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Chapter III

The Particle ἄν.

192. The adverb ἄν (with the epic κέ, Doric κά) has two uses, which must be distinguished.

1. In one use, it denotes that the action of the verb to which it is joined is dependent upon some condition, expressed or implied. This is its force with the secondary tenses of the indicative, and with the optative, infinitive, and participle: with these it belongs strictly to the verb, to which it gives a potential force, like our would.

2. In its other use, it is joined regularly to εἰ, if, to relative and temporal words, and sometimes to the final particles ὡς, ὅπως, and ὄφρα, when any of these are followed by the subjunctive. Here, although as an adverb it qualifies the verb, it is so closely connected with the relative or particle, that it often coalesces with it, forming ἐάν, ἤν, α?ν ὅταν, ὁπόταν, ἐπειδάν, ἐπάν or ἐπήν (Ionic ἐπεάν).

These statements include only the constructions which are in good use in Attic Greek. For the epic use of κέ or ἄν with the subjunctive in a potential sense (as with the optative) see 201, 1; for κέ or ἄν with the future indicative see 196.

193. There is no word or expression in English which can be used separately to translate ἄν. In its first use (192, 1) we express it by the form of the verb which we use; as ἔλθοι ἄν, he would go; ἦλθεν ἄν, he would have gone. In its second use, with the subjunctive, it generally has no force that can be made perceptible in translation.

The peculiar use of ἄν can be understood only by a study of the various constructions in which it occurs. These are enumerated below, with references (when it is necessary) to the more full explanation of each in Chapter IV.

194. No theory of the origin of either ἄν or κέ has yet helped to explain their meaning, however valuable the discussion of the question may have been to comparative philology. It seems to be clear that κέ is the older particle; it occurs 621 times in Homer while ἄν occurs 155 times; in Pindar the two are nearly balanced; ἄν has a preference for negative sentences, being very often attached to the negative; ἄν is more emphatic, as appears indeed from its fixed accent, while κέ is enclitic; κέ is much more frequent than ἄν in relative clauses in Homer.1 But, practically, it is still safe to assume that the two particles are used in substantially the same sense in all epic and lyric poetry. In Herodotus and Attic Greek only ἄν is used.

Indicative with ἄν.

195. The present and perfect indicative are never used with ἄν.

This seems to occur chiefly when Plato and Aristotle use κἂν εἰ (= καὶ ἂν, εἰ) like καὶ εἰ, without regard to the mood of the verb which is to follow, to which κἄν really belongs. See PLAT. Men. 72 C,κἂν εἰ πολλαί εἰσιν, ἕν γέ τι εἶδος ταὐτὸν πᾶσαι ἔχουσι” , i.e. even if they are many, still (it would seem to follow that) they all have one and the same form. So PLAT. Rep. 579 D, Soph. 247E. So ARISTOT. Pol. iii. 6, 1,κἂν εἰ πλείους” , with σκεπτέον ἐστίν.

Examples of a different class (without κἂν εἰ) are obviously corrupt, and have now almost disappeared from our texts. One of the last relics, Leg. 712E,ἐγὼ δὲ οὕτω νῦν ἐξαίφνης ἂν ἐρωτηθεὶς ὄντως ὅπερ εἶπον, οὐκ ἔχω εἰπεῖν” , is now simply emended by reading ἀνερωτηθείς.

196. The future indicative is often used with κέ or ἄν by the early poets, especially Homer. The addition of ἄν seems to make the future more contingent than that tense naturally is, sometimes giving it a force approaching that of the optative with ἄν. E.g. Ἀλλ᾽ ἴθ̓, ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι Χαρίτων μίαν ὁπλοτεράων δώσω, ὀπυιέμεναι καὶ σὴν κεκλῆθαι ἄκοιτιν, I will give you one of the younger Graces, etc. Il. xiv. 267. Καί κέ τις ὧδ᾽ ἐρέει Τρώων ὑπερηνορεόντων, and some one will (or may) thus speak. Il. iv. 176. δέ κεν κεχολώσεται ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι, “and he may be angry to whom I come.” Il. i. 139.Εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε, τοὺς ἂν ἐγὼν ἐπιόψομαι: οἱ δὲ πιθέσθωνIl. ix. 167. Παρ᾽ ἔμοι γε καὶ ἄλλοι, οἵ κέ με τιμήσουσι, others, who will honour me. Il. i. 174.Εἰ δ᾽ Ὀδυσεὺς ἔλθοι καὶ ἵκοιτ᾽ ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν, αἶψά κε σὺν παιδὶ βίας ἀποτίσεται ἀνδρῶνOd. xvii. 539. Here ἀποτίσεταί κε, which may be aorist subjunctive (201, 1), is used nearly in the sense of the optative, corresponding to the optatives in the protasis.

Κέ is much more common with the future than ἄν.

197. The use of ἄν with the future indicative in Attic Greek is absolutely denied by many critics, and the more careful revision of the texts has greatly diminished the number of examples cited in support of it. Still, in several passages, even of the best prose, we must either emend the text against the Mss., or admit the construction as a rare exception. E.g. Αἰγυπτίους δὲ οὐχ ὁρῶ ποίᾳ δυνάμει συμμάχῳ χρησάμενοι μᾶλλον ἂν κολάσεσθε τῆς νῦν σὺν ἐμοὶ οὔσης. XEN. An. ii. 5. 13 Ἔφη οὖν τὸν ἐρωτώμενον εἰπεῖν, οὐχ ἥκει, φάναι, οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἥξει δεῦρο, he said that the one who was asked replied, “He hasn't come, and he won't come this way.PLAT. Rep. 615D. (The only other reading is ἥξοι. The colloquial style here makes ἄν less objectionable; see SOPH. Ant. 390, quoted in 208.) Ἔφη λέγων πρὸς ὑμᾶς ὡς, εἰ διαφευξοίμην, ἤδη ἂν ὑμῶν οἱ υἱεῖς πάντες παντάπασι διαφθαρήσονται. Id. Ap. 29C. Κἂν ἔτ᾽ ἔτι φόνιον ὄψομαι αἷμα (so the Mss.). EUR. El. 484.

See 208 and 216, on the future infinitive and participle with ἄν.

198. The most common use of ἄν with the indicative is with the secondary tenses, generally the imperfect and aorist, in the apodosis of an unfulfilled condition (410) or in a potential sense (243).

199. The imperfect and aorist indicative are sometimes used with ἄν in an iterative sense (162), which construction must not be confounded with that just mentioned (198).

Subjunctive and Optative with ἄν.

200. In Attic Greek ἄν is regularly used with the subjunctive in protasis and in conditional relative sentences, and sometimes in final clauses with ὡς and ὅπως, being always closely joined with the particle or the relative; but never in independent sentences. See 325, 381, and 522.

201. 1. In epic poetry, when the independent subjunctive has nearly the sense of the future indicative (284), it sometimes takes κέ or ἄν. This forms a future potential expression, nearly equivalent to the future indicative with κέ or ἄν, and sometimes approaching the optative with κέ or ἄν. E.g. “Εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώῃσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι,” “and if he does not give her up, I will take her myself.” Il. i. 324 ; see also i. 137.

See 285 and 452. For the variety of nearly equivalent future potential forms which the Homeric language presents, reduced to one in Attic Greek, see 235.

2. The epic language has κέ or ἄν with the subjunctive in the constructions of 192, 2; but its use of κέ or ἄν in conditions is less strict, and that with final particles is more free, than the Attic use of ἄν.

See 325-328; 450-454; 468-471; 538-541.

202. The optative with ἄν forms the apodosis of the less vivid future condition (like the English form with would or should), or has a potential sense. E.g. Εἰ τοῦτο ποιήσειεν, ἄθλιος ἂν εἴη, if he should do this, he would be wretched. Ἡδέως ἂν ἐροίμην αὐτόν, I should like to ask him. (See 233 and 455.)

For construction of ἄν or κέ with εἰ or the final particles and the optative, see 460; and 329, 330, 349, 350, 351.

203. As the future optative came into common use after the future indicative with ἄν (196) was nearly extinct, it was never used with ἄν.

Infinitive with ἄν.

204. The infinitive can be used with ἄν in all cases in which a finite verb would have ἄν if it stood in its place.

This is found chiefly in indirect discourse, in which each tense of the infinitive with ἄν represents the corresponding tenses of the indicative or optative with ἄν in the direct form. The context must decide whether the indicative or optative is represented in each case.

205.Present.) The present infinitive, which represents also the imperfect (119), when used with ἄν, may be equivalent either to the imperfect indicative with ἄν or to the present optative with ἄν. It can represent no other form, as no other form of these tenses has ἄν joined with the verb in a finite mood. E.g. Φησὶν αὐτοὺς ἐλευθέρους ἂν εἶναι, εἰ τοῦτο ἔπραξαν, he says that they would (now) be freeif they had done this (εἶναι ἄν representing ἦσαν ἄν). Φησὶν αὐτοὺς ἐλευθέρους ἂν εἶναι, εἰ τοῦτο πράξειαν, he says that they would (hereafterbe freeif they should do this (εἶναι ἄν representing εἴησαν ἄν). Οἴεσθε γὰρ τὸν πατέρα οὐκ ἂν φυλάττειν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν λαμβάνειν τῶν ξύλων; do you think he would not have taken care and have received the pay for the timber? DEM. xlix. 35. (Here the direct discourse would be ἐφύλαττεν ἂν καὶ ἐλάμβανεν.) Μαρτυρίῳ ἐχρῶντο, μὴ ἂν τούς γε ἰσοψήφους ἄκοντας, εἰ μή τι ἠδίκουν οἷς ἐπῄεσαν, ξυστρατεύειν, they used us as an argument, that people who had an equal vote with themselves (like uswould not be serving with them against their will, unless those whom they attacked were guilty of some wrong. THUC. iii. 11. Οἶμαι γὰρ ἂν οὐκ ἀχαρίστως μοι ἔχειν, for I think it would not be a thankless labour (οὐκ ἂν ἔχοι). XEN. An. ii. 3, 18.

206.Perfect.) The perfect infinitive, which represents also the pluperfect (123), when used with ἄν, may be equivalent either to the pluperfect indicative with ἄν or to the perfect optative with ἄν. E.g. Εἰ μὴ τὰς ἀρετὰς ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἐκείνας οἱ Μαραθῶνι καὶ Σαλαμῖνι παρέσχοντο, . . . πάντα ταῦθ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἂν ἑαλωκέναι (sc. φήσειεν ἄν τις), if those at Marathon and Salamis had not exhibited those deeds of valour in their behalf, any one would say that all these would have been captured by the barbarians. DEM. xix. 312. (Here ἑαλωκέναι ἄν represents ἑαλώκεσαν ἄν.) “Ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ἡγοῦμαι αὐτοὺς δίκην ἀξίαν δεδωκέναι, εἰ ἀκροασάμενοι αὐτῶν καταψηφίσαισθε,” “but I do not believe they would (then) have suffered sufficient punishment, if you after hearing them should condemn them.” LYS. xxvii. 9. (Here the protasis in the optative shows that δεδωκέναι ἄν represents δεδωκότες ἂν εἶεν (103); but if the protasis were εἰ κατεψηφίσασθε, if you had condemned them, δεδωκέναι ἄν would represent ἐδεδώκεσαν ἄν, they would have suffered.) See also, in xxvii. 8, οὐκ ἂν ἀπολωλέναι, ἀλλὰ δίκην δεδωκέναι, representing perfect optatives with ἄν. Ἀνδραποδώδεις ἂν δικαίως κεκλῆσθαι (ἡγεῖτο). XEN. Mem. i. 1, 16. (Here κεκλῆσθαι ἄν represents κεκλημένοι ἂν εἶεν.)

These constructions are of course rare, as are the forms of the finite moods here represented.

207.Aorist.) The aorist infinitive with ἄν may be equivalent either to the aorist indicative with ἄν or to the aorist optative with ἄν. E.g. Οὐκ ἂν ἡγεῖσθ᾽ αὐτὸν κἂν ἐπιδραμεῖν; do you not believe that (if this had been so) he would even have run thither? i.e. οὐκ ἂν ἐπέδραμεν; DEM. xxvii. 56. Ἄνευ δὲ σεισμοῦ οὐκ ἄν μοι δοκεῖ τὸ τοιοῦτο ξυμβῆναι γενέσθαι (οὐκ ἂν ξυμβῆναι representing οὐκ ἂν ξυνέβη), but unless there had been an earthquake, it does not seem to me that such a thing could by any chance have happened. THUC. iii. 89. Τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἤλπιζεν ἴσως ἂν ἐπεξελθεῖν καὶ τὴν γῆν οὐκ ἂν περιιδεῖν τμηθῆναι (i.e. ἴσως ἂν ἐπεξέλθοιεν καὶ οὐκ ἂν περιίδοιεν). Id. ii. 20. Οὐδ᾽ ἂν κρατῆσαι αὐτοὺς τῆς γῆς ἡγοῦμαι (i.e. κρατήσειαν ἄν). Id. vi. 37.

208.Future.) The future infinitive with ἄν can be equivalent only to the Homeric construction of the future indicative with ἄν. But as ἄν is not found in Homer with the future infinitive, this construction rests chiefly on the authority of passages in Attic writers, and is subject to the same doubts and suspicions as the future indicative with ἄν in those writers. (See 197.) Unless we exterminate the latter, there can be no objection to this as its representative. In the following passages it is still retained on the best MS. authority.

Νομίζοντες, εἰ ταύτην πρώτην λάβοιεν, ῥᾳδίως ἂν σφίσι τἄλλα προσχωρήσειν. THUC. ii. 80. (Here the direct discourse would regularly have had either the future indicative without ἄν, or the aorist optative with ἄν.) The same may be said of THUC. v. 82, νομίζων μέγιστον ἂν σφᾶς ὠφελήσειν (where one MS. reads by correction ὠφελῆσαι). See also THUC. vi. 66; viii. 25 and 71; and PLAT. Crit. 53D ; PLAT. Crat. 391A.Σχολῇ ποθ᾽ ἥξειν δεῦρ᾽ ἂν ἐξηύχουν ἐγώ,” “I declared that I should be very slow to come hither again.” SOPH. Ant. 390. (Here the colloquial style may account for ἥξειν ἄν, as for ἥξει ἄν in PLAT. Rep. 615 D, unless we take ἄν with ἐξηύχουν. See 197.) In PIND. Ol. i. 108, we have εἰ δὲ μὴ ταχὺ λίποι, ἔτι γλυκυτέραν κεν ἔλπομαι σὺν ἅρματι θοῷ κλεΐξειν.

As the future optative is never used with ἄν (203), this can never be represented by the future infinitive with ἄν.

209. The infinitive with ἄν is rare in the early poets, occurring but once in Homer, Il. ix. 684 (quoted under 683), and three times in Pindar, Pyth. viii. 20 (present), Pyth. iii. 110 (aorist), and Ol. i. 108 (future, quoted in 208).

210. The infinitive with ἄν sometimes represents an iterative imperfect or aorist indicative with ἄν (162). This must be carefully distinguished from the potential use. E.g. Ἀκούω Λακεδαιμονίους τότε ἐμβαλόντας ἂν καὶ κακώσαντας τὴν χώραν ἀναχωρεῖν ἐπ᾽ οἴκου πάλιν, I hear that the Lacedaemonians at that time, after invading and ravaging the country, used to return home again. DEM. ix. 48. (Here ἀναχωρεῖν ἄν represents ἀνεχώρουν ἄν in its iterative sense, they used to return.) Φασὶ μὲν γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐρεπτόμενον τὰ τῶν ἐχόντων ἀνέρων οὐκ ἂν ἐξελθεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς σιπύης: τοὺς δ᾽ ἀντιβολεῖν ἂν ὁμοίως, they say that, when he was feeding on men of wealth, he never would get away from the meal-tub; and they all alike used to implore him (οὐκ ἂν ἐξῆλθεν, οἱ δὲ ἠντιβόλουν ἄν). AR. Eq. 1295.

211. The infinitive with ἄν, in the cases already mentioned, stands in indirect discourse after a verb of saying or thinking. Sometimes, however, it is found in other constructions, where the present or aorist infinitive (without ἄν) would be expected. In such cases there is an approach to the usage of indirect discourse, so far at least that the infinitive with ἄν has the force of the corresponding tense of the indicative or optative. E.g. Τὰ δὲ ἐντὸς οὕτως ἐκαίετο, ὥστε ἥδιστα ἂν ἐς ὕδωρ ψυχρὸν σφᾶς αὐτοὺς ῥίπτειν, so that they would most gladly have thrown themselves into cold water (ῥίπτειν ἄν here being equivalent to ἔρριπτον ἄν). THUC. ii. 49. Μιᾶς τρέφει πρὸς νυκτὸς, ὥστε μήτ᾽ ἐμὲ μήτ᾽ ἄλλον, ὅστις φῶς ὁρᾷ, βλάψαι ποτ᾽ ἄν, so that you could harm (βλάψειας ἄν) neither me nor any other who beholds the light. OSOPH. .T. 374. So SOPH. Tr. 669. Ἔφθασαν παρελθόντες τὴν τῶν Ἀθηναίων οἰκοδομίαν, ὥστε μηκέτι μήτε αὐτοὶ κωλύεσθαι ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν, ἐκείνους τε καὶ παντάπασιν ἀπεστερηκέναι, εἰ καὶ κρατοῖεν, μὴ ἂν ἔτι σφᾶς ἀποτειχίσαι, so as to be no longer themselves obstructed by them, and so as to have deprived them absolutely of the power of ever again walling them in, even if they should be victorious. THUC. vii. 6.Ὕσομεν τὴν νύκτα πᾶσαν: ὥστ᾽ ἴσως βουλήσεται κἂν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τυχεῖν ὢν μᾶλλον κρῖναι κακῶς,” “we will rain all night long, so that perhaps he will wish to have the luck to be (that he might by chance find himself) in Egypt rather than to judge unfairly.” AR. Nub. 1130. (Here τυχεῖν ἄν follows βούλομαι like the future infinitive in THUC. vi. 57: see 113.) We have ἐλπίζω followed by the infinitive and ἄν in THUC. vii. 61, τὸ τῆς τύχης κἂν μεθ᾽ ἡμῶν ἐλπίσαντες στῆναι, hoping that fortune may take sides with us (σταίη ἄν). See also SOPH. El. 1482, ἀλλά μοι πάρες κἂν σμικρὸν εἰπεῖν, but permit me at least to say a little (that I might say even a little, εἴποιμι ἄν).

See the corresponding use of the future infinitive in similar expressions, where there is the same approach to indirect discourse (113).

212. Even the infinitive with the article occasionally takes ἄν, as in ANT. v. 8, τοῦτο ὑμᾶς διδάξω, οὐ τῷ φεύγειν ἂν τὸ πλῆθος τὸ ὑμέτερον, this I will teach you, not because I would avoid your people. In SOPH. Ant. 236,τῆς ἐλπίδος τὸ μὴ παθεῖν ἂν ἄλλο” , the hope that I could not suffer anything else, the construction is practically that of indirect discourse (794).

Participle with ἄν.

213. When the participle is used with ἄν, each tense represents the corresponding tenses of the indicative or optative with ἄν.

The participle with ἄν is not, like the infinitive with ἄν, found chiefly in indirect discourse; but ἄν is more frequently added to an attributive or a circumstantial participle (822) to give it a potential force equivalent to that of the indicative or optative with ἄν. The participle with ἄν is not found in Homer or Pindar.

214.Present.) The present participle (like the present infinitive) with ἄν represents the imperfect indicative or the present optative with ἄν. E.g. Οἶδα αὐτοὺς ἐλευθέρους ἂν ὄντας, εἰ τοῦτο ἔπραξαν, I know they would (now) be free, if they had done this. Οἶδα αὐτοὺς ἐλευθέρους ἂν ὄντας, εἰ τοῦτο πράξειαν, I know they would (hereafter) be free, if they should do this. (In the former ὄντας ἄν represents ἦσαν ἄν, in the latter εἴησαν ἄν.) Τῶν λαμβανόντων δίκην ὄντες ἂν δικαίως (i.e. ἦμεν ἄν), whereas we should justly be among those who inflict punishment. DEM. lvii. 3. Ὅπερ ἔσχε μὴ κατὰ πόλεις αὐτὸν ἐπιπλέοντα τὴν Πελοπόννησον πορθεῖν, ἀδυνάτων ἂν ὄντων (ὑμῶν) ἐπιβοηθεῖν, when you would have been unable to bring aid (ἀδύνατοι ἂν ἦτε). THUC. i. 73. Πόλλ᾽ ἂν ἔχων ἕτερ᾽ εἰπεῖν περὶ αὐτῆς παραλείπω, although I might be able to say many other things about it, I omit them. DEM. xviii. 258. Ἀπὸ παντὸς ἂν φέρων λόγου δικαίου μηχάνημα ποικίλον (i.e. ὃς ἂν φέροις), thou who wouldst derive, etc. SOPH. O.C. 761.

215.Aorist.) The aorist participle with ἄν represents the aorist indicative or the aorist optative with ἄν. E.g. Οὔτε ὄντα οὔτε ἂν γενόμενα λογοποιοῦσιν, they relate things which are not real, and which never could happen (i.e. οὐκ ἂν γένοιτο). THUC. vi. 38. Ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν οὐ γεγονὸς οὐδ᾽ οἶδα εἰ γενόμενον ἄν, (a thing) which has not occurred in our day, and I doubt whether it ever could occur (γένοιτο ἄν). PLAT. Rep. 414 C. Ἀλλὰ ῥᾳδίως ἂν ἀφεθεὶς, εἰ καὶ μετρίως τι τούτων ἐποίησε, προείλετο ἀποθανεῖν, whereas he might easily have been acquitted, etc. XEN. Mem. iv. 4, 4. Καὶ εἰ ἀπήχθησθε ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς, εὖ ἴσμεν μὴ ἂν ἧσσον ὑμᾶς λυπηροὺς γενομένους τοῖς ξυμμάχοις, καὶ ἀναγκασθέντας ἂν ἄρχειν, κ.τ.λ. (i.e. οὐκ ἂν ἐγένεσθε, καὶ ἠναγκάσθητε ἄν), if you had become odious as we have, we are sure that you would have been no less oppressive to your allies, and that you would have been forced, etc. THUC. i. 76. Ὁρῶν τὸ παρατείχισμα ἁπλοῦν ὂν καὶ, εἰ ἐπικρατήσειέ τις τῆς ἀναβάσεως, ῥᾳδίως ἂν αὐτὸ ληφθέν (i.e. ῥᾳδίως ἂν ληφθείη), seeing that it would easily be taken, etc. Id. vii. 42.So ὡς τάχ᾽ ἂν συμβάντων, DEM. xxiii. 58 (see 918).

216.Future.) A few cases of the future participle with ἄν, representing the future indicative with ἄν, are found in Attic writers. These rest on the same authority as those of the future indicative and the future infinitive with ἄν (197 and 208). E.g. Ἀφίετε μὴ ἀφίετε, ὡς ἐμοῦ οὐκ ἂν ποιήσοντος ἄλλα, οὐδ᾽ εἰ μέλλω πολλάκις τεθνάναι (i.e. οὐκ ἂν ποιήσω ἄλλα): so all MSS. PLAT. Ap. 30B. Τοὺς ὁτιοῦν ἂν ἐκείνῳ ποιήσοντας ἀνῃρηκότες ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἔσεσθε. DEM. xix. 342. (Here most MSS., including Σ, have ποιήσοντας, but A has ποιήσαντας.) Πάλαι τις ἡδέως ἂν ἴσως ἐρωτήσων κάθηται, many a one has long been sitting here who perhaps would be very glad to ask (so all MSS.). DEM. ix. 70.

217. The participle with ἄν can never represent a protasis, because there is no form of protasis which could be represented by a participle, where ἄν is separable from the conditional particle. (See 224.)

Position of ἄν.

218. 1. When ἄν is used with the subjunctive, if it does not coalesce with the relative or particle into one word (as in ἐάν, ὅταν, etc.), it is generally separated from it only by such monosyllables as μέν, δέ, τέ, γάρ, καί, νύ, πέρ, etc., rarely τὶς.

See examples under 444 and 529.

2. In Homer and Hesiod two such words may precede κέ; as εἴ περ γάρ κεν, εἰ γάρ νύ κε, εἰ γάρ τίς κε, ὃς μὲν γάρ κε. This is rare with ἄν in prose; see DEM. iv. 45, ὅποι μὲν γὰρ ἄν. Exceptional are ὅποι τις ἂν, οἶμαι, προσθῇ, DEM. ii. 14; τι ἄλλο ἂν δοκῇ ὑμῖν, XEN. Cyr. iv. 5, 52. The strange καθ᾽ ὧν μηνύῃ ἄν τις, ANT. v. 38, is now corrected to ἂν μηνύῃ, but still stranger is ὅποσον φάρυγξ ἂν ἡμῶν χανδάνῃ (?), AR. Ran. 259.

219. When ἄν is used with the optative or indicative, it may either stand near the verb, or be attached to some other emphatic word. Particularly, it is very often placed directly after interrogatives, negatives, adverbs of time, place, etc., and other words which especially affect the sense of the sentence. E.g. Ἀλλὰ τίς δὴ θεῶν θεραπεία εἴη ἂν ὁσιότης; PLAT. Euthyph. 13D. Ἀλλ᾽ ὁμῶς τὸ κεφάλαιον αὐτῶν ῥᾳδίως ἂν εἴποις. Id. 14 α. Οὐκ ἂν δὴ τόνδ᾽ ἄνδρα μάχης ἐρύσαιο μετελθὼν, Τυδείδην, ὃς νῦν γε ἂν καὶ Διὶ πατρὶ μάχοιτο; Il. v. 456.Πῶς ἂν τὸν αἱμυλώτατον, ἐχθρὸν ἄλημα, τούς τε δισσάρχας ὀλέσσας βασιλῆς, τέλος θάνοιμι καὐτόςSOPH. Aj. 389.Πολλὰ κἂν ἄκων ἔδρωνId. O.T. 591. Τάχιστ᾽ ἄν τε πόλιν οἱ τοιοῦτοι ἑτέρους πείσαντες ἀπολέσειαν. THUC. ii. 63.

220. 1. By a peculiar usage, ἄν is often separated from its verb by such verbs as οἴομαι, δοκῶ, φημί, οἶδα, etc. In such cases care must be taken to connect the ἄν with the verb to which it really belongs. E.g. Καὶ νῦν ἡδέως ἄν μοι δοκῶ κοινωνῆσαι, and now I think I should gladly take part (ἄν belonging to κοινωνῆσαι). XEN. Cyr. viii. 7, 25. So AESCHIN. iii. 2 (end). Οὐδ᾽ ἂν ὑμεῖς οἶδ᾽ ὅτι ἐπαύσασθε πολεμοῦντες, nor would you (I am sure) have ceased fighting. DEM. vi. 29. Πότερα γὰρ ἂν οἴεσθε ῥᾷον εἶναι; DEM. xlix. 45. Ἐκλέξαντα μήτε προῄδει μηδεὶς μήτ᾽ ἂν ᾠήθη τήμερον ῥηθῆναι, “selecting what nobody knew beforehand and nobody thought would be mentioned to-day.” DEM. xviii. 225. (Here ῥηθῆναι ἄν = ῥηθείη ἄν. If ἄν were taken with ᾠήθη, the meaning would be, what nobody would have thought had been mentioned.) Τί οὖν ἂν, ἔφην, εἴη Ἔρως; Symp. 202D.

2. Especially irregular are such expressions as οὐκ οἶδα ἂν εἰ, or οὐκ ἂν οἶδα εἰ, followed by an optative or indicative to which the ἄν belongs. E.g. Οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ἂν εἰ πείσαιμι, “I do not know whether I could persuade him.” EUR. Med. 941. (The more regular form would be οὐκ οἶδα εἰ πείσαιμι ἄν.) So Alc. 48. Οὐκ ἂν οἶδ᾽ εἰ δυναίμην. PLAT. Tim. 26B. Οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ἂν εἰ ἐκτησάμην παῖδα τοιοῦτον. XEN. Cyr. v. 4, 12. So οὐκ ἂν οἶδ᾽ τι ἄλλο εἶχον ψηφίσασθαι, I do not know what other vote I could have given (τί ἄλλο εἶχον ἂν ψηφίσασθαι; ), DEM. xlv. 7.

221.Τάχ᾽ ἄν.) Among the words to which ἄν is very frequently joined is τάχα, perhaps (i.e. quickly, soon), the two forming τάχ᾽ ἄν, which expression is sometimes supposed to mean perhaps. But τάχ᾽ ἄν cannot be used unless the ἄν belongs in its ordinary sense to the verb of the sentence.

Thus τάχ᾽ ἂν γένοιτο means it might perhaps happen, and τάχ᾽ ἂν ἐγένετο means it might perhaps have happened; but the latter can never mean perhaps it happened, like ἴσως ἐγένετο. Τάχα alone often means perhaps, as in XEN. An. v. 2, 17. Aristotle writes τάχα and ἄν separately in the same sense as τάχ᾽ ἄν; as τάχα δὲ καὶ μᾶλλον ἂν ταύτην ὑπολάβοι, Nic. i. 5, Nic. 6.

222. Ἄν never begins a sentence, or a clause before which a comma could stand. But it may directly follow a parenthetic clause, provided some part of its own clause precedes. E.g. Ἀλλ᾽ μέλ᾽ ἄν μοι σιτίων διπλῶν ἔδει, Pac. 137.So τὸ μέλλον, ἐπεὶ γένοιτ̓, ἂν κλύοις (or without the commas), the future you can hear when it comes, AESCH. Ag. 250.

Repetition of ἄν.

223. Ἄν is sometimes used twice, or even three times, with the same verb. This may be done in a long sentence, to make the conditional force felt through the whole, especially when the connexion is broken by intermediate clauses. It may also be done in order to emphasise particular words with which ἄν is joined, and to make them prominent as being affected by the contingency. E.g. Ὥστ᾽ ἂν, εἰ σθένος λάβοιμι, δηλώσαιμ᾽ ἂν οἰ̔̂ αὐτοῖς φρονῶ. SOPH. El. 333. Οὔ τἂν ἑλόντες αὖθις ἀνθαλοῖεν ἄν. AESCH. Ag. 340. Ἄλλους γ᾽ ἂν οὖν οἰόμεθα τὰ ἡμέτερα λαβόντας δεῖξαι ἂν μάλιστα εἴ τι μετριάζομεν. THUC. i. 76. (See 220.) “Οὔτ᾽ ἂν κελεύσαιμ᾽, οὔτ᾽ ἂν, εἰ θέλοις ἔτι πράσσειν, ἐμοῦ γ᾽ ἂν ἡδέως δρῴης μέταSOPH. Ant. 69. Λέγω καθ᾽ ἕκαστον δοκεῖν ἄν μοι τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα παρ᾽ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ πλεῖστ᾽ ἂν εἴδη καὶ μετὰ χαρίτων μάλιστ᾽ ἂν εὐτραπέλως τὸ σῶμα αὔταρκες παρέχεσθαι. THUC. ii. 41. (Here ἄν is used three times, belonging to παρέχεσθαι.) Ὑμῶν δὲ ἔρημος ὢν οὐκ ἂν ἱκανὸς οἶμαι εἶναι οὔτ᾽ ἂν φίλον ὠφελῆσαι οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἐχθρὸν ἀλέξασθαι. XEN. An. i. 3, 6. (Here ἄν is used three times, belonging to εἶναι.) Οὐκ ἂν ἡγεῖσθ᾽ αὐτὸν κἂν ἐπιδραμεῖν; DEM. xxvii. 56.

224. A participle representing a protasis (472) is especially apt to have an emphatic ἄν near it. This, by showing that the verb is to form an apodosis, tends to point out the participle as conditional in an early part of the sentence. E.g. Νομίσατε τό τε φαῦλον καὶ τὸ μέσον καὶ τὸ πάνυ ἀκριβὲς ἂν ξυγκραθὲν μάλιστ᾽ ἂν ἰσχύειν, believe that these, if they should be united, would be especially strong. THUC. vi. 18. (Here ξυγκραθέν, not with ἄν, is equivalent to εἰ ξυγκραθείη.) Ἀγῶνας ἄν τίς μοι δοκεῖ, ἔφη, πάτερ, προειπὼν ἑκάστοις καὶ ἆθλα προτιθεὶς μάλιστ᾽ ἂν ποιεῖν εὖ ἀσκεῖσθαι, it seems to me, said he, father, that if any one should proclaim contests, etc., he would cause, etc. XEN. Cyr. i. 6, 18. (Here the protasis implied in the participles is merely emphasised by ἄν, which belongs to ποιεῖν.) See also λέγοντος ἄν τινος πιστεῦσαι οἴεσθε; (i.e. εἴ τις ἔλεγεν, ἐπίστευσαν ἄν; ) do you think they would have believed it, if any one had told them? DEM. vi. 20. (Here ἄν stands near λέγοντος only to point this out as the protasis to which its own verb πιστεῦσαι is the apodosis, with which ἄν is not repeated.)

225.a) Repetition of κέ is rare; yet it sometimes occurs. E.g.

Τῷ κε μάλ᾽ κεν ἔμεινε καὶ ἐσσύμενός περ ὁδοῖο, κέ με τεθνηυῖαν ἔνι μεγάροισιν ἔλειπεν. Od iv. 733.

b) On the other hand, Homer sometimes joins ἄν and κέ in the same sentence for emphasis. E.g.

Καρτεραὶ, ἃς οὔτ᾽ ἄν κεν Ἄρης ὀνόσαιτο μετελθὼν οὔτε κ᾽ Ἀθηναίη λαοσσόος. Il. xiii. 127.

226. When an apodosis consists of several co-ordinate clauses with the same mood, ἄν is generally used only in the first and understood in the others, unless it is repeated for emphasis or for some other special reason. E.g. Οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἐμὲ, ἡνίκα δεῦρο ἀποπλεῖν ἐβουλόμην, κατεκώλυεν, οὐδὲ τοιαῦτα λέγειν τούτῳ προσέταττεν, ἐξ ὧν ἥκισθ᾽ ὑμεῖς ἐμέλλετ᾽ ἐξιέναι. DEM. xix. 51. (Here ἄν is understood with προσέταττεν.) Οὕτω δὲ δρῶν οὐδὲν ἂν διάφορον τοῦ ἑτέρου ποιοῖ, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ ταὐτὸν ἴοιεν ἀμφότεροι. PLAT. Rep. 360 C. Οὐκοῦν κἂν, εἰ πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ φῶς ἀναγκάζοι αὐτὸν βλέπειν, ἀλγεῖν τε ἂν τὰ ὄμματα καὶ φεύγειν ἀποστρεφόμενον (οἴει); Ib. 515E. (Κἄν belongs to the infinitives; 223.) See also XEN. An. ii. 5, 14. ΙΙάντα ᾕρει Φίλιππος, πολλὰ λέγοντος ἐμοῦ καὶ θρυλοῦντος ἀεὶ, τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ὡς ἂν εἰς κοινὸν γνώμην ἀποφαινομένου, μετὰ ταῦτα δ᾽ ὡς ἀγνοοῦντας διδάσκοντος, τελευτῶντος δὲ ὡς ἂν πρὸς πεπρακότας αὑτοὺς καὶ ἀνοσιωτάτους ἀνθρώπους οὐδὲν ὑποστελλομένου. DEM. xix. 156.The clauses with ὡς represent (1) ὡς ἔλεγον ἂν εἰ ἐφαινόμην, as I should have spoken if I had been merely informing my colleagues; (2) ὡς ἔλεγον (ἂν) εἰ ἀγνοοῦντας ἐδίδασκον, as I should have spoken if I had been instructing ignorant men; (3) ὡς λέγοιμι ἂν, as I should speak to men who had sold themselves, etc. In the second clause, the construction remaining the same, ἄν is omitted; but in the third, where an optative is implied, ἄν reappears.

In PLAT. Rep. 398 A, we find ἄν used with two co-ordinate optatives, understood with a third, and repeated again with a fourth to avoid confusion with a dependent optative in a relative clause. Ἄν may be understood with an optative even in a separate sentence, if the construction is continued from a sentence in which ἄν is used with the optative; as in PLAT. Rep. 352 E: Ἔσθ᾽ ὅτῳ ἂν ἄλλῳ ἴδοις ὀφθαλμοῖς; Οὐ δῆτα. Τί δέ; ἀκούσαις ἄλλῳ ὠσίν; So with πράττοι after γάρ, ib. 439

Elliptical uses of ἄν.

227. Ἄν is sometimes used elliptically without a verb, when one can be supplied from the context. E.g. “Οἱ οἰκέται ῥέγκουσιν: ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν πρὸ τοῦ(sc. ἔρρεγκον), “the slaves are snoring; but they wouldn't have been doing so at this hour in old times.” AR. Nub. 5.Ὡς οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἀστῶν τῶνδ᾽ ἂν ἐξείποιμί τῳ, οὔτ᾽ ἂν τέκνοισι τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῾σξ. ἐξείποιμι, στέργων ὅμωςSOPH. O.C. 1528. Τί ἂν δοκεῖ σοι Πρίαμος (sc. πρᾶξαι), εἰ τάδ᾽ ἤνυσεν; “ but what think you Priam would have done if he had accomplished what you have?” AESCH. Ag. 935. Σώφρων μὲν οὐκ ἂν μᾶλλον, εὐτυχὴς δ᾽ ἴσως (sc. οὖσα). EUR. Alc. 182: cf. AR. Eq. 1252. (See 483.)

So πῶς γὰρ ἄν (sc. εἴη; how could it? πῶς οὐκ ἄν; and similar phrases; especially ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (also written as one word, ὡσπερανεί), in which the ἄν belongs to the verb that was originally understood after εἰ; as φοβούμενος ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ παῖς, fearing like a child (originally for φοβούμενος ὥσπερ ἂν ἐφοβεῖτο εἰ παῖς ἦν). PLAT. Gorg. 479A. See DEM. xviii. 194: τί χρὴ ποιεῖν; ὥσπερ ἂν εἴ τις ναύκληρον πάντ᾽ ἐπὶ σωτηρία πράξαντα . . . τῆς ναυαγίας αἰτιῷτο, what are we to do? (We are to do) just what a shipowner would do (ποιοῖ ἄν) if any one should blame him for the wreck of his ship, etc. See φήσειεν ἄν, which explains the omitted verb, just afterwards.

228. Κἄν in both its meanings (as καί with the adverb ἄν, and as καί with α?ν = ἐάν) may stand without a verb. E.g. “Ἀλλ᾽ ἄνδρα χρὴ δοκεῖν πεσεῖν ἂν κἂν ἀπὸ σμικροῦ κακοῦSOPH. Aj. 1077. (Here κἄν, for καὶ ἄν, which we may express by even or though it be, belongs to πεσεῖν understood.) Ἱκανῶς οὖν τοῦτο ἔχομεν, κἂν εἰ πλεοναχῇ σκοποῖμεν; are we then satisfied of this (and should we be so) even if we were to look at it in various ways? PLAT. Rep. 477A. (We must supply ἱκανῶς ἔχοιμεν with κἄν.) See different cases of κἂν εἰ in 195, in which a verb follows to which ἄν cannot belong.

Καὶ ὅποι τις ἂν, οἶμαι, προσθῇ κἂν μικρὰν δύναμιν, πάντ᾽ ὠφελεῖ, and, I think, wherever we add even (though it be) a little power, it all helps. DEM. ii. 14. (Here κἄν = καὶ ἄν τις προσθῇ, even though we add.) Μέτρησον εἰρήνης τί μοι, κἂν πέντ᾽ ἔτη, measure me out some peace, even if it be only for five years (καὶ ἂν μετρήσῃς). AR. Ach. 1021.

229. Ἄν may be used with a relative without a verb, as it is with εἰ (in ἄν = εἰ ἄν) in the last examples (228). So in XEN. An. i. 3, 6 , ὡς ἐμοῦ οὖν ἰόντος ὅπῃ ἂν καὶ ὑμεῖς, οὕτω τὴν γνώμην ἔχετε (i.e. ὅπῃ ἂν καὶ ὑμεῖς ἴητε), “be of this mind, that I shall go wherever you go.”

1 See Monro, Homeric Grammar, pp. 265-267. For Pindar, see Gildersleeve in Jour. Phil. iii. pp. 446-455, where may be found a complete enumeration of the passages in Pindar containing either ἄν (30 cases) or κέ (33 cases).

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