the manner of coming and going, and contains the main idea.

βῆ φεύγων he took to flight (went fleeing) B 665, ““οἴχονται διώκοντεςthey have gone in pursuitX. A. 1.10.5, ““ᾠχόμην ἀναγόμενοςI put to seaD. 50.12, ““οἴχεται θανώνhe is dead and goneS. Ph. 414, οὐ τοῦτο λέξων ἔρχομαι I am not going to say this X. Ag. 2. 7.

2100. With verbs of emotion (rejoicing and grieving) the participle often denotes cause (cp. 2048).

χαίρω, ἥδομαι, τέρπομαι, γέγηθα (poet.) am pleased, take pleasure, ἀγαπῶ, στέργω am content, ἀγανακτῶ, ἄχθομαι, χαλεπῶς φέρω am vexed, displeased, ῥᾳδίως φέρω make light of, λυ_ποῦμαι grieve, ὀργίζομαι am angry, αἰσχύ_νομαι, αἰδοῦμαι am ashamed (2126), μεταμέλομαι, μεταμέλει μοι repent. (Verbs of emotion also take ὅτι or ὡς, by which construction the object is simply stated; with the participle the connection is closer).

““χαίρω διαλεγόμενος τοῖς σφόδρα πρεσβύ_ταιςI like to converse with very old menP. R. 328d, ὅστις ἥδεται λέγων ἀεί, λέληθεν αὑτὸν τοῖς ξυνοῦσιν ὢν βαρύς he who likes to be always talking is a bore to his companions without knowing it S. fr. 99, ““οὐκ ἀγαπῶ ζῶν ἐπὶ τούτοιςI am not content to live on these conditionsI. 12.8, ““οὐκ ἂν ἀχθοίμην μανθάνωνI should not be annoyed at learningP. Lach. 189a, ““χαλεπῶς ἔφερον οἰκία_ς κατελείποντεςthey took it hard at abandoning their homesT. 2.16, ἀδικούμενοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι μᾶλλον ὀργίζονται βιαζόμενοι men are more angered at being the victims of injustice than of compulsion 1. 77, οὐ γὰρ αἰσχύ_νομαι μανθάνων for I am not ashamed to learn P. Hipp. Min. 372 c, ““μετεμέλοντο τὰ_ς σπονδὰ_ς οὐ δεξάμενοιthey repented not having accepted the truceT. 4.27, ““οὔ μοι μεταμέλει οὕτως ἀπολογησαμένῳI do not repent having made such a defenceP. A. 38e.

a. The participle agrees with the case of the person in regard to whom the emotion is manifested: ἀκούοντες χαίρουσιν ἐξεταζομένοις τοῖς οἰομένοις μὲν εἶναι σοφοῖς, οὖσι δ᾽ οὔ they like to hear the examination of those who pretend to be wise, but are not so in reality P. A. 33c. This construction must be distinguished from that occurring in poetry, whereby verbs like χαίρω and ἄχθομαι (which commonly take the dative) often admit the accusative and the participle: ““τοὺς γὰρ εὐσεβεῖς θεοὶ θνῄσκοντας οὐ χαίρουσιfor the gods do not rejoice at the death of the righteousE. Hipp. 1339.

b. So with verbs meaning to satiate oneself: ““ὑπισχνούμενος οὐκ ἐνεπίμπλασοyou could not satiate yourself with promisesX. A. 7.7.46.

2101. With verbs signifying to do well or ill, to surpass or be inferior, the participle specifies the manner or that in which the action of the verb consists (cp. 2048, 2062). So with καλῶς (εὖ) ποιῶ, ἀδικῶ, ἁμαρτάνω; νι_κῶ, κρατῶ, περιγίγνομαι, ἡττῶμαι, λείπομαι.

““εὖ γ᾽ ἐποίησας ἀναμνήσα_ς μεyou did well in reminding meP. Ph. 60c (cp. 1872 c. 2), ““καλῶς ἐποίησεν οὕτως τελευτήσα_ς τὸν βίονhe did well in ending his life thusL. 28.8, ““ὀνήσεσθε ἀκούοντεςyou will profit by hearingP. A. 30c, ἀδικεῖτε πολέμου ἄρχοντες (1734. 5) you do wrong in being the aggressors in the war T. 1.53, ““οὐχ ἡττησόμεθα εὖ ποιοῦντεςwe shall not be outdone in well-doingX. A. 2.3.23. Here belongs ἐμοὶ χαρίζου ἀποκπι_νάμενος do me the favour to reply (gratify me by replying) P. R. 338a.

2102. With πειρῶμαι try, πολὺς ἔγκειμαι am urgent, πάντα ποιῶ do everything, the participle is rare in Attic; more common in Hdt. with πειρῶμαι, πολλὸς ἔγκειμαι, πολλός εἰμι am urgent, etc.

πειρα_σόμεθα ἐλέγχοντες I shall try to prove Ant. 2. γ. 1; ““πολλὸς ἦν λισσόμενοςhe begged often and urgentlyHdt. 9.91.

2103. With περιορῶ (and sometimes with ἐφορῶ, εἰσορῶ, προί_εμαι), signifying overlook, allow. (But not with ἐῶ.) Cp. 2141.

μείζω γιγνόμενον τὸν ἄνθρωπον περιορῶμεν we allow the man to grow greater (we look with indifference on his growing power) D. 9.29, ““οὐ περιεῖδον ἐμαυτὸν ἄδοξον γενόμενονI did not suffer myself to become obscureI. 12.11, ““ἔτλησαν ἐπιδεῖν . . . ἐρήμην μὲν τὴν πόλιν γενομένην, τὴν δὲ χώρα_ν πορθουμένηνthey had the courage to look calmly on their city made desolate and their country being ravagedI. 4.96. So even with the uncompounded ὁρῶ in poetry. (With the infinitive περιορῶ no longer connotes perception and simply equals ἐῶ allow.)

2104. With some impersonal expressions taking the dative, such as those signifying the advantage or consequence of an action (it is fitting, profitable, good, etc.), and those implying confidence or fear. (The personal construction is often preferred.)

ἐπηρώτων τὸν θεόν, εἰ (αὐτοῖς) ““πολεμοῦσιν ἄμεινον ἔσταιthey asked the god whether it would be better for them to make warT. 1.118, εἰ τόδ᾽ αὐτῷ φίλον (ἐστί) ““κεκλημένῳif it is pleasing to him to be called thusA. Ag. 161. Personal: ““οἷς πολέμιον ἦν τὸ χωρίον κτιζόμενονto whom the settlement of the place was a menaceT. 1.100, οἴκοι μένων βελτί_ων (ἐστίν) he is all the better by staying at home D. 3.34 (for μένειν αὐτὸν βέλτι_όν ἐστι).

2105. The participle occurs with various other verbs, such as θαμίζω am wont; συμπἱ_πτω and συμβαίνω happen; ἀποδείκνυ_μι, καθίζω, παρασκευάζω, meaning render; ἀρκῶ, ἱκανός εἰμι am sufficient.

On ἐμοὶ βουλομένῳ ἐστί, etc., see 1487. On ἔχω and the participle in periphrases, see 1963.


2106. Verbs of Knowing and Showing.—After verbs signifying to know, be ignorant of, learn (not learn of), remember, forget, show, appear, prove, acknowledge, and announce, the participle represents a dependent statement, each tense having the same force as the corresponding tense of the indicative or optative with ὅτι or ὡς, the present including also the imperfect, the perfect including also the pluperfect.

Such verbs are: οἶδα, γιγνώσκω, ἐπίσταμαι, ἐννοῶ, μανθάνω (2136), (οὐκ) ἀγνοῶ, μέμνημαι, ἐπιλανθάνομαι (2134), δηλῶ, (ἐπι) δείκνυ_μι, φαίνω, ἀποφαίνω, φαίνομαι (2143), ἔοικα (2089 c, 2133), (ἐξ-) ἐλέγχω, ὁμολογῶ (rarely), ἀγγέλλω, ποιῶ represent (2115).

οὐ γὰρ ᾔδεσαν αὐτὸν τεθνηκότα (= τέθνηκε) for they did not know that he was dead X. A. 1.10.16, ἔγνω τὴν ἐσβολὴν ἐσομένην (= ἔσται) he knew that the invasion would take place T. 2.13, δν ὑ_μεῖς ἐπίστασθε ἡμᾶς προδόντα (= προὔδωκε) you know that he betrayed us X. A. 6.6.17, τίς οὕτως εὐήθης ἐστὶν ὑ_μῶν ὅστις ἀγνοεῖ τὸν ἐκεῖθεν πόλεμον δεῦρ᾽ ἥξοντα (= ἥξει); who of you is so simple-minded as not to know that the war will come hither from that quarter? D. 1.15, (Χερρόνησον) κατέμαθε πόλεις ἕνδεκα δώδεκα ἔχουσαν (= ἔχει) he learned that Chersonesus contained eleven or twelve cities X. H. 3.2.10, μέμνημαι ἀκούσα_ς (= ἤκουσα) I remember to have heard X. C. 1.6.6, μέμνημαι Κριτίᾳ τῷδε ξυνόντα σε (= ξυνῆσθα) I remember that you were in company with Critias here P. Charm. 156a, ἐπιλελήσμεσθ᾽ ἡδέως γέροντες ὄντες (= ἐσμέν) we have gladly forgotten that we are old E. Bacch. 188, δείξω (αὐτὸν) πολλῶν θανάτων ὄντ᾽ (= ἐστί) ““ἄξιονI will show that he deserves to die many timesD. 21.21, δειχθήσεται τοῦτο πεποιηκώς (= πεποίηκε) he will be shown to have done this 21. 160, τοῦτο τὸ γράμμα δηλοῖ ψευδῆ τὴν διαθήκην οὖσαν (= ἐστί) this clause shows that the will was forged 45. 34, ἐὰ_ν ἀποφαίνωσι τοὺς φεύγοντας παλαὶ πονηροὺς ὄντας (= εἰσί) if they show that the exiles were inveterate rascals L. 30.1, ψυ_χὴ ἀθάνατος φαίνεται οὖσα (= ἐστί) it seems that the soul is immortal P. Ph. 107c, ἀδικοῦντα (= ἀδικεῖ) ““φίλιππον ἐξήλεγξαI convicted Philip of acting unjustlyD. 18.136, ῥᾳδίως ἐλεγχθήσεται ψευδόμενος (= ψεύδεται) he will easily be convicted of lying 27. 19, ὁμολογούμεθα ἐλθόντες (= ἤλθομεν) I acknowledge that I came L. 4.7, αὐτῷ Κῦρον ἐπιστρατεύοντα (= ἐπιστρατεύει) ““πρῶτος ἤγγειλαI was the first to announce that Cyrus was taking the field against himX. A. 2.3.19.

a. Except with ἀγγέλλω announce (what is certain), verbs of saying or thinking rarely take the participle in prose, e.g. πᾶσι ταῦτα δεδογμένα ἡμῖν νόμιζε (= εὖ ἴσθι) think that this is our unanimous opinion P. R. 450a.

2107. The personal constructions δῆλός εἰμι, φανερός εἰμι I am plainly (impersonal δῆλόν and φανερόν ἐστιν ὅτι) are followed by a dependent statement in the participle. Thus, δῆλος ἦν οἰόμενος (= δῆλον ἦν ὅτι οἴοιτο) it was clear that he thought X. A. 2.5.27, θύ_ων φανερὸς ἦν πολλάκις (= φανερὸν ἦν ὅτι θύ_οι) it was evident that he often sacrificed X. M. 1.1.2, ἀνια_θεὶς δῆλος ἦν (= δῆλον ἦν ὅτι ἀνια_θείη) he showed his dissatisfaction X. C. 2.2.3.

2108. The participle with σύνοιδα or συγγιγνώσκω am conscious, accompanied by the dative of the reflexive pronoun, may stand either in the nominative agreeing with the subject, or in the dative agreeing with the reflexive. Thus, συνειδὼς αὐτὸς αὑτῷ ἔργον εἰργασμένος conscious (to himself) that he had done the deed Ant. 6.5, ““ἐμαυτῷ ξυνῄδη οὐδὲν ἐπισταμένῳI was conscious of knowing nothingP. A. 22c.

a. When the subject is not the same as the object, the latter, with the participle, may stand in the dative, or (rarely) in the accusative. Thus, ξυνίσα_σι Μελήτῳ μὲν ψευδομένῳ, ἐμοὶ δὲ ἀληθεύοντι they know as well as Meletus that he is lying, and (as well as I do) that I am speaking the truth P. A. 34b, ““συνειδὼς τῶν ἀ_θλημάτων δούλους μετέχονταςknowing that slaves participate in the contestsD. 61.23. (The force of σύν at times almost disappears.)

2109. The use of the participle to represent a dependent statement comes from its circumstantial use. Thus, in οὐ γὰρ ᾔδεσαν αὐτὸν τεθνηκότα (2106), τεθνηκότα agrees with the object of ᾔδεσαν; and from they did not know him as dead the thought passes into they did not know (the fact) that he was dead.


2110. Verbs of Perception.—Verbs signifying to see, perceive, hear, learn (i.e. learn by inquiry, hear of), when they denote physical (actual) perception take the participle. When they denote intellectual perception they may take the participle or ὅτι or ὡς with a finite verb. (The Homeric usage is less strict.)

2111. Such verbs are, in Attic, ὁρῶ see, αἰσθάνομαι perceive, ἀκούω hear, πυνθάνομαι learn.

2112. The participle may stand either not in indirect discourse or in indirect discourse.

a. Not in Indirect Discourse.—Here verbs of perceiving denote physical perception—the act perceived or heard of. With ἀκούω and πυνθάνομαι the participle stands in the genitive; with αἰσθάνομαι it usually stands in the accusative (as with ὁρῶ), but sometimes in the genitive. (See 1361, 1367.)

““εἶδε Κλέαρχον διελαύνονταhe saw Clearchus riding throughX. A. 1.5.12; ““αἰσθόμενος Λαμπροκλέα_ πρὸς τὴν μητέρα χαλεπαίνονταperceiving Lamprocles angry with his motherX. M. 2.2.1, ᾔσθησαι πώποτέ μου ψευδομαρτυροῦντος συ_κοφαντοῦντος; have you ever noticed me either bearing false witness or playing the part of an informer? 4. 4. 11; ““ἤκουσαν αὐτοῦ φωνήσαντοςthey heard him speakingX. S. 3. 13; ““ὡς ἐπύθοντο τῆς Πύλου κατειλημμένηςwhen they learned of the capture of PylosT. 4.6.

N. Verbs of physical perception, ὁρῶ (especially) and ἀκούω, regularly take the present participle in Attic prose, which usually refuses to distinguish between I see a house burning and I see a house burn. The complexive aorist, summing up the action, does however occur, as ““ὡς εἶδεν ἐλαφον ἐκπηδήσα_σαν . . . ἐδίωκενwhen he saw a hind break cover he gave chaseX. C. 1.4.8. Cp. πεσόντα εἶδον Hdt. 9.22.

b. In Indirect Discourse.—Here verbs of perceiving denote intellectual perception—the fact that something is perceived or heard of. With ἀκούω and πυνθάνομαι the participle stands in the accusative (as with ὁρῶ, αἰσθάνομαι). Cp. 1363, 1365, 2144, 2145.

““ὁρῶμεν πάντα ἀληθῆ ὄντα λέγετεwe see that everything you say is trueX. A. 5.5.24, ““αἰσθάνομαι ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχονταI perceive that this is soX. M. 3.5.5, ““ἤκουσε Κῦρον ἐν Κιλικίᾳ ὄνταhe heard that Cyrus was in CiliciaX. A. 1.4.5, ““ὅταν κλύῃ τινὸς ἥξοντ᾽ Ὀρέστηνwhen she hears from any one that Orestes will returnS. El. 293, ““πυθόμενοι Ἀρταξέρξην τεθνηκόταhaving learned that Artaxerxes was deadT. 4.50.

2113. Verbs of Finding.—Verbs of finding and detecting (εὑρίσκω, (καταλαμβάνω; pass. ἁλίσκομαι) in their capacity as verbs of perceiving take the participle (a) not in indirect discourse, of the act or state in which a person or thing is found; or (b) in indirect discourse, of the fact that a person or thing is found in an act or state.

a. κῆρυξ ἀφικόμενος ηὗρε τοὺς ἄνδρας διεφθαρμένους the herald, on his arrival, found the men already put to death T. 2.6, ““εὕρηται πιστῶς πρά_ττωνhe has been found to have dealt faithfullyD. 19.332, ““ἂ_ν ἄρ᾽ ἄλλον τινὰ λαμβάνῃ ψευδόμενονif then he catch anybody else lyingP. R. 389d, ἢν ἐπιβουλεύων ἁλίσκηται if he be detected in plotting X. Ag. 8. 3.

b. ““διὰ τὴν Ἰ_λίου ἅλωσιν εὑρίσκουσι σφίσι ἐοῦσαν τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ἔχθρηςthey conclude that the beginning of their enmity was on account of the capture of IliumHdt. 1.5.

2114. It is often difficult to distinguish the two constructions of 2113. Thus, καταλαμβάνουσι νεωστὶ στάσει τοὺς τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἐναντίους ἐκπεπτωκότας (T. 7.33) may mean they found that the anti-Athenian party had been recently expelled by a revolution (ind. disc.) or them recently expelled (not in ind. disc.). So ““καταλαμβάνουσι . . . τἆλλα ἀφεστηκόταthey found the other cities in a state of revoltT. 1.59 (that they had revolted would be possible). In the meaning discover, find καταλαμβάνω does not take the aorist participle.

2115. ποιῶ meaning represent has the construction of the verbs of 2113. Thus, πλησιάζοντας τοὺς θεοὺς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις οἷόν τ᾽ αὐτοῖς ποιῆσαι it is possible for them (poets) to represent the gods as drawing nigh to men I. 9.9. Cp. 2142.


2116. The participle ὤν is often omitted.

2117. After ἅτε, οἷα, ὡς, or καίπερ, ὤν is often omitted in prose with predicate adjectives: συνδείπνους ἔλαβεν ἀμφοτέρους πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ὡς φίλους ἤδη (ὄντας) he took both to supper with him since they were now friends X. C. 3.2.25. Such omission is rare in prose except after these particles: εἰ ἥττους (ὄντες) ““τῶν πολεμίων ληφθησόμεθαif we shall be caught at the mercy of our enemiesX. A. 5.6.13. With predicate substantives, even after these particles, ὤν is very rarely omitted (P. R. 568b).

a. In the genitive and accusative absolute the particles of 2117 usually precede when ὤν is omitted. With the genitive absolute the omission is very rare in prose: ὡς ἑτοίμων (ὄντων) χρημάτων just as though the property was at their disposal X. A. 7.8.11; but ἡμέρα_ς ἤδη (οὔσης) it being already day T. 5.59. In poetry the substantive usually suggests the verb: ὑφηγητῆρος οὐδενὸς (ὄντος) φίλων with no friend to guide him S. O. C. 1588. Accusative absolute: ὡς καλὸν (ὂν) ἀγορεύεσθαι αὐτόν on the ground that it is admirable for it (the speech) to be delivered T. 2.35. Without the particles of 2117, the omission of ὄν is poetical (S. Ant. 44). The omission of ὄν with adjectives ending in -ον aids euphony.

b. ἑκών willing, ἄ_κων unwilling are treated like participles (2071): ““ἐμοῦ μὲν οὐχ ἑκόντοςagainst my willS. Aj. 455.

c. ὤν must be used when it has the force of in the capacity of.

2118. A predicate substantive or adjective, coördinated with a participle in the same construction, may omit ὤν; as ““οὐ ῥᾴδιον ἦν μὴ ἁθρόοις καὶ ἀλλήλους περιμείνα_σι διελθεῖν τὴν πολεμία_νit was not easy for them to pass through the enemy's country except in a body and after having waited for one anotherT. 5.64.

2119. ὤν may be omitted with verbs taking a supplementary participle; so with verbs meaning to perceive (2111 ff.), know, show, announce, find, discover, etc.; especially with φαίνομαι, τυγχάνω (poet. κυρῶ), διατελῶ, διαγίγνομαι, rarely with περιορῶ and συμβαίνω. Thus, ὁρῶ μέγαν (ὄντα) ““τὸν ἀγῶναI see that the contest is importantT. 2.45, ἂ_ν ἐν Χερρονήσῳ πύθησθε Φίλιππον (ὄντα) if you learn that Philip is in Chersonesus D. 4.41, εὶ ψευδὴς φαίνοιτο (ὤν) ““ Λωβρύα_ςif Gobryas seem to be falseX. C. 5.2.4, εἴ τις εὔνους (ὤν) ““τυγχάνειif any one happens to be friendlyAr. Eccl. 1141, ἀχίτων (ὤν) ““διατελεῖςyou are continually without a tunicX. M. 1.6.2.


2120. ὡς is often used with a participle in indirect discourse to mark the mental attitude of the subject of the main verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence (cp. 2086); sometimes, to denote emphasis, when that mental attitude is already clearly marked.

ὡς μηδὲν εἰδότ᾽ ἴσθι με be assured that I know nothing (lit. understand that you are to assume that I know nothing) S. Ph. 253, δῆλος ἦν Κῦρος ὡς σπεύδων Cyrus was plainly bent on haste (Cyrus showed that it was his intention to make haste) X. A. 1.5.9.

2121. A participle with ὡς may follow a verb of thinking or saying though the verb in question does not take the participle in indirect discourse without ὡς. Thus, ““ὡς τὰ βέλτιστα βουλεύοντες ἰ_σχυ_ρίζοντοthey kept insisting in the belief that they were recommending the best courseT. 4.68, ὡς στρατηγήσοντ᾽ ἐμὲ ταύτην τὴν στρατηγία_ν μηδεὶς ὑ_μῶν λεγέτω let no one of you say (i.e. speak of me in the belief) that I will assume this command X. A. 1.3.15.

2122. So after verbs admitting the supplementary participle in indirect discourse we may have the genitive or accusative absolute with ὡς instead of the participle or a clause with ὅτι or ὡς. Thus, ὡς πολέμου ὄντος παρ᾽ ὑ_μῶν ἀπαγγελῶ; shall I report from you (on the assumption) that there is war? X. A. 2.1.21, ὡς ἐμοῦ οὖν ἰόντος, ὅπῃ καὶ ὑ_μεῖς, οὕτω τὴν γνώμην ἔχετε make up your minds (on the assumption) that I am going wherever you go (= be sure that I am going, etc.) 1. 3. 6 (here τὴν γνώμην ἔχετε could not take the participle without ὡς); ὡς πάνυ μοι δοκοῦν, οὕτως ἴσθι rest assured that it is my decided opinion (lit. on the assumption that this seems so to me, understand accordingly) X. M. 4.2.30. For ὡς with the absolute participle not in indirect discourse, see 2086 d.


2123. Some verbs admit either the supplementary participle or the infinitive, sometimes with only a slight difference in meaning. Cases where the difference is marked are given below. (Most of the verbs in question admit also a substantive clause with ὅτι or ὡς, 2577).

2124. Infinitive and participle here differ greatly when the infinitive expresses purpose or result. Where the infinitive shows only its abstract verbal meaning it differs but little from the participle (cp. 2144).

2125. A participle or infinitive standing in indirect discourse is indicated in 2126-2143 by O (ratio) O (bliqua); when not standing in O. O. this fact is ordinarily not indicated.

2126. αἰσχύ_νομαι and αἰδοῦμαι with part. (2100) = I am ashamed of doing something which I do; with inf. = I am ashamed to do something which I have refrained from doing up to the present time and may never do. Thus, ““τοῦτο μὲν οὐκ αἰσχύ_νομαι λέγων: τὸ δὲ . . . αἰσχυ_νοίμην ἂν λέγεινI am not ashamed of saying this; but the following I should be ashamed to sayX. C. 5.1.21, ““αἰσχύ_νομαι οὖν ὑ_μῖν εἰπεῖν τἀ_ληθῆ, ὅμως δὲ ῥητέονI am ashamed to speak the truth to you; nevertheless it must be spokenP. A. 22b. With a negative the distinction may disappear: οὐδ᾽ αἰσχύ_νει φθόνου δίκην εἰσάγειν (v.l. εἰσάγων), οὐκ ἀδικήματος οὐδενός, καὶ νόμους μεταποιῶν; are you not ashamed to bring a cause into court out of envy—not for any offence—and to alter laws? D. 18.121.

2127. ἀνέχομαι (2098; rarely with the inf.), *τλάω and τολμῶ (both rarely with the part. in poetry), ὑπομένω: with part. = endure, submit to something that is present or past; with inf. venture or have the courage to do something in the future. Thus, ““πάσχοντες ἠνείχοντοthey submitted to sufferT. 1.77, ““ἀνέσχοντο τὸν ἐπιόντα ἐπὶ τὴν χώρα_ν δέξασθαιthey had the courage to receive the invader of their countryHdt. 7.139; παῖδα . . . φα_σὶν Ἀλκμήνης πρα_θέντα τλῆναι they say that Alcmene's son bore up in bondage (lit. having been sold) A. Ag. 1041; ““ἐτόλμα_ βαλλόμενοςhe submitted to be struckω 161, ““τόλμησον ὀρθῶς φρονεῖνsapere audeA. Pr. 1000; ““οὐχ ὑπομένει ὠφελούμενοςhe cannot stand being improvedP. G. 505c, ““εἰ ὑμομενέουσι χεῖρας ἐμοὶ ἀνταειρόμενοιif they shall dare to raise their hands against meHdt. 7.101.

2128. ἄρχομαι, cp. 1734 (Hom. ἄρχω) with part. (2098), begin to do something and continue with something else; with inf. (usually present, cp. 1865 b) begin to do something and continue with the same thing. Thus, ἄρξομαι διδάσκων ἐκ τῶν θείων I will begin my instruction with things divine (later the subject is the desire for wealth) X. C. 8.8.2, πόθεν ἤρξατό σε διδάσκειν τὴν στρατηγία_ν; at what point did he begin to teach you generalship? X. M. 3.1.5. ἄρχομαι with the participle occurs only in Xenophon and Plato.

2129. γιγνώσκω with part. in O. O. (2106) = recognize that something is; with inf. in three uses: (1) in O. O. = judge (decide) that something is (a verb of will), as ““ἔγνωσαν κερδαλεώτερον εἶναιthey judged that it was more profitableX. A. 1.9.17; (2) not in O. O. = resolve, determine to do something, as ““ἔγνω διώκειν τοὺς ἐκ τῶν εὐωνύμων προσκειμένουςhe resolved to pursue those who were hanging on his leftX. H. 4.6.9; (3) not in O. O. = learn how to do something (rarely), as ““γίγνωσκε τῆς ὀργῆς κρατεῖνlearn to control thy temperMen. Sent. 20.

2130. δείκνυ_μι with part. in O. O. (2106) = show that something is; with inf. (ἀποδείκνυ_μι) not in O. O. = show how to do something, instruct. Thus, ““ἀπέδειξαν οἱ ἡγεμόνες λαμβάνειν τὰ ἐπιτήδειαthe guides directed them to take provisionsX. A. 2.3.14.

2131. δηλῶ with part. (and inf.) in O. O. (2106) = show that sometking is, indicate; with inf. not in O. O. = command, make known, signify; as in κηρύ_γματι ἐδήλου τοὺς ἐλευθερία_ς δεομένους ὡς πρὸς σύμμαχον αὐτὸν παρεῖναι he made known by proclamation that those who wanted freedom should come to him as an ally X. Ag. 1. 33.

2132. δοκιμάζω with part. in O. O. (2106) = prove to be, as ““ὁποῖοί τινες ὄντες αὐτοὶ περὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐδοκιμάσθητεwhat sort of persons you proved yourselves to be in regard to the cityL. 31.34; with inf. in O. O. = pronounce an opinion to be correct. Thus, ““ἐδοκιμάσαμεν ἀνδρὶ καλῷ τε κἀ_γαθῷ ἐργασία_ν εἶναι . . . κρατίστην γεωργία_νwe approved the idea that tilling of the soil is the best occupation for a gentlemanX. O. 6.8.

2133. ἔοικα (1983, 2089 c) with nom. part. = appear, oftener with dat. part. (strictly = am like), appear; with inf. = seem. Thus, ““ἐοίκατε τυραννίσι μᾶλλον πολι_τείαις ἡδόμενοιyou appear to take delight in despotisms rather than in constitutional governmentsX. H. 6.3.8, ἔοικας δεδιότι τοὺς πολλούς strictly you are like one who fears (i.e. you appear to fear) the multitude P. R. 527d, ““οὐκ ἔοικεν εἰδέναιhe seems not to knowX. Ap. 29, ““ἔοικα ἐποικτί_ρειν σεmethinks I pity theeS. Ph. 317.

2134. ἐπιλανθάνομαι with part. in O. O. (2106) = forget that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = forget (how) to do something. Thus, ““ὀλίγου ἐπελαθόμεθ᾽ εἰπεῖνI have almost forgotten to mentionP. R. 563b.

2135. εὑρίσκω with part. in O. O. = judge and not in O. O. (2113) = find that something is; less often with inf. in O. O. = judge, as εὕρισκε ταῦτα καιριώτατα εἶναι he found (judged) that this was the most opportune way Hdt. 1.125. ευ<*>ρίσκομαι rarely with inf. = find how to (E. Med. 196), procure by asking (Hdt. 9.28).

2136. μανθάνω with part. in O. O. (2106) = learn that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = learn (how) to do something. Thus, ““διαβεβλημένος οὐ μανθάνειςyou do not perceive that you have been calumniatedHdt. 3.1, ““ἂ_ν ἅπαξ μάθωμεν ἀ_ργοὶ ζῆνif we once learn to live in idlenessX. A. 3.2.25.

2137. μεθί_ημι (let go), etc., with part. = leave off; with inf. = neglect, permit. Thus, ““οὐ γὰρ ἀνίει ἐπιώνfor he did not stop coming after themHdt. 4.125, ““μεθι_ᾶσι τὰ δέοντα πρά_ττεινthey neglect to perform their dutiesX. M. 2.1.33, ““μεθεῖσά μοι λέγεινallowing me to speakS. El. 628.

2138. μέμνημαι with part. in O. O. (2106) = remember that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = remember to do something. Thus, ““μεμνήσθω ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς εἶναιlet in him be mindful to be a brave manX. A. 3.2.39.

2139. οἶδα and ἐπίσταμαι with part. in O. O. (2106) = know that something is; with inf. not in O. O. = know how to do something. Thus, ““ἐπιστάμενος νεῖνknowing how to swimX. A. 5.7.25. In poetry (very rarely in prose, except with ἐπίσταμαι in Hdt.) these verbs take also the inf. (in O. O.) in the meaning know or believe: ““ἐπιστάμεθα μή πώ ποτ᾽ αὐτὸν ψεῦδος λακεῖνwe know that he has never yet spoken falsehoodS. Ant. 1094.

2140. παύω with part. (2098) = stop what is taking place; with inf. = prevent something from taking place. Thus, ““ἔπαυσαν φοβουμένους πλῆθος νεῶνthey stopped their terror at the number of shipsP. Menex. 241b, ““παύσαντες τὸ μὴ προσελθεῖν ἐγγὺς τὴν ὁλκάδαpreventing the merchantman from drawing nearT. 7.53.

2141. περιορῶ, etc. (2103) with pres. part. = view with indifference, with aor. part. = shut one's eyes to; with inf. = let something happen through negligence, or simply permit (ἐᾶν). Thus, περιεῖδε τὸν αὑτοῦ πατέρα καὶ ζῶντα τῶν ἀναγκαίων σπανίζοντα καὶ τελευτήσαντ᾽ ου᾽ τυχόντα τῶν νομίμων he looked on with indifference while his own father was in want of necessities when alive and (shut his eyes) to his failure to receive the customary rites after he had passed away Dinarchus 2. 8, ““οἱ Ἀχαρνῆς . . . οὐ περιόψεσθαι ἐδόκουν τὰ σφέτερα διαφθαρένταit did not seem likely that the Acharnians would shut their eyes to the destruction of their propertyT. 2.20, οὐδ᾽ ἐσιέναι ἔφασαν περιόψεσθαι οὐδένα they refused to permit any one to enter 4. 48.

2142. ποιῶ. with part. (2115) = represent; with inf. not in O. O. = cause, effect; with inf. in O. O. = assume. Thus, ““ἀνωνύμους τοὺς ἄλλους εἶναι ποιεῖcauses the others to lose their namesHdt. 7.129, ποιώμεθα (conj. τί οἰώμεθα) τὸν φιλόσοφον νομίζειν κτλ. let us assume that the philosopher holds, etc. P. R. 581d.

2143. φαίνομαι with part in O. O. (2106) = I am plainly; with inf. in O. O. = I seem or it appears (but may not be true) that I. Thus, φαίνεται τἀ_ληθῆ λέγων he is evidently speaking the truth, φαίνεται τἀ_ληθῆ λέγειν he appears to be speaking the truth (but he may be lying). Cp. τῇ φωνῇ . . . κλαίειν ἐφαίνετο lit. by his voice it appeared that he was weeping (but he was not weeping) X. S. 1. 15. The above distinction is, however, not always maintained.

2144. The following verbs take either the participle or the infinitive (in O. O.) with no (or only slight) difference in meaning:

αἰσθάνομαι, ἀκούω, πυνθάνομαι (2112), ἀγγέλλω (2106), καθίζω (2105) and καθίστημι, παρασκευάζομαι, ὁμολογῶ (2106), πειρῶμαι (2102), ἐπιτρέπω and νομίζω (part. rare), ἀποκάμνω (inf. rare), θαυμάζω wonder, τίθημι suppose, the expressions of 2104, etc. Both infinitive and participle with πυνθάνομαι in Hdt. 5.15, 8. 40.

2145. Verbs of intellectual perception (2112 b) take also ὅτι or ὡς. So with ἀκούω, αἰσθάνομαι, πυνθάνομαι. Cp.

ἀκούω with gen. part. = I hear (with my own ears).

ἀκούω with accus. part. = I hear (through others, i.e. I am told) that.

ἀκούω with inf. = I hear (of general, not certain knowledge, as by report) that.


2146. The participle with ἄν represents the indicative with ἄν (1784 ff.) or the potential optative with ἄν (1824). The present participle with ἄν thus represents either the imperfect indicative with ἄν or the present optative with ἄν; the aorist participle with ἄν represents either the aorist indicative with ἄν or the aorist optative with ἄν. Cp. 1845 ff.


2147. The abundance of its participles is one of the characteristic features of Greek. Their use gives brevity to the sentence (cp. 2050), enabling the writer to set forth in a word modifications and amplifications of the main thought for which we require cumbersome relative clauses. But an excessive use of participles, especially in close conjunction, marked a careless style.

a. The participle may contain the leading thought, the finite verb the subordinate thought, of a sentence. Thus, τὸ ψήφισμα τοῦτο γράφω . . . τοὺς ὅρκους τὴν ταχίστην ἀπολαμβάνειν, ἵν᾽ ἐχόντων τῶν Θρᾳκῶν . . . ταῦτα τὰ χωρία, νῦν οὖτος διέσυ_ρε . . ., οὕτω γίγνοινθ᾽ οἱ ὅρκοι I moved this bill that the envoys should with all speed receive Philip's oaths in order that when the oaths were taken the Thracians might be in possession of the places which the plaintiff has just now been ridiculing (lit. while the Thracians were in possession, etc. . . . the oaths might under these circumstances be ratified) D. 18.27, βούλομαι ὀλίγα ἑκατέρους ἀναμνήσα_ς καταβαίνειν I wish to recall a few things to the memory of each party and then sit down (descend from the bema) L. 12.92. Cp. also 2096, 2099.

b. The participle may repeat the stem and meaning of the finite verb. Thus, καὶ εὐχόμενος ἄν τις ταῦτα εὔξαιτο and some one might (praying) utter this prayer Ant. 6.1.

c. A participial construction may pass over into a construction with a finite verb. Thus, μάρτυρα μὲν . . . οὐδένα παρασχόμενος . . . παρεκελεύετο δέ κτλ. lit. producing on the one hand no witness . . . on the other hand he exhorted, etc. D. 57.11, προσέβαλον τῷ τειχίσματι, ἄλλῳ τε τρόπῳ πειρά_σαντες καὶ μηχανὴν προσήγαγον lit. they attacked the rampart both making trial in other ways, and they brought up an engine (i.e. and after trying other devices brought up an engine) T. 4.100.

d. A participle may be used in close connection with a relative or interrogative pronoun. Thus, ““οὐδ᾽ ὑπὲρ οἷα πεποιηκότων ἀνθρώπων κινδυ_νεύσετε διαλογισάμενοιnot even calculating what had been the conduct of the men for whom you were going to risk your livesD. 18.98, ἐλαυνομένων καὶ ὑβριζομένων καὶ τί κακὸν οὐχὶ πασχόντων πᾶσ᾽ οἰκουμένη μεστὴ γέγονε the whole civilized world is filled with men who are harried to and fro and insulted, nay, what misery is there which they do not suffer? 18. 48.

e. In contrasts, two subjects may, by anacoluthon, belong to one participle in the nominative, though the participle belongs to only one subject (T. 3.34. 3).

f. Two or more participles may be coördinated without any connective. This is common in Homer when one participle forms a contrast to, or intensifies, another participle. Cp. καὶ ἐπῶρτ᾽ Ἀχιλῆι κυκώμενος ὑψόσε θύ_ων, μορμύ_ρων ἀφρῷ κτλ. he spake, and swelling in tumult rushed upon Achilles, raging on high, roaring with foam, etc. Φ 324. This is very rare in prose (Aes. 3.94).

g. In prose such coördination without any connective is incomplete, one participle, e.g., often defining another, as in Κῦρος ὑπολαβὼν τοὺς φεύγοντας συλλέξα_ς στράτευμα ἐπολιόρκει Μί_λητον taking the exiles under his protection, Cyrus collected an army, and laid siege to Miletus X. A. 1.1.7. So even when the participles are connected, as ξηρά_να_ς τὴν διώρυχα καὶ παρατρέψα_ς ἄλλῃ τὸ ὕδωρ by draining the canal and (i.e. in consequence of) diverting the water elsewhere T. 1.109. One participle may be appositive to another. Thus, ““ἐξέτασιν ποιήσαντες ἐν τοῖς ἱππεῦσι, φάσκοντες εἰδέναι βούλεσθαι πόσοι εἶεν . . ., ἐκέλευον ἀπογράφεσθαι πάνταςby making a review in the presence of the cavalry, alleging that they wished to find out how many they were, they ordered all to inscribe themselvesX. H. 2.4.8.

h. A participle with case absolute may be coördinated with a participle not in an absolute case. Thus, ““οἱ δὲ ἀφικομένης τῆς νεὼς καὶ ἀνέλπιστον τὴν εὐτυχία_ν ἀκούσαντες . . . πολὺ ἐπερρώσθησανthey were much encouraged on the arrival of the ship and on hearing of the success which was unhoped forT. 8.106, ““μεταπεμφθέντες ἤλθομεν οὐδενὸς καλέσαντοςwe came summoned or at no one's callL. 4.11.

i. A finite verb may have two or more participles attached to it in different relations. Thus, ““οἱ πελτασταὶ προδραμόντες . . . διαβάντες τὴν χαράδρα_ν, ὁρῶντες πρόβατα πολλὰ . . . προσέβαλλον πρὸς τὸ χωρίονthe light-armed troops after running forward and crossing the ravine, proceed to attack the stronghold on seeing quantities of sheepX. A. 5.2.4. Of several aorist participles, one may be relatively earlier in time than another.

j. A participle may be added predicatively to another participle, and often follows the article belonging to the main participle. Thus, ““οἱ ζῶντες καταλειπόμενοιthose who were being left behind aliveT. 7.75.

k. A participle is often omitted when it can be supplied from the context. Thus, ὡρμίσαντο καὶ αὐτοὶ . . . ἐπειδὴ καὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους (ὁρμισαμένους) ““εἶδονthey too came to anchor when they saw that the Athenians had done soT. 2.86.

2148. The participle often agrees with the logical, and not with the grammatical, subject. The participle thus often agrees with the subject of the finite verb which the writer had in mind when he began the sentence, but for which he later substitutes another verb; or the participle may later be used as if in agreement with the subject of another finite verb than the one actually employed.

a. A participle in the nominative may belong to a finite verb requiring an oblique case. Thus, ἀποβλέψα_ς πρὸς τοῦτον τὸν στόλον . . ., ἔδοξέ μοι πάγκαλος εἶναι (= ἡγησάμην πάγκαλον εἶναι) on looking at this expedition, it seemed to me to be very admirable P. L. 686d, ἔχοντες . . . ἀρχὴν μεγίστην . . ., ὅμως οὐδὲν τούτων ἡμᾶς ἐπῆρε (= οὐδενὶ τούτων ἐπήρθημεν) ““ἐξαμαρτεῖνalthough we possessed the greatest empire . . . levertheless none of these reasons induced us to do wrongI. 4.108, ἔδοξεν αὐτοις (= ἐβουλεύσαντο) οὐ τοὺς παρόντας μόνον ἀποκτεῖναι ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἅπαντας Μυτιληναίους . . . ἐπικαλοῦντες τὴν ἀπόστασιν κτλ. they decided to put to death not merely those who were there but also all the Mytilenaeans, urging against them their revolt, etc. T. 3.36.

b. Two or more substantives or pronouns with their participles may stand in partitive apposition (981) to the logical subject. Thus, τὰ περὶ Πύλον ὑπ᾽ ἀμφοτέρων κατὰ κράτος ἐπολεμεῖτο (= ἀμφότεροι ἐπολέμουν), ““Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν . . . τὴν νῆσον περιπλέοντες . . ., Πελοποννήσιοι δὲ ἐν τῇ ἡπείρῳ στρατοπεδευόμενοιthe war at Pylus was vigorously waged by both sides, the Athenians on their part by sailing around the island . . . the Peloponnesians by encamping on the mainlandT. 4.23. Cp. ““λόγοι δ᾽ ἐν ἀλλήλοισιν ἐρρόθουν κακοί, φύλαξ ἐλέγχων φύλακαbitter words flew loud from one to another, watchman accusing watchmanS. Ant. 259. As the sentence stands, we expect φύλακος ἐλέγχοντος φύλακα, but the first clause is equivalent to κακοὺς λόγους εἴπομεν ἀλλήλους. Cp. ““θαυμάζοντες ἄλλος ἄλλῳ ἔλεγενone spoke to the other in astonishmentP. S. 220c. Cp. 982.

c. Without regard to the following construction, a participle may stand in the nominative. The use of the genitive absolute would here be proper, but would cause the main subject of the thought to occupy a subordinate position. Thus, ἐπιπεσὼν τῇ Φαρναβάζου στρατοπεδείᾳ, τῆς μὲν προφυλακῆς αὐτοῦ Μυ_σῶν ὄντων πολλοὶ ἔπεσον attacking the camp of Pharnabazus, he slew a large number (= πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινε) of Mysians who constituted his advance guard X. H. 4.1.24.

N. The nominative participle is sometimes found in clauses without a finite verb, but only when some finite verb is to be supplied (cp. Ψ 546), as with εἰ, ἐά_ν, ὅταν (X. M. 2.1.23); with ὅσα μή as far as is possible (T. 1.111); in replies in dialogue, where it stands in apposition to the subject of the preceding sentence (P. Ph. 74b); or is interposed as a parenthesis (εὖ ποιοῦν in D. 23.143).

d. Likewise a participle may stand in the accusative or (rarely) in the dative when the construction demands another case. Thus, σοὶ δὲ συγγνώμη (= συγγνώμη ἐστὶ σὲ) ““λέγειν τάδ᾽ ἐστί, μὴ πάσχουσαν ὡς ἐγὼ κακῶςit is excusable for thee to speak thus, since thou dost not suffer cruelly as I doE. Med. 814, ἦν γνώμη τοῦ Ἀριστέως (= ἔδοξε τῷ Ἀριστεῖ), ““τὸ μὲν μεθ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ στρατόπεδον ἔχοντι ἐν τῷ ἰσθμῷ ἐπιτηρεῖν τοὺς ἈθηναίουςAristeus decided to keep his own forces at the Isthmus and watch for the AtheniansT. 1.62.

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  • Cross-references from this page (317):
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    • Lysias, Against Philon, 34
    • Lysias, On a Wound by Premeditation, 11
    • Lysias, On a Wound by Premeditation, 7
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 27
    • Lysias, Against Pancleon, 9
    • Lysias, Against Ergocles, 8
    • Lysias, Against Philon, 32
    • Plato, Laws, 686d
    • Plato, Republic, 328d
    • Plato, Republic, 338a
    • Plato, Republic, 381c
    • Plato, Republic, 414c
    • Plato, Republic, 450a
    • Plato, Republic, 527d
    • Plato, Republic, 563b
    • Plato, Republic, 389d
    • Plato, Republic, 457e
    • Plato, Republic, 568b
    • Plato, Republic, 581d
    • Plato, Apology, 22c
    • Plato, Apology, 38e
    • Plato, Apology, 40b
    • Plato, Crito, 46a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 60c
    • Plato, Apology, 22b
    • Plato, Apology, 24d
    • Plato, Apology, 30c
    • Plato, Apology, 33c
    • Plato, Apology, 34b
    • Plato, Phaedo, 107c
    • Plato, Phaedo, 74b
    • Plato, Philebus, 39c
    • Plato, Symposium, 173a
    • Plato, Symposium, 220c
    • Plato, Symposium, 186b
    • Plato, Charmides, 153a
    • Plato, Laches, 197c
    • Plato, Charmides, 156a
    • Plato, Laches, 189a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 505c
    • Plato, Protagoras, 358d
    • Plato, Euthydemus, 272e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 470c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 490e
    • Plato, Gorgias, 523c
    • Plato, Menexenus, 241b
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 854
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 455
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 1094
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 259
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 44
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 460
    • Sophocles, Electra, 293
    • Sophocles, Electra, 628
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 1588
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 414
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 317
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.118
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.53
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.59
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.65
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.77
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.6
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.7
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.86
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.47
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.109
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.111
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.114
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.29
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.54
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.98
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.16
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.45
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.20
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.25
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.125
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.23
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.27
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.30
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.39
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.43
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.6
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.64
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.56
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.59
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.64
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.75
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.106
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.68
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.10.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.10.5
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.3
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.22
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.15
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.4.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.12
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.9
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.1.21
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.3.14
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.3.19
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.3.23
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.19
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.40
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.47
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.39
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.3.1
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.4.49
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.1.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.2.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.4.19
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.5.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.5.24
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.1.2
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.2.4
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.4.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.7.25
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.7.12
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.7.46
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.2
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.4
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.10
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.4.5
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.6
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.7.4
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.9.17
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.1.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.4.5
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.27
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.6.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.3
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.10
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.25
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.2.5
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.5.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.5.24
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.6.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 6.3.22
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 6.6.17
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.8.11
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.2.6
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 2.2.3
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.1.9
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.3.18
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.1.21
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.4.35
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.2.18
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.8.2
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.3.3
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.4.8
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.6.6
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 2.2.16
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.1.2
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.2.25
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 3.3.54
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 4.5.21
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 4.5.32
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.1.13
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.1.26
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.2.4
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.5.28
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.1.16
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.3.22
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.7.30
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.3.21
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.37
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 3.2.10
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.1.24
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 5.4.39
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.3.8
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.49
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.1.39
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.7.26
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.8
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.6.9
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.1.12
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.6.2
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.7.2
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.1.23
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.3.11
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.1.5
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.1.6
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.5.5
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.2.30
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.2
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.2.22
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.3.2
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.1.33
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.2.1
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.1.3
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.5.20
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.4.4
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.7.7
    • Xenophon, On the Art of Horsemanship, 5.10
    • Xenophon, Apology, 16
    • Xenophon, Economics, 6.8
    • Xenophon, Apology, 29
    • Xenophon, Economics, 16.2
    • Xenophon, Economics, 4.2
    • Xenophon, Symposium, 1
    • Xenophon, Symposium, 3
    • Homer, Iliad, 11.313
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.546
    • Homer, Iliad, 24.328
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 253
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1041
    • Aristophanes, Clouds, 1241
    • Aristophanes, Clouds, 181
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.62
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.20
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.35
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.36
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.68
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.100
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.116
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.34
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.88
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.100
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.50
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.14
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.33
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.53
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