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1. The Infinitive. 2. The Participle. 3. The Verbal Adjectives in -τός and -τέος.


1966. The infinitive is in part a verb, in part a substantive.

a. Many substantives are closely related to verbs, but not all verbs can form substantives. All verbs can, however, form infinitives.

b. The word infinitive denotes a verbal form without any limitations (finis) of number and person.

1967. The infinitive is like a verb herein:

a. It shows the distinctions of voice and tense (but not those of number and person). Having tenses, it can express different stages of action (action simply occurring, continuing, or finished); whereas the corresponding substantive sets forth the abstract idea without these distinctions. Contrast ποιεῖν, ποιήσειν, ποιῆσαι, πεποιηκέναι with ποίησις making.

b. It can have a subject before it and a predicate after it, and it can have an object in the genitive, dative, or accusative like the corresponding finite verb. Infinitives scarcely ever stand in the subjective genitive; and the object of an infinitive never stands in the objective genitive.

c. It is modified by adverbs, not by adjectives.

d. It may take ἄν and with that particle represent ἄν with the indicative (1784 ff.) or ἄν with the optative (1824).

e. It forms clauses of result with ὥστε, and temporal clauses with πρίν, etc.

1968. The infinitive is like a substantive herein:

a. It may be the subject or object of a verb.

b. With the (neuter) article it shows all the case forms (except the vocative): τὸ (τοῦ, τῷ, τὸ) λύ_ειν, λύ_σειν, etc.

c. It may be governed by prepositions: πρὸ τοῦ λύ_ειν.

1969. The infinitive was originally a verbal noun in the dative (in part possibly also in the locative) case. The use to express purpose (2008) is a survival of the primitive meaning, from which all the other widely diverging uses were developed in a manner no longer always clear to us. But the to or for meaning seen in μανθάνειν ἥκομεν we have come to learn (for learning) can also be discerned in δύναμαι ἰδεῖν I have power for seeing, then I can see. Cp. 2000, 2006 a. As early as Homer, when the datival meaning had been in part obscured, the infinitive was employed as nominative (as subject) and accusative (as object). After Homer, the infinitive came to be used with the neuter article, the substantive idea thus gaining in definiteness. The article must be used when the infinitive stands as an object in the genitive or dative, and when it depends on prepositions.

1970. The infinitive is used as subject, as predicate, and to supplement the meaning of words and clauses.

1971. The negative of the infinitive is μή; but οὐ, used with a finite mood in direct discourse, is retained when that mood becomes infinitive in indirect discourse. Sometimes, however, μή is used in place of this οὐ (2723 ff.).


1972. In general the subject of the infinitive, if expressed at all, stands in the accusative; when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject or object of the governing verb, or when it has already been made known in the sentence, it is not repeated with the infinitive.

1973. When the subject of the infinitive is the same as that of the governing verb, it is omitted, and a predicate noun stands in the nominative case.

““οἶμαι εἰδέναιI think that I knowP. Pr. 312e, ““Πέρσης ἔφη εἶναιhe said he was a PersianX. A. 4.4.17, ““ἐγὼ οὐχ ὁμολογήσω ἄκλητος ἥκεινI shall not admit that I have come uninvitedP. S. 174d, ὁμολογεῖς περὶ ἐμὲ ἄδικος γεγενῆσθαι; do you admit that you have been guilty as regards me? X. A. 1.6.8 (cp. 4.2.27 in 2263).

a. The nominative is used when the infinitive, expressing some action or state of the subject of the main verb, has the article in an oblique case. Thus, τούτων ἀξιωθεὶς διὰ τὸ πατρικὸς αὐτῷ φίλος εί̂ναι justifying these requests on the ground that he was his hereditary friend Aes. 3.52, ““τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐποίει ἐκ τοῦ χαλεπὸς εἶναιthis he effected by reason of his being severeX. A. 2.6.9, ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοῖοι τοῖς λειπομένοις εἶναι ἐκπέμπονται (colonists) are sent out to be the equals of those who stay at home T. 1.34.

b. The nominative stands usually in sentences with δεῖν, χρῆναι etc., dependent on a verb of saying or thinking. Thus, ““ἡγούμην . . . περιεῖναι δεῖν αὐτῶν καὶ μεγαλοψυ_χότερος φαίνεσθαιI thought I ought to surpass them and to show myself more magnificentD. 19.235. Here ἡγούμην δεῖν is equivalent to I thought it proper.

c. When the governing verb is a participle in an oblique case, a predicate noun usually agrees with the participle, and rarely stands in the nominative. Thus, ““ἀπαλλαγεὶς τούτων τῶν φασκόντων δικαστῶν εἶναιbeing rid of those who profess to be judgesP. A. 41a, ““τὰ_ς ἀρχὰ_ς δίδωσι . . . τοῖς ἀεὶ δόξα_σιν ἀρίστοις εἶναιit dispenses the offices to those who always seem to be the most deservingP. Menex. 238d.

1974. A pronoun subject of the infinitive, if (wholly or partially) identical with the subject of the main verb, is generally expressed when emphatic, and stands in the accusative (cases of the nominative are rare and suspected); but the indirect reflexive σφεῖς stands in the nominative or accusative.

““οἶμαι ἐμὲ πλείω χρήματα εἰργάσθαι ἄλλους σύνδυοI think I have made more money than any two others togetherP. Hipp. M. 282e, ἡγησάμενος ἐμαυτὸν ἐπιεικέστερον εἶναι (emphatic for ἡγησάμενος ἐπιεικέστερος εἶναι) deeming myself to be too honest P. A. 36b, ““τοὺς δὲ Θηβαίους ἡγεῖτο . . . ἐά_σειν ὅπως βούλεται πρά_ττειν ἑαυτόνhe thought the Thebans would let him have his own wayD. 6.9, οὐ σφεῖς ἀδικεῖσθαι, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκείνους μᾶλλον he said that not they (the speaker and the other Lacedaemonians), but they (the Toroneans) rather had been wronged 4. 114 (but σφᾶς in 1228 b).

a. After a preceding accusative with the infinitive, a second pronoun referring to a different person, and also subject of an infinitive, must also stand in the accusative whether or not it denotes the same person as the subject of the governing verb. Thus, ἀλλὰ νομίζεις ἡμᾶς μὲν ἀνέξεσθαί σου, αὐτὸς (see below) δὲ τυπήσειν; καὶ ἡμᾶς μὲν ἀποψηφιεῖσθαί σου, δὲ (not σὺ) δ᾽ ου᾽ παύσεσθαι but do you think that we are going to put up with you, while you strike us yourself? and that we are going to acquit you, while you will not cease your outrageous conduct? D. 21.204. αὐτός, above and in Κλέων οὐκ ἔφη αὐτός, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνον στρατηγεῖν Cleon said that not he himself, but that Nicias was in command T. 4.28, is not the expressed subject of the infinitive, but αὐτός of direct discourse (αὐτὸς τυπήσεις, αὐτὸς οὐ στρατηγῶ); hence αὐτός is not used here for σεαυτόν (ἑαυτόν).

1975. When the subject of the infinitive is different from that of the governing verb, it stands in the accusative; and a predicate noun stands also in the accusative.

““νομίζω γὰρ ὑ_μᾶς ἐμοὶ εἶναι καὶ πατρίδα καὶ φίλουςfor I think you are to me both fatherland and friendsX. A. 1.3.6, ““τὸν γὰρ καλὸν κἀ_γαθὸν ἄνδρα εὐδαίμονα εἶναί φημιfor I maintain that the noble and good man is happyP. G. 470e.

1976. A predicate noun takes the case of the subject of an infinitive itself dependent on a subjectless infinitive. Thus, ““ἡμῖν δὲ ποιοῦσι δοκεῖν σφᾶς παντοδαποὺς φαίνεσθαιthey manage it so that they seem to us to appear in various formsP. R. 381e.

1977. Several infinitives may be used in succession, one infinitive being the subject of another: ““περὶ πολλοῦ ποιούμενος μηδενὶ δόξαι ὑβρίζειν βούλεσθαιregarding it of great importance not to seem to any one to wish to behave outrageouslyL. 23.5.

1978. When the subject of the infinitive is the same as the object (in the genitive or dative) of the governing verb, it is often omitted, and a predicate noun is either attracted into the genitive or dative, or stands in the accusative in agreement with the omitted subject of the infinitive. See 1060-1062.

ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν ἀγαθοῖς εἶναι or ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν ἀγαθοὺς εἶναι it is in our power to be good (lit. to be good is possible for us). Thus, δεόμεθ᾽ οὖν ὑ_μῶν . . . ἀκροά_σασθαι τῶν λεγομένων, ἐνθυ_μηθέντας ὅτι κτλ. we ask you therefore to listen to what is said, considering that, etc. 1. 14. 6. Cp. νῦν σοι ἔξεστιν ἀνδρὶ γενέσθαι quoted in 1062 with ““Λακεδαιμονίοις ἔξεστιν ὑ_μῖν φίλους γενέσθαιit is in your power to become friends to the LacedaemoniansT. 4.29. The latter construction may be explained as abbreviated for ἔξεστιν ὑ_μῖν (ὑ_μᾶς) φίλους γενέσθαι.

1979. The subject of the infinitive is often retained when it is the same as the (omitted) oblique object of the governing verb. Thus, ““παρήγγειλε τὰ ὅπλα τίθεσθαι τοὺς Ἕλληναςhe issued orders that the Greeks should get under armsX. A. 2.2.21.

1980. An indefinite or general subject of the infinitive (τινά, τινάς, ἀνθρώπους) is commonly omitted; and a predicate noun stands in the accusative. Thus, φιλάνθρωπον εἶναι δεῖ one (τινά) must be humane I. 2.15 (cp. 1984), ῥᾷον παραινεῖν παθόντα καρτερεῖν it is easier for a man to give advice than to endure suffering Men. Sent. 471, ““δρῶντας γὰρ μὴ δρῶντας ἥδι_ον θανεῖνfor it is preferable to die in action rather than doing nothingE. Hel. 814.

1981. The construction of the accusative with the infinitive seems to have originated from the employment of the infinitive to complement the meaning of transitive verbs; as in κελεύω σε ἀπελθεῖν I command you to depart. Here the accusative was separated from the transitive verb and felt to be the independent subject of the infinitive (I command that you depart). Gradually the accusative with the infinitive was used even after verbs incapable of taking an object-accusative.


1982. Instead of an impersonal passive verb with the accusative and infinitive as subject, Greek often uses the personal passive construction, the accusative becoming the nominative, subject to the leading verb.

Thus, Κῦρος ἠγγέλθη νι_κῆσαι Cyrus was reported to have conquered instead of ἠγγέλθη Κῦρον νι_κῆσαι it was reported that Cyrus had conquered, and δίκαιός εἰμι ἀπελθεῖν I am justified in going away instead of δίκαιόν ἐστιν ἐμὲ ἀπελθεῖν it is right for me to go away. English sometimes has to use the impersonal construction in place of the Greek personal construction (cp. 2107).

a. The personal construction is more common with λέγεται, ἀγγέλλεται, ὁμολογεῖται and other passive verbs of saying (regular with passive verbs of thinking); with συμβαίνει it happens; with ἀναγκαῖος necessary, ἄξιος worthy, δίκαιος just, δυνατός possible, ἐπιτήδειος fit, etc., followed by a form of εἶναι, instead of ἀναγκαῖον, ἄξιον, etc. Thus, ““ Ἀσσύριος εἰς τὴν χώρα_ν αὐτοῦ ἐμβαλεῖν ἀγγέλλεταιthe Assyrian is reported to be about to make an incursion into his countryX. C. 5.3.30, ““πολλή τις ἀλογία_ ξυμβαίνει γίγνεσθαιmuch absurdity would resultP. Phil. 55a, ““δίκαιος εἶ εἰπεῖνit is right for you to speakP. S. 214c, ““τὴν αἰτία_ν οὗτός ἐστι δίκαιος ἔχεινit is right for him to bear the blameD. 18.4. Both constructions together: σοὶ γὰρ δὴ λέγεται πάνυ γε τεθεραπεῦσθαι Ἀπόλλων, καί σε πάντα ἐκείνῳ πειθόμενον πρἀ_ττειν for Apollo is said to have been greatly served by you, and (it is said) that you do everything in obedience to him X. C. 7.2.15. Cp. 2104.

N.—δῆλός ἐστι and φανερός ἐστι take ὅτι or the participle (2107); δῆλόν ἐστι and φανερόν ἐστι take ὅτι, not the infinitive.

1983. The personal constructions δοκῶ, ἔοικα (2089 c), δέω are regular instead of δοκεῖ, ἔοικε it seems, δεῖ it lacks (much or little). So with φαίνομαι for φαίνεται.

““δοκῶ γάρ μοι ἄδυνατος εἶναιfor I seem to be unableP. R. 368b, ““δοκοῦμέν μοι καθῆσθαιit seems to me that we are encampedX. A. 1.3.12, ““νῦν γε ἡμῶν ἔοικας βασιλεὺς εἶναιnow at least you seem to be our kingX. C. 1.4.6, ““πολλοῦ δέω ἐγὼ ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαιI am far from speaking in my own defenceP. A. 30d, μι_κροῦ ἐδέησεν Κύπρον ἅπα_σαν κατασχεῖν he almost (lacked a little) occupied the whole of Cyprus I. 9.62, ““εὖ σὺ λέγειν φαίνειyou seem to speak wellAr. Nub. 403.

a. δοκεῖ μοί τινα ἐλθεῖν for δοκεῖ τίς μοι ἐλθεῖν it seems to me that some one came is very rare. δοκεῖ meaning it seems good, it is decreed always takes the infinitive (1984, 1991). δοκῶ believe has the construction of 1992 c. Cp. 1998.


1984. As Subject.—The infinitive may be used as subject, especially with quasi-impersonal verbs and expressions (933 a).

““γράμματα μαθεῖν δεῖto learn to read is necessaryMen. Sent. 96, τί χρὴ ποιεῖν; what must be done? X. A. 2.1.16, κόσμος (ἐστὶ) ““καλῶς τοῦτο δρᾶνto perform this well is a creditT. 1.5, πᾶσιν ἁδεῖν χαλεπόν (ἐστι) to please everybody is difficult Solon 7, ““ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς προϊέναιit seemed best to them to proceedX. A. 2.1.2, ““συμφέρει αὐτοῖς φίλους εἶναιit is for their interest to be friendsX. O. 11.23. Cp. 1062, 1978.

1985. Such quasi-impersonal verbs and expressions are δεῖ it is necessary, χρή (properly a substantive with ἐστί omitted, 793) it is necessary, δοκεῖ it seems good, ἔστι it is possible, ἔξεστι it is in one's power, οἷόν τέ ἐστι it is possible, πρέπει and προσήκει it is fitting, συμβαίνει it happens; and many expressions formed by ἐστί and a predicate noun, as ἄξιον it is right, δίκαιον it is just, ἀναγ- καῖον it is necessary, δυνατόν it is possible, ἀδύνατον (or ἀδύνατα) it is impossible, αἰσχρόν it is disgraceful, καλόν it is honourable, ὥρα_ and καιρός it is time. With the last two expressions the old dative use of the infinitive is clear: ““ὥρα_ βουλεύεσθαιit is time for consideringP. Soph. 241b.

a. On the personal ἄξιός εἰμι, δίκαιός εἰμι, δοκῶ, see 1982. For δεῖ με τοῦτο λέγειν we find the personal δέομαι τοῦτο λέγειν. Note the attraction in ““τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἐνόντων εἰπεῖνthe number of the things it is possible to mentionI. 5.110 (for τούτων ἔνεστιν).

b. δεῖ and χρή regularly take the accusative and infinitive (cp. 1562); ἀνάγκη it is necessary takes the accusative or dative with the infinitive.

c. The subject of the infinitive is expressed or omitted according to the sense.

d. Homer shows only the beginnings of the use of the infinitive as a real subject, i.e. not a grammatical subject, as in 1984.

1986. As Predicate.—In definitions the infinitive may be used as a predicate noun with ἐστί.

““τὸ γὰρ γνῶναι ἐπιστήμην λαβεῖν ἐστινfor to learn is to get knowledgeP. Th. 209e.

1987. As an Appositive.—The infinitive may stand in apposition to a preceding substantive, pronoun, or adverb.

εἷς οἰωνὸς ἄριστος, ἀμύ_νεσθαι περὶ πάτρης one omen is best, to fight for our country M 243, εἶπον . . . τοῦτο μόνον ὁρᾶν πάντας, τῷ πρόσθεν ἕπεσθαι I told all to pay heed to this only, viz., to follow their leader X. C. 2.2.8, καὶ ὑ_μᾶς δὲ οὕτως, παῖδες, . . . ἐπαίδευον, τοὺς μὲν γεραιτέρους προτι_μᾶν, τῶν δὲ νεωτέρων προτετι_μῆσθαι and I have instructed you, too, my children (to this effect) to honour your elders in preference to yourselves and to receive honour from the younger in preference to them X. C. 8.7.10.

1988. The infinitive not in indirect discourse, and in indirect discourse, is often used as the object of a verb.


1989. The infinitive as object not in indirect discourse is used after almost any verb that requires another verb to complete its meaning. The tenses of this infinitive are timeless, and denote only stage of action.

1990. The infinitive may be the only expressed object, or it may be one of two expressed objects, of the leading verb.

““παίδευσις καλὴ διδάσκει χρῆσθαι νόμοιςa good education teaches obedience to the lawsX. Ven. 12.14, ““διαγιγνώσκειν σε τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς καὶ τοὺς κακοὺς ἐδίδαξενhe taught you to distinguish the good and the badX. M. 3.1.9.

a. Verbs signifying to ask, bid, forbid, permit, teach, etc., allow an infinitive as one of two objects.

b. Many verbal expressions, formed by a substantive and a verb, take the infinitive. Thus, τοὺς ἄλλους διδάσκειν τέχνην ἔχουσιν they possess the skill to teach (the) others I. 16.11. Cp. 2000.

A. Object Infinitive after Verbs of Will or Desire

1991. Verbs of will or desire (and their opposites) are often followed by an infinitive. The infinitive with a subject accusative denotes that something should (may) be or be done. The negative is μή (see 2719-2721).

““ἤθελον αὐτοῦ ἀκούεινthey were willing to listen to himX. A. 2.6.11, ““ἐβουλεύοντο ἐκλιπεῖν τὴν πόλινthey planned to leave the cityHdt. 6.100, ““τὰ ἥδιστα . . . ζητεῖ ποιεῖνhe seeks to do what he likes bestX. M. 4.5.11, ““βασιλεὺς ἀξιοῖ σὲ ἀποπλεῖνthe king asks that you sail awayX. H. 3.4.25, ἱ_κέτευε μὴ ἀποκτεῖναι he entreated that they should not put him (self) to death L. 1.25, πέμπουσιν . . . στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ Κα_ρία_ν they send orders that he shall march upon Caria X. H. 3.1.7, ““ἔδοξε πλεῖν τὸν Ἀλκιβιάδηνit was decided that Alcibiades should sailT. 6.29.

a. Verbs of will or desire with an accusative subject of the infinitive form one of the classes of substantive clauses introduced in English by that, though the infinitive in English is often more idiomatic.

1992. Of verbs of will or desire that take the infinitive some have an object

a. In the accusative (or are intransitive), e.g.: αἱροῦμαι choose, αἰτῶ, αἰτοῦμαι ask, ἀξιῶ claim, ask, βουλεύομαι resolve, βούλομαι wish, will, δικαιῶ deem right, διανοοῦμαι intend, ἐθέλω (poet. θέλω), wish, will, εἴωθα am wont to, ἐπιχειρῶ attempt, ἐῶ permit, ζητῶ seek, κελεύω command, suggest, invite, μέλλω delay, πειρῶμαι try, πέμπω send, προθυ_μοῦμαι am zealous, προκαλοῦμαι invite, προτρέπω urge, σπεύδω hasten, am eager, σπουδάζω am eager, τολμῶ dare, φιλῶ am wont to, ψηφίζομαι vote.

b. In the genitive, e.g.: δέομαι ask, ἐπιθυ_μῶ and ὀρέγομαι desire.

c. In the dative, e.g.: εὔχομαι pray, παραγγέλλω and προστάττω command, ἐπιβουλεύω purpose, συμβουλεύω advise, ἐπιτρέπω and συγχωρῶ permit, παραινῶ exhort, δοκῶ μοι I have a mind to; and λέγω, εἶπον, φωνῶ, φράζω tell (and βοῶ shout) in the sense of command.

N.—πείθω urge to a course of action, takes the infinitive, πείθω convince generally has ὡς, rarely the accusative with the infinitive. Thus, ““ἔπειθεν αὐτὸν καθ᾽ αὑτὸν πορεύεσθαιhe urged him to go by himselfX. A. 6.2.13, ““οὐ γὰρ πείσονται οἱ πολλοί, ὡς σὺ αὐτὸς οὐκ ἠθέλησας ἀπιέναιfor most people will not be convinced that of your own free will you did not desire to go awayP. Cr. 44c (infinitive X. M. 1.1.20).

1993. Verbs of will or desire not to do anything are e.g.: δέδοικα, φοβοῦμαι fear, φεύγω avoid, ὀκνῶ scruple, αἰσχύ_νομαι, αἰδοῦμαι (2126) feel shame to, ἀπαγορεύω forbid, κωλύ_ω hinder, ἀπέχομαι abstain from, εὐλαβοῦμαι, φυλάττομαι beware of. Thus, ““φοβοῦμαι διελέγχειν σεI fear to refute youP. G. 457e, ““αἰσχύ_νομαι ὑ_μῖν εἰπεῖν τἀ_ληθῆI am ashamed to tell you the truthP. A. 22b.

1994. Under verbs of will or desire are included verbs expressing an activity to the end that something shall or shall not be done. Thus, δίδωμι offer, give, διαμάχομαι struggle against, ποιῶ, διαπρά_ττομαι, κατεργάζομαι manage, effect, παρέχω offer (others in 1992, 1993).

1995. Several verbs of will or desire take ὅπως with the future or the subjunctive (verbs of effort, 2211, 2214); or μή with the subjunctive (verbs of fear, 2225); some take the participle (2123 ff.).

1996. The infinitive may be used with the

a. Genitive or dative when the expression of desire is addressed to a person and the genitive or dative depends on the leading verb. Here the sentence is simple. Thus, ““δέομαι ὑ_μῶν . . . τὰ δίκαια ψηφίσασθαιI ask you to render a just verdictI. 19.51, ““τοῖς ἄλλοις πᾶσι παρήγγελλεν ἐξοπλίζεσθαιhe ordered all the rest to arm themselvesX. A. 1.8.3.

b. Accusative when the action of a person is desired (example in 1979). Such sentences are complex.

N.—Verbs of commanding allow either a or b; but only κελεύω with the accusative permits either meaning: κελεύω σὲ ταῦτα μὴ ποιει_ν I tell you not to do this and I command that you shall not do this. Cp. 1981.

1997. Several verbs signifying to say are also used as verbs of will and then mean command. The agent commanded usually stands in the accusative subject of the infinitive. So with λέγω, εἶπον, φράζω, φωνῶ. Thus ““λέγω σ᾽ ἐγὼ δόλῳ Φιλοκτήτην λαβεῖνI say that thou shalt take Philoctetes by craftS. Ph. 101, ““τούτοις ἔλεγον πλεῖνI told them that they should sailD. 19.150, ““πάντες ἔλεγον τοὺς τούτων ἄρξαντας δοῦναι δίκηνall said that the ringleaders should suffer punishmentX. A. 5.7.34, εἶπον τὴν θύρα_ν κεκλεῖσθαι they commanded that the door should be shut (and stay shut) X. H. 5.4.7, βασιλεὺς ἔγραψε πά_σα_ς τὰ_ς ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι πόλεις αὐτονόμους εἶναι the king issued a written order that all the cities in Greece should be independent (not: wrote that they were independent) X. H. 6.3.12.

a. The agent may stand in the dative as ““χαλᾶν λέγω σοιI bid thee let goS. O. C. 840.

1998. The present and aorist infinitive (both timeless) are the usual tenses of the infinitive after verbs of will or desire (see 1869). The perfect is rare; as εἶπον τὴν θύρα_ν κεκλεῖσθαι (1997). δοκῶ and δοκῶ μοι signifying I have a mind to or I am determined to take the present or aorist like ““δοκεῖ: τὸν ὄνον ἐξάγειν δοκῶI have a mind to bring out the assAr. Vesp. 177, ἐγὼ οὖν μοι δοκῶ . . . ὑφηγήσασθαι κτλ. now I have a mind to show, etc. P. Eu. 288c. Cp. 1983 a. When it is clearly denoted that the action resolved on is to follow without delay the future is used; as in ““ἀλλά μοι δοκῶ . . . οὐ πείσεσθαι αὐτῷbut I am determined that I will not accept his opinionP. Th. 183d.

a. Some verbs, as κελεύω, which might be held to introduce indirect discourse, are classed under ver<*>s of will or desire, because, like these verbs, they do not regularly take the future infinitive; and because, unlike verbs of saying and thinking (which admit all the tenses of the infinitive) they introduce infinitives which do not show differences of time. The future infinitive does not express a command. For a few cases of the future after verbs of will or desire, see 1869.

1999. Verbs signifying to hope, expect, promise, threaten , and swear, when followed by the aorist (less often the present) infinitive (1868), have the construction of verbs of will or desire. When such verbs take the future infinitive they have the construction of indirect discourse.

B. Infinitive after Other Verbs

2000. The infinitive follows many verbs, especially such as denote ability, fitness, necessity, etc. (and their opposites).

““οὐκέτι ἐδύνατο . . . βιοτεύεινhe was no longer able to liveT. 1.130, ““νεῖν ἐπιστάμενοςknowing how to swimX. A. 5.7.25, ““πεφύ_κα_σί τε ἅπαντες . . . ἁμαρτάνεινand all men are by nature prone to errT. 3.45, ““μανθάνουσιν ἄρχειν τε καὶ ἄρχεσθαιthey learn how to govern and be governedX. A. 1.9.4; also after the impersonals of 1985.

a. ἔχω I can is derived from the meaning I have especially with a verb of saying. Thus, ““Διὸς πλα_γὰ_ν ἔχουσιν εἰπεῖνthey can proclaim a stroke of ZeusA. Ag. 367.

C. Infinitive after Adjectives, Adverbs, and Substantives

2001. The infinitive serves to define the meaning of adjectives, adverbs, and substantives, especially those denoting ability, fitness, capacity, etc. (and their opposites), and generally those analogous in meaning to verbs which take the infinitive (2000). Here the datival meaning (purpose, destination) is often apparent. Cp. 1969.

2002. Adjectives and Adverbs.—““ἱκανοὶ ἡμᾶς ὠφελεῖνable to assist usX. A. 3.3.18, ““δεινὸς λέγειν, κακὸς βιῶναιskilled in speaking, evil in lifeAes. 3.174, ““οἷοι φιλεῖνable to loveD. 25.2, ““ἕτοιμοί εἰσι μάχεσθαιthey are ready to fightX. C. 4.1.1, ““ἄρχειν ἀξιώτατοςmost worthy to governX. A. 1.9.1, ὁδὸς . . . ἀμήχανος εἰσελθεῖν στρατεύματι a road impracticable for an army to enter 1. 2. 21, χαλεπὸν διαβαίνειν hard to cross 5. 6. 9, ““ἐπινοῆσαι ὀξεῖςquick to conceiveT. 1.70. So also after ῥᾴδιος easy, ἡδύς pleasant, δίκαιος just, ἀναγκαῖος necessary, ἐπιτήδειος suitable, ἀγαθός good, αἴτιος responsible for, μαλακός incapable of; cp. ὀλίγος 1063. After adverbs: ““κάλλιστα ἰδεῖνmost splendid to beholdX. C. 8.3.5.

a. Some of these adjectives take the infinitive by analogy to the related verbs, as πρόθυ_μος zealous (προθυ_μοῦμαι), ἐπιστήμων knowing how (ἐπίσταμαι).

2003. οἷος fit, ὅσος sufficient take the infinitive like the fuller expressions τοιοῦτος οἷος, τοσοῦτος ὅσος. Thus, ““οὐ γὰρ ἦν ὥρα_ οἵα_ τὸ πεδίον ἄρδεινfor it was not the proper season to irrigate the plainX. A. 2.3.13, ““ὅσον ἀποζῆνsufficient to live off ofT. 1.2, ““τοιοῦτος οἷος . . . πείθεσθαιthe kind of a man to be convincedP. Cr. 46b. On τοσοῦτος ὥστε (ὡς) see 2263. Hom. has the infinitive after τοῖος, τόσος, etc.

2004. Substantives.—As, ““οἱ παῖδες ὑ_μῖν ὀλίγου ἡλικία_ν ἔχουσι παιδεύεσθαιyour children are almost of an age to be educatedP. Lach. 187c. With ἐστί omitted: ““σχολή γε ἡμῖν μανθάνεινwe have leisure to learnX. C. 4.3.12, ““ἀνάγκη πείθεσθαιthere is need to obeyX. H. 1.6.8, ““περαίνειν ἤδη ὥρα_it is high time to finishX. A. 3.2.32. Cp. 1985.

2005. The infinitive is added, like an accusative of respect (1601, 1602), to intransitive verbs (especially in poetry), to adjectives (more frequently in poetry), and to substantives (rarely). Thus, τοῖος ἰδεῖν such in aspect (lit. to look on) Theognis 216, ““ὁρᾶν στυγνόςof a repulsive expressionX. A. 2.6.9, ἀκοῦ- ““σαι παγκάλως ἔχειit is very fine to hearD. 19.47, ““θαῦμα καὶ ἀκοῦσαιa marvel even to hear ofP. L. 656d.

2006. The infinitive limiting the meaning of an adjective is commonly active (or middle) in cases where the passive is more natural in English. Thus, ““λόγος δυνατὸς κατανοῆσαιa speech capable of being understoodP. Ph. 90c, ““ἄξιος θαυμάσαιworthy to be admiredT. 1.138 (but ἄξιος θαυμάζεσθαι X. C. 5.1.6).

a. The active use is due to the old datival function of the infinitive: δυνατὸς κατανοῆσαι capable for understanding.

2007. The infinitive, with or without ὥστε or ὡς, may be used with than after comparatives, depending on an (implied) idea of ability or inability. ὥστε is more common than or ὡς. Cp. 2264.

““τὸ γὰρ νόσημα μεῖζον φέρεινfor the disease is too great to be borneS. O. T. 1293, ““φοβοῦμαι μή τι μεῖζον ὥστε φέρειν δύνασθαι κακὸν τῇ πόλει συμβῇI fear lest some calamity befall the State greater than it can bearX. M. 3.5.17, ““βραχύτερα ὡς ἐξικνεῖσθαιtoo short to reachX. A. 3.3.7.

a. The force of ὥστε may be expressed by the genitive; as, κρεῖσσον λόγου (T. 2.50) = κρεῖσσον ὥστε λέγεσθαι. Cp. 1077.

b. Words implying a comparison may take the infinitive with ὥστε or ὡς (1063).

D. Infinitive of Purpose and Result

2008. Infinitive of Purpose.—The infinitive may express purpose (usually only with verbs taking the accusative).

““ταύτην τὴν χώρα_ν ἐπέτρεψε διαρπάσαι τοῖς Ἕλλησινhe gave this land over to the Greeks to plunderX. A. 1.2.19, τὸ ἥμισυ (τοῦ στρατεύματος) κατέλιπε φυλάττειν τὸ στρατόπεδον he left half (of the army) behind to guard the camp 5. 2. 1, ἰέναι ἐπὶ βασιλέα_ οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά the sacrifices did not turn out (favourable) for going against the king 2. 2. 3, ““Ἀριστάρχῳ . . . ἔδοτε ἡμέρα_ν ἀπολογήσασθαιyou granted a day to Aristarchus to make his defenceX. H. 1.7.28, θύρα_ ἐμὴ ἀνέῳκτο . . . εἰσιέναι τῷ δεομένῳ τι ἐμοῦ my door stood open for any petitioner of mine to enter 5. 1. 14, ““παρέχω ἐμαυτὸν ἐρωτᾶνI offer myself to be questionedP. A. 33b, τὰ_ς γυναῖκας πιεῖν φερούσα_ς the women bringing (something) to drink X. H. 7.2.9. Cp. also 2032 e.

2009. The infinitive of purpose is used in prose especially after verbs meaning to give, entrust, choose, appoint, take, receive. Verbs signifying to send, go, come usually take the future active participle (2065); but T. 6.50 has δέκα τῶν νεῶν προύπεμψαν ἐς τὸν μέγαν λιμένα πλεῦσαι they sent ahead ten ships to sail into the great harbour; and in poetry the infinitive often denotes purpose after these verbs, and after εἶναι in Homer (Λ 20) and Hdt. (5. 25).

2010. After verbs meaning to have (or be) at one's disposition: ““οἱ στρατιῶται ἀργύριον οὐκ εἶχον ἐπισι_τίζεσθαιthe soldiers did not have money by means of which they could provision themselvesX. A. 7.1.7, ““ἐκεῖ σκιά_ τ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ πόα_ καθίζεσθαιthere is shade and grass to sit down inP. Phae. 229b.

2011. Infinitive of Result.—The infinitive may be used with ὥστε (sometimes with ὡς) to denote a result, often an intended result. See 2260 ff.

a. Several verbs, substantives, and adjectives usually taking the infinitive also admit ὥστε with the infinitive (2271); and the infinitive is found where ὥστε with the infinitive might be expected: μνημονεύουσιν ἀφεθέντα τοῦτον ἐλεύθερον εἶναι they recall that he was emancipated (lit. released so as to be free) D. 29.25. Here the redundant infinitive expresses an intended result.

N.—This redundant use of εἶναι is common in Hom. and Hdt.

E. Absolute Infinitive

2012. Certain idiomatic infinitives are used absolutely in parenthetical phrases to limit the application of a single expression or of the entire sentence.

a. Verbs of Saying.—ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, ὡς εἰπεῖν so to speak, almost; (ὡς) ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν, ὡς συνελόντι (1497) εἰπεῖν, ὡς (ἐν βραχεῖ or) συντόμως εἰπεῖν to speak briefly, concisely; ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν εἰπεῖν, τὸ σύμπαν εἰπεῖν speaking generally; σχεδὸν εἰπεῖν so to say, almost (paene dixerim); σὺν θεῷ εἰπεῖν in God's name; and so ὡς with λέγειν, φράζειν, εἰρῆσθαι, as ὡς ἐν τύπῳ εἰρῆσθαι in general. Examples: ἀληθές γε ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν οὐδὲν εἰρήκα_σιν not one word of truth, I may say, did they utter P. A. 17a, ἀγαθὸν μὲν ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν οὐδὲν γέγονε τῇ πόλει in a word the State gained no advantage Dinarchus 1.33.

b. ὡς (ἔπος) εἰπεῖν is often used to limit too strict an application of a general statement, especially πᾶς or οὐδείς. Thus, πάντες ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν nearly every one, οὐδεὶς ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν almost no one. It is thus used like paene dixerim; rarely, like ut ita dicam, to soften the strength of a metaphor.

c. Especially common is the absolute εἶναι in ἑκὼν willingly, intentionally, if you can help it, usually in negative or quasi-negative statements (ἑκών may be inflected). Also in τὸ κατὰ τοῦτον (ἐπὶ τούτῳ) εἶναι as far as he is concerned, ὡς . . . εἶναι as far as . . . is concerned, τὸ νῦν εἶναι at present. Examples: ““οὐδὲ ξένοις ἑκὼν εἶναι γέλωτα παρέχειςnor do you intentionally cause strangers to laughX. C. 2.2.15, ““ἑκοῦσα εἶναι οὐκ ἀπολείπεταιit is not willingly separatedP. Phae. 252a, τό γε ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνον εἶναι ἐσώθης (ἄν) so far, at least, as it depended on him you would have been saved L. 13.58.

d. Other expressions: ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, ὡς ἐμοὶ κρῖναι as it seems to me, in my opinion, (ὡς) εἰκάσαι to make a guess, (ὡς) συμβάλλειν to compare, (ὡς) ἀκοῦσαι to the ear, ὡς ὑμομνῆσαι to recall the matter, ὅσον γέ μ᾽ εἰδέναι as far as I know, etc.; ὀλίγου δεῖν, μι_κροῦ δεῖν almost, all but (δεῖν may be omitted, 1399). Examples: γὰρ Κτήσιππος ἔτυχε πόρρω καθεζόμενος τοῦ Κλεινίου, ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν for Ctesippus, it seems to me, happened to be sitting at a distance from Clinias P. Eu. 274b, ““μι_κροῦ δεῖν τρία τάλανταalmost three talentsD. 27.29.

e. Some of these absolute infinitives may be explained by reference to the idea of purpose (2008) or result. Thus, συνελόντι εἰπεῖν for one compressing the matter to speak (cp. ut paucis dicam), μι_κροῦ δεῖν so as to lack little. Others recall the adverbial accusative (1606); cp. ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν with γνώμην ἐμήν.

F. Infinitive in Commands, Wishes, and Exclamations

2013. Infinitive in Commands.—The infinitive may be used for the second person of the imperative. The person addressed is regarded as the subject. This infinitive is commoner in poetry than in prose (where it has a solemn or formal force).

θαρσῶν νῦν, Διόμηδες, ἐπὶ Τρώεσσι μάχεσθαι with good courage now, Diomed, fight against the Trojans E 124, σὺ δέ, Κλεαρίδα_ . . . τὰ_ς πύλα_ς ἀνοίξα_ς ἐπεκθεῖν but do you, Clearidas, open the gates and sally forth T. 5.9.

a. This infinitive may be used in conjunction with an imperative: ““ἀκούετε λεῴ: κατὰ τὰ πάτρια τοὺς χόας πί_νεινhear ye, good people! drink the Pitchers as our sires drank!Ar. Ach. 1000.

b. The infinitive for the third person of the imperative often occurs in legal language (laws, treaties, etc.), and does not necessarily depend on the principal verb. Thus, ““ἔτη δὲ εἶναι τὰ_ς σπονδὰ_ς πεντήκονταand the treaty shall continue for fifty yearsT. 5.18. In this construction the infinitive has the force of an infinitive dependent on ἔδοξε (it was voted that) or the like. So in medical language, as πί_νειν δὲ ὕδωρ it is well for the patient to drink water Hippocrates 1. 151.

c. The infinitive (with subject accusative) is rarely used for the third person of the imperative when there is an unconscious ellipsis of a word like δός grant, or εὔχομαι I pray. Thus, τεύχεα συ_λήσα_ς φερέτω κοίλα_ς ἐπὶ νῆας, σῶμα δὲ οἴκαδ᾽ ἐμὸν δόμεναι πάλιν let him strip off my arms and carry them to the hollow ships, but let him give back my body to my home H 78.

d. In negative commands (prohibitions) μή with the infinitive is poetic and Ionic: οἷς μὴ πελάζειν do not approach these ( = μὴ πέλαζε) A. Pr. 712, ““μηδὲ καλεῖν πω ὄλβιονand do not call him happy yetHdt. 1.32.

2014. Infinitive in Wishes.—The infinitive with a subject accusative may be used in the sense of the optative of wish, usually with the same ellipsis as in 2013 c.

““θεοὶ πολῖται, μή με δουλεία_ς τυχεῖνye gods of my country, may bondage not be my lot!A. Sept. 253, Ζεῦ, ἐκγενέσθαι μοι Ἀθηναίους τείσασθαι oh Zeus, that it be granted to me to punish the Athenians! Hdt. 5.105 (cp. Ζεῦ, δός με τείσασθαι μόρον πατρός oh Zeus, grant that I may avenge my father's murder! A. Ch. 18). This construction is very rare in Attic prose: ““τὸν κυνηγέτην ἔχοντα ἐξιέναι . . . ἐλαφρὰ_ν ἐσθῆταthe hunter should go forth in a light dressX. Ven. 6.11. Here no definite verb can be supplied.

a. The nominative with the infinitive (instead of the optative) after αι᾽ γάρ occurs in Homer (η 311, ω 376).

2015. Infinitive in Exclamations.—The infinitive is often used in exclamations of surprise or indignation. The subject stands in the accusative.

““ἐμὲ παθεῖν τάδεthat I should suffer this!A. Eum. 837, ““τοιουτονὶ_ τρέφειν κύναto keep a dog like that!Ar. Vesp. 835.

On the infinitive with ἐφ᾽ (ἐφ᾽ ᾧτε) see 2279; with πρίν, see 2453.


2016. The infinitive is used as the object of verbs of saying and thinking. Such infinitives denote both time and stage of action (cp. 1866).

a. The finite verb of a sentence placed in dependence on a verb of saying or thinking that requires the infinitive, becomes infinitive, which infinitive stands in the relation of a substantive as subject or object of the leading verb. Commonly as object: thus, Κῦρος νι_κᾷ Cyrus is victorious, when made the object of φησί he says, becomes a part of a new sentence φησὶ Κῦρον νι_κᾶν, in which Κῦρον νικᾶν is the object of φησί. As subject, when the verb of saying is passive: thus, in λέγεται Κῦρον νι_κᾶν, the last two words form the subject of λέγεται.

2017. Verbs of saying are e.g.: say φημί, φάσκω, λέγω; confess ὁμολογῶ; promise ὑπισχνοῦμαι, ὑποδέχομαι, ἐπαγγέλλομαι, ὑφίσταμαι; pretend προσποιοῦμαι; swear ὄμνυ_μι; deny ἀπαρνοῦμαι; gainsay ἀντιλέγω; dispute ἀμφισβητῶ, etc.

Some verbs of saying admit other constructions than the infinitive, and especially ὅτι or ὡς (2579). λέγω, εἶπον, φράζω, φωνῶ with ὅτι or ὡς mean say, with the infinitive command (1997).

a. φημί say, assert, express the opinion that in classical Greek is almost always followed by the infinitive, but by ὅτι very often in the later language. φημὶ ὅτι occurs in X. A. 7.1.5 (φημὶ ὡς in L. 7.19, X. H. 6.3.7; D. 4.48, 27. 19 by anacoluthon).

b. λέγω state (impart a fact) takes either the infinitive or ὅτι or ὡς. The infinitive occurs usually with the passive (λέγεται, etc.) either in the personal or impersonal construction (1982 a). The active forms of λέγω with the infinitive mean command (1997).

c. εἶπον said usually takes ὅτι or ὡς; with the infinitive, it commonly means commanded (1997). Cp. the double use of told.

N.—εἶπον meaning said with the infinitive is rare, but occurs in good Attic prose: And. 1.57, 80; Thuc. 7. 35; Lys. 10. 6, 10. 9, 10. 12; Xen. H. 1. 6. 7, 2. 2. 15, C. 5. 5. 24, S. 2. 13; Is. 2.29; Lyc. 50; Aes. 3.37, 3. 59; Dem. 15. 18; Plato, G. 473 a, 503 d, Lach. 192 b, Charm. 174 a, Hipp. Maj. 291 b, Pol. 263 c, 290 b, L. 654 a, Clitoph. 409 a, 410 b. In poetry this use is frequent.

2018. Verbs of thinking almost always take the infinitive. Such are: think ἡγοῦμαι, οἴομαι, δοκῶ, νομίζω; hope ἐλπίζω; suppose ὑπολαμβάνω; suspect ὑποπτεύω; guess εἰκάζω; feel confident πιστεύω; disbelieve ἀπιστῶ. The use of ὡς is rare, while ὅτι is very rare (2580).

a. Verbs of perceiving sometimes take the infinitive by analogy to verbs of thinking; as ἀκούω, αἰσθάνομαι, πυνθάνομαι (2144).

2019. Each tense of direct discourse is retained (with its proper meaning as regards stage of action) when it becomes infinitive in indirect discourse; but an imperfect is represented by the present infinitive; a pluperfect, by the perfect infinitive. See 1866, 1867.

2020. An original οὐ of direct discourse is generally, an original μή is always, retained in indirect discourse. But in some cases οὐ becomes μή (2723 ff.).

2021. The infinitive is the subject of the passive of verbs of saying and thinking (1982 a). So with δοκεῖ it seems, φαίνεται it is plain, etc.

2022. The infinitive represents a finite verb after verbs of saying and thinking.

a. ““εὖνοί φα_σιν εἶναιthey assert that they are loyalL. 12.49, οὐδεὶς ἔφασκεν γιγνώσκειν αὐτόν nobody said that he knew him 23. 3, οἱ ἡγεμόνες οὔ φα_σιν (2692) ““εἶναι ἄλλην ὁδόνthe guides say there is no other roadX. A. 4.1.21, ““πάντες ἐροῦσι τὸ λοιπὸν μηδὲν εἶναι κερδαλεώτερον τῆς ἀρετῆςeverybody in time to come will say that there is nothing more profitable than braveryX. C. 7.1.18. Other examples 1867.

b. βασιλεὺς νι_κᾶν ἡγεῖται the king thinks he is victorious ( = νι_κῶ, cp. 1887) X. A. 2.1.11, οἴομαι βέλτιστον εἶναι I think it is best 5. 1. 8, ὑπώπτευον ἐπὶ βασιλέα_ ἰέναι they suspected that they were to go against the king 1. 3. 1, (Σωκράτης) ““τὸ ἀγνοεῖν ἑαυτὸν ἐγγυτάτω . . . μανία_ς ἐλογίζετο εἶναιSocrates was of the opinion that for a man not to know himself was very near to madnessX. M. 3.9.6.

c. When a word of saying is expressed or implied in what precedes, several infinitives may be used where the indicative is employed in translation. So in the narration in X. C. 1.3.5-6.

2023. The infinitive with ἄν represents an indicative with ἄν or a potential optative with ἄν. See 1846, 1848, 1849, 2270.

2024. Verbs signifying to hope, expect, promise, threaten , and swear take the future infinitive in indirect discourse, and the aorist (less often the present) infinitive not in indirect discourse (like verbs of will or desire, 1868, 1999). ἐλπίζω ταῦτα ποιήσειν I hope that I shall do this, ἐλπίζω ταῦτα ποιῆσαι or ποιεῖν I hope to do this.


2025. The articular infinitive, while having the character of a substantive, retains the functions of a verb. In its older use the articular infinitive is a subject or object; the nearest approach to this use in Homer is ““ἀνί_η καὶ τὸ φυλάσσεινto watch is also troubleυ 52. In the tragic poets the genitive and dative are rarely used; in the speeches in Thucydides and in Demosthenes all of its four cases appear with great frequency. The articular infinitive may take dependent clauses.

2026. The articular infinitive admits the constructions of an ordinary substantive.

Nom. τὸ ποιεῖν making or to make, τὸ ποιήσειν, τὸ ποιῆσαι, τὸ πεποιηκέναι

Gen. τοῦ ποιεῖν of making, τοῦ ποιήσειν, τοῦ ποιῆσαι, etc.

Dat. τῷ ποιεῖν for making, by making, τῷ ποιήσειν, τῷ ποιῆσαι, etc.

Acc. τὸ ποιεῖν, τὸ ποιήσειν, τὸ ποιῆσαι, etc.

2027. The articular infinitive is treated as subject, predicate noun, and object like the simple infinitive (1984-1986).

2028. The negative of the articular infinitive is μή.

2029. The articular infinitive may indicate time (after verbs of saying or thinking, 2034 g), or may be timeless.

2030. The articular infinitive is in general used like the infinitive without the article, and may take ἄν; as regards its constructions it has the value of a substantive. The article is regularly used when the connection uniting the infinitive to another word has to be expressed by the genitive, the dative, or a preposition.

a. The articular infinitive is rarely used, like a true substantive, with the subjective genitive: ““τό γ᾽ εὖ φρονεῖν αὐτῶν μι_μεῖσθεimitate at least their wisdomD. 19.269.


Subject (1984): ““νέοις τὸ σι_γᾶν κρεῖττόν ἐστι τοῦ λαλεῖνin the young silence is better than speechMen. Sent. 387, ““τὸ Πελοποννησίους αὐτοῖς μὴ βοηθῆσαι παρέσχεν ὑ_μῖν . . . Σαμίων κόλασινthe fact that the Peloponnesians did not come to their assistance enabled you to punish the SamiansT. 1.41.


a. The genitive of the articular infinitive is used to limit the meaning of substantives, adjectives, and verbs.

b. Adnominal (1290): ““τοῦ πιεῖν ἐπιθυ_μίᾳfrom desire to drinkT. 7.84, πρὸς τὴν πόλιν προσβαλόντες ἐς ἐλπίδα ἦλθον τοῦ ἑλεῖν they attacked the city and entertained hopes of taking it 2.56.

c. Partitive (1306): ““τοῦ θαρσεῖν τὸ πλεῖστον εἰληφότεςhaving gained the greatest amount of courageT. 4.34. After comparatives (1431): τί οὖν ἐστιν . . . τοῦ τοῖς φίλοις ἀρήγειν κάλλι_ον; what then is nobler than to help one's friends? X. C. 1.5.13.

d. After verbs: ““ἐπέσχομεν τοῦ δακρύ_εινwe desisted from weepingP. Ph. 117e (cp. 1392).

e. Purpose (cp. 1408), often a negative purpose: ““τοῦ μὴ τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖνin order not to do what was justD. 18.107, ““ἐτειχίσθη Ἀταλάντη . . . τοῦ μὴ λῃστὰ_ς . . . κακουργεῖν τὴν ΕὔβοιανAtalante was fortified to prevent pirates from ravaging EuboeaT. 2.32. More common is the use with ὑπέρ (2032 g) or ἕνεκα.

f. Genitive Absolute (2070): ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνοις δὲ ὄντος αἰεὶ τοῦ ἐπιχειρεῖν καὶ ἐφ᾽ ἡμῖν εἶναι δεῖ τὸ προαμύ_νασθαι since the power of attack is always in their hands, so in our hands should lie the power of repelling it in advance T. 3.12.

g. After prepositions, e.g. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐπὶ Κα_ρία_ν ἰέναι . . . ἐπὶ Φρυγία_ς ἐπορεύετο instead of going against Caria, he marched toward Phrygia X. H. 3.4.12, ““ἄνευ τοῦ σωφρονεῖνwithout exercising self-controlX. M. 4.3.1. To express purpose the genitive with ὑπέρ is very common: ““ὑπὲρ τοῦ τούτων γενέσθαι κύ_ριος . . . πάντα πρα_γματεύεταιhe devotes his every effort that he may become master of theseD. 8.45, ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ τὸ κελευόμενον ποιῆσαι in order not to do what was commanded 18. 204. Furthermore, after ἀπό, πρό, διά, μετά, περί, ὑπό, ἕνεκα, χάριν, χωρίς, πλήν, μέχρι; and after adverbs. In Hdt. τοῦ may be omitted after ἀντί.


a. With verbs, adjectives, and adverbs: thus, ““ἵνα . . . ἀπιστῶσι τῷ ἐμὲ τετι_μῆσθαι ὑπὸ δαιμόνωνthat they may distrust my having been honoured by divine powersX. Ap. 14, τῷ ζῆν ἐστί τι ἐναντίον, ὥσπερ τῷ ἐγρηγορέναι τὸ καθεύδειν; is it something opposed to living, as sleeping to waking? P. Ph. 71c, ““οὐδενὶ τῶν πάντων πλέον κεκράτηκε Φίλιππος τῷ πρότερος πρὸς τοῖς πρά_γμασι γίγνεσθαιPhilip has conquered us by nothing so much as by being beforehand in his operationsD. 8.11, ἅμα τῷ τι_μᾶν at the same time that we honour P. R. 468e, ““ἴσον δὲ τῷ προστένεινequal to sorrowing beforehandA. Ag. 252.

b. After prepositions: e.g. οὐ γὰρ ἐπὶ τῷ δοῦλοι, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοῖοι τοῖς λειπομένοις εἶναι ἐκπέμπονται (ἄποικοι) for colonists are not sent out on the basis of being inferiors, but on the basis of being the equals of those who are left at home T. 1.34, ““ μὲν πρὸς τῷ μηδὲν ἐκ τῆς πρεσβεία_ς λαβεῖν, τοὺς αἰχμαλώτους . . . ἐλύ_σατοthe one, in addition to gaining nothing from the embassy, ransomed the prisoners of warD. 19.229, ““ἐν τῷ φρονεῖν γὰρ μηδὲν ἥδιστος βίοςfor life is sweetest in being conscious of nothingS. Aj. 553.


a. Object (cp. 1989): ““δείσα_ς τὸ ζῆνfearing to liveP. A. 28d, ““μεῖζον μέν φαμεν κακὸν τὸ ἀδικεῖν, ἔλα_ττον δὲ τὸ ἀδικεῖσθαιwe call doing wrong a greater evil, being wronged a lesserP. G. 509c.

b. After prepositions: e.g. ““μέγιστον ἀγαθὸν τὸ πειθαρχεῖν φαίνεται εἰς τὸ καταπρά_ττειν τἀ_γαθάobedience appears to be an advantage of the greatest importance with regard to the successful accomplishment of excellent objectsX. C. 8.1.3, ““τῶν ἁπάντων ἀπερίοπτοί εἰσι παρὰ τὸ νι_κᾶνthey are indifferent to everything in comparison with victoryT. 1.41, ““πρὸς τὸ μετρίων δεῖσθαι πεπαιδευμένοςschooled to moderate needsX. M. 1.2.1, πῶς ἔχεις πρὸς τὸ ἐθέλειν ἂν ἰέναι ἄκλητος ἐπὶ δεῖπνον; how do you feel about being willing to go uninvited to supper? P. S. 174a (cp. ἐθέλοις ἂν ἰέναι). Furthermore, after διά, ἐπί, κατά, μετά, περί.

c. The accusative of the infinitive with τό appears after many verbs and verbal expressions which usually take only the simple infinitive. Such verbal expressions may be followed also by a genitive of a noun. Thus, ““τὸ σπεύδειν δέ σοι παραινῶI commend speed to theeS. Ph. 620, καρδία_ς δ᾽ ἐξίσταμαι τὸ δρᾶν I withdraw from my resolution so as to ( = and) do this thing S. Ant. 1105, μαθὼν γὰρ οὐκ ἂν ἀρνοίμην τὸ δρᾶν when I am informed, I will not refuse the deed S. Ph. 118, ““τὸ προθυ_μεῖσθαι δὲ συναύξειν τὸν οἶκον ἐπαιδεύομεν αὐτήνwe trained her to show zeal in assisting to increase our estateX. O. 9.12 (cp. 1628), ““τὸ ἐρᾶν ἔξαρνος εἶyou refuse to loveP. Lys. 205a.

d. So after adjectives. Thus, μακρὸς τὸ κρῖναι ταῦτα χὡ λοιπὸς χρόνος the future is long (i.e. time enough) to decide this S. El. 1030.

e. This object infinitive after verbs is often an internal accusative. The accusative after verbs and nouns is, in many cases, like an accusative of respect (1600); as ““τὸ δρᾶν οὐκ ἠθέλησανthey refused to do itS. O. C. 442, ““αἰσχύ_νονται τὸ τολμᾶνthey are ashamed to dareP. Soph. 247b, ““οὐδ᾽ ἐμοί τοι τοὐξανιστάναι ἐστὶ θάρσοςnor have I courage to remove theeS. O. C. 47, τὸ μὲν ἐς τὴν γῆν ἡμῶν ““ἐσβάλλειν . . . ἱκανοί εἰσιthey are able to make an inroad into our countryT. 6.17. This infinitive after adjectives (and sometimes after verbs) occurs when the simple infinitive expresses purpose or result, as in τίς Μήδων . . . σοῦ ἀπελείφθη τὸ μή σοι ἀκολουθεῖν; what one of the Medes remained away from you so as not to attend you? X. C. 5.1.25.

f. Some verbs take the articular infinitive as an object when the simple infinitive could not be used: ““μόνον ὁρῶν τὸ παίειν τὸν ἁλισκόμενονtaking heed only to strike any one he caughtX. C. 1.4.21.

g. Verbs of saying and thinking rarely take the articular infinitive (also with ἄν): ἐξομεῖ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι; wilt thou swear thou didst not know? S. Ant. 535, ““τῆς ἐλπίδος γὰρ ἔρχομαι δεδραγμένος, τὸ μὴ παθεῖν ἂν ἄλλο πλὴν τὸ μόρσιμονfor I come with good grip on the hope that I can suffer nothing save what is my fateS. Ant. 235.

h. On the use of the object infinitive with τὸ μή and τὸ μὴ οὐ, see 2744 and 2749.

i. The accusative with the infinitive may stand in the absolute construction: ἐπεί γε τὸ ἐλθεῖν τοῦτον, οἶμαι θεόν τινα αὐτὸν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὴν ἀγαγεῖν τὴν τι_μωρία_ν as for his coming, I believe that some god brought him to his very punishment Lyc. 91.


2035. Apposition (cp. 1987). The articular infinitive, in any case, is often used in apposition to a preceding word, especially a demonstrative.

““τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἀδικεῖν, τὸ πλέον τῶν ἄλλων ζητεῖν ἔχεινinjustice is this: to seek to have more than other peopleP. G. 483c, τί γὰρ τούτου μακαριώτερον, τοῦ γῆ μιχθῆναι κτλ. for what is more blessed than this: to be commingled with the earth, etc. X. C. 8.7.25, ““δοκεῖ τούτῳ διαφέρειν ἀνὴρ τῶν ἄλλων ζῴων, τῷ τι_μῆς ὀρέγεσθαιman differs herein from other creatures that he aspires after honourX. Hi. 7.3.

2036. In Exclamation (cp. 2015).—Thus, ““τῆς τύχης: τὸ ἐμὲ νῦν κληθέντα δεῦρο τυχεῖνmy ill-luck! that I should happen now to have been summoned hither!X. C. 2.2.3.

2037. With Adjuncts.—The articular infinitive may take various adjuncts including dependent clauses, the whole forming one large substantival idea.

““τὸ μὲν γὰρ πόλλ᾽ ἀπολωλεκέναι κατὰ τὸν πόλεμονthe fact that we have lost much in the warD. 1.10, πέπεισμαι . . . τὰ πλείω τῶν πρα_γμάτων ἡμᾶς ἐκπεφευγέναι τῷ μὴ βούλεσθαι τὰ δέοντα ποιεῖν, τῷ μὴ συνι_έναι I am persuaded that more of your advantages have escaped you from your not being willing to do your duty than from your ignorance 3. 3, καὶ γὰρ πάνυ μοι δοκεῖ ἄφρονος ἀνθρώπου εἶναι τὸ (μεγάλου ἔργου ὄντος τοῦ ἑαυτῷ τὰ δέοντα παρασκευάζειν) ““μὴ ἀρκεῖν τοῦτο, ἀλλὰ προσαναθέσθαι τὸ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις πολί_ταις ὧν δέονται πορίζεινand in fact, since it is a serious business to provide for one's own necessities, it seems to me to be the part of an utter fool not to rest content with that, but in addition to take upon himself the burden of providing for the needs of the rest of the communityX. M. 2.1.8.


2038. Verbs signifying (or suggesting) to hinder take both the simple infinitive and the articular infinitive. Such verbs may take the strengthening but redundant negative μή (2739); and some, when themselves negatived or appearing in a question expecting a negative answer, admit the addition of the sympathetic οὐ (2742). Hence we have a variety of constructions (described in 2744 ff.)

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