PARTICLES[*] 2769. Under the head of particles are included sentence adverbs (1094) and conjunctions. Many sentence adverbs remained such, some sank to mere enclitics, others became pure conjunctions, while still others fluctuated in function, being now adverbial, now conjunctional, as καί even and and, οὐδέ not even and nor, γάρ in fact and for, πρίν sooner and until or before. [*] 2770. Conjunctions are either coördinating or subordinating. The coördinating conjunctions with their several varieties are given in 2163. The subordinating conjunctions are Causal: ὅτι, διότι, διόπερ, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε, ὁπότε, ὡς (2240). Comparative: ὡς, ὥσπερ, καθάπερ, ὅπως, ᾗ, ὅπῃ, ᾗπερ (2463; cp. 2481). Concessive: καὶ εἰ (κει᾽), καὶ ἐό_ν (κἄ_ν), εἰ καί, ἐὰ_ν καί (2369). Conditional: εἰ, ἐά_ν, ἤν, ἄ_ν (2283). Consecutive: ὥστε, ὡς (2250). Declarative: ὅτι, διότι, οὕνεκα, ὁθούνεκα, ὡς (2578). Final: ἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς, μή, etc. (2193; cp. 2209, 2221). Local: οὗ, ὅπου, οἷ, ὅποι, ἔνθα, ὅθεν, ὁπόθεν, ᾗ, ὅπῃ, etc (2498). Temporal: ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἡνίκα, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὡς, μέχρι, ἔστε, ἕως, πρίν, etc (2383). Some conjunctions belong to more than one class. [*] 2771. Greek has an extraordinary number of sentence adverbs (or particles in the narrow sense) having a logical or emotional (rhetorical) value. Either alone or in combination these sentence adverbs give a distinctness to the relations between ideas which is foreign to other languages, and often resist translation by separate words, which in English are frequently over emphatic and cumbersome in comparison to the light and delicate nature of the Greek originals (e.g. ἄρα, γέ, τοί). The force of such words is frequently best rendered by pause, stress, or alterations of pitch. To catch the subtle and elusive meaning of these often apparently insignificant elements of speech challenges the utmost vigilance and skill of the student. [*] 2772. The particles show different degrees of independence as regards their position. Many are completely independent and may occupy any place in the sentence; some may occur only at the beginning (prepositive particles, as ἀτάρ); others find their place only after one or more words at the beginning (postpositive particles, as γάρ, δέ); and some are attached closely to a preceding word o<*> even form compounds with that word wherever it may occur (γέ, τέ). [*] 2773. Some verbal forms have virtually become particles, e.g. ἄγε used with the second person plural, ὁρᾷς used of several persons, parenthetic οἶμαι, δῆλο<*> ὅτι, εὖ οἶδ᾽ ὅτι, εὖ ἴσθ᾽ ὅτι (2585). [*] 2774. As regards their meaning, particles may be arranged in classes, e.g adversative, affirmative, asseverative, concessive, confirmative, conjunctive, infer ential, intensive, interrogative, limitative, negative, etc. These classes canno<*> always be sharply distinguished: some particles fall under two or more classes Many particles, which serve to set forth the logical relation between clauses, ha<*> originally only an intensive or confirmatory force that was confined to their ow<*> clause. The following sections deal only with the commoner uses of the most noteworthy particles.
[*] 2775. ἀλλά, a strongly adversative conjunction (stronger than δέ) connects sentences and clauses, and corresponds pretty closely to but; at times ἀλλά need not or cannot be translated (2781 b). In form (but with changed accent) ἀλλά was originally the same wor<*> as the accusative neuter plural ἄλλα other things used adverbially = on the other hand. ἀλλά marks opposition, contrast, protest, dif<*> ference, objection, or limitation; and is thus used both where one notion entirely excludes another and where two notions are no<*> mutually exclusive. ἀλλά is often freely repeated in successive clauses. [*] 2776. The Antecedent Statement is Negative.—In its simplest use ἀλλ<*> introduces a positive statement after a negative clause. Thus, οὐκ ἀνδρὸς ὅρκο<*> πίστις, ἀλλ᾽ ὅρκων ἀνήρ his oath is not the warrant of a man, but the man is war rant of his oath A. fr. 394, οὐ γὰρ κραυγῇ ἀλλὰ σι_γῇ ὡς ἀνυστὸν . . . προσῇσαν fo<*> they came on, not with shouts, but with as little noise as possible X. A. 1.8.11. a. After a question implying a negative answer or a question to be refute<*> ἀλλά may have the force of (nay) rather, on the contrary. Thus, τί δεῖ σε ἰένα . . .; ἀλλὰ ἄλλους πέμψον what's the need of your going? Nay rather send oth<*> ers X. A. 4.6.19. Here ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ (μή) has the force of and not rather (2781 b) as τίδεῖ ἐμβαλεῖν λόγον περὶ τούτου, ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ προειπεῖν ὅτι οὕτω ποιήσεις; why is i<*> necessary to propose a discussion about this and not rather announce that you will have it so? X. C. 2.2.19. [*] 2777. After a negative clause, or a question implying a negative answer ἀλλά, or more commonly the colloquial ἀλλ᾽ ἤ, may mean except, the combination being equivalent either to ἀλλά or to ἤ. In the preceding clause a form of ἄλλο or ἕτερος is often expressed. Thus, ““ἔπαισε . . . νιν οὔτις ἀλλ᾽ ἐγώ” no one smote him except myself” S. O. T. 1331, ““οὐδὲν ἐθέλοντες ἐπαινεῖν ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τὸν πλοῦτον” wishing to praise nothing except wealth” P. R. 330c (here ἀλλ᾽ ἤ is detached from οὐδέν) τίνα ἄλλον ἔχουσι λόγον βοηθοῦντες ἐμοὶ ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τὸν ὀρθόν κτλ.; what other reason<*> have they for supporting me except the true reason, etc.? P. A. 34b. a. Distinguish the use of ἀλλ᾽ ἤ except (= εἰ μή) in τὸ γοῦν σημεῖον ἕτερον φαί νεται, ἀλλ᾽ ἢ οὐ καθορῶ the device at any rate appears different, unless I can't se<*> Ar. Eq. 953. [*] 2778. οὐδὲν ἀλλ᾽ ἤ nothing but is also used elliptically, apparently by a<*> original suppression of a form of ποιῶ or γίγνομαι; in effect, however, the phras<*> has acquired a purely adverbial sense (merely). Thus, διεφθάρμεθα . . . ὑπ᾽ ἀνδρῶ οὐδὲν ἀλλ᾽ ἢ φενα_κίζειν δυναμένων we have been ruined by men who are able (to do nothing except deceive (i.e. able merely to deceive) I. 8.36. a. With the above use compare οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἤ nothing else than, used without, and with, ellipse; as οἱ μύ_ριοι ἱππεῖς οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ μύ_ριοί εἰσιν ἄνθρωποι your ten thousand horse are nothing more (else) than ten thousand men X. A. 3.2.18, οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ πόλιν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀπόλειπων ἕκαστος doing nothing else than each abandoning his own city T. 2.16. So also οὐδὲν ἄλλο . . . ἤ D. 8.27. Cp. ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἤ, as in ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἢ ἐκ γῆς ἐναυμάχουν they did nothing else than conduct ( = they practically conducted) a sea-fight from the land T. 4.14. Cp. 946, 2652. [*] 2779. The origin of ἀλλ᾽ ἤ is disputed, some scholars regarding ἀλλ᾽ as ἀλλά (originally ἄλλα, 2775), while others derive ἀλλ᾽ directly from ἄλλο, which is thought to have lost its force and consequently its accent. In some passages the Mss. do not distinguish between ἀλλ᾽ and ἄλλ᾽; and ἀλλ᾽ ἤ and ἄλλο ἤ differ only slightly in meaning. In some of the above cases ἀλλ᾽ has an adjectival force, in some it hovers between an adjective and a conjunction, and in others it clearly has become a conjunction. [*] 2780. After a comparative (μᾶλλον, τὸ πλέον) in a negative clause ἀλλά has the force of as. Thus, καὶ ἔστιν ὁ πόλεμος οὐχ ὅπλων τὸ πλέον ἀλλὰ δαπάνης and war is not so much (lit. more) a matter of arms as (but rather) of money T. 1.83. Here the clause with ἀλλά is more emphatic than if ἤ had been used. Cp. “there needed no more but to advance one step”: Steele. [*] 2781. The Antecedent Statement is Affirmative.—ἀλλά is sometimes found after an affirmative statement. a. The antecedent clause often has a concessive force, and frequently takes μέν (2900). Thus, ““τὰ μὲν καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ καλῶς ἔχειν: ἀλλὰ τὰ πλάγια λυ_πεὶ με” the part where we are seems to me to be well disposed, but the wings cause me uneasiness” X. C. 7.1.16. b. ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ (μή) after an affirmative statement often has the force of and not, and not rather, instead of (sometimes with a touch of irony). Thus, ἐκεῖθεν ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐνθένδε ἡρπάσθη she was carried off from there and not (or simply not) from here P. Phae. 229d, ἐμοὶ ὀργίζονται ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ αὑτοῖς they are angry with me instead of (or and not rather with) themselves P. A. 23c. In such cases καὶ οὐ (μή) would not repudiate the opposition. [*] 2782. ἀλλά in Apodosis.—After a concession or a condition expressed or implied, the apodosis may be emphatically introduced by ἀλλά, ἀλλὰ . . . γε, ἀλλ᾽ οὖν γε still, yet, at least. Thus, εἰ σῶμα δοῦλον, ἀλλ᾽ ὁ νοῦς ἐλεύθερος if the body is enslaved, the mind at least is free A. fr. 854, εἰ δ᾽ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις ἡττῴμεθα, ἀλλὰ τό γέ τοι πῦρ κρεῖττον καρποῦ ἐστιν but if we should be baffled in all these points, still, as they say, fire is stronger than the fruit of the field X. A. 2.5.19. So also in clauses other than conditional; as ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεὶ . . . πατέρα τόνδ᾽ ἐμὸν οὐκ ἀνέτλα_τ᾽, . . . ἀλλ᾽ ἐμὲ . . . οἰκτί_ρατε but since ye did not bear with my father, pity me at least S. O. C. 241. [*] 2783. ἀλλά attached to Single Words.—ἀλλά, attached to a single word in an adverbial sense, may stand in the interior of the sentence (not in Hom.). Thus, ἀλλὰ νῦν now at least, as in τί δῆτ᾽ ἂν ἀλλὰ νῦν σ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ὠφελοῖμ᾽ ἐγώ, how pray, can I serve thee even now? S. Ant. 552. So with γέ, as ““ἐὰ_ν οὖν ἀλλὰ νῦν γ᾽ ἔτι . . . ἐθελήσητε” if therefore you still desire even now” D. 3.33 (and often in D.). Here ἀλλὰ νῦν implies εἰ μὴ πρότερον. ἀλλά sometimes apparently implies εἰ μή τι ἄλλο or εἰ μὴ ἄλλοις, etc., as λέγ᾽ ἀλλὰ τοῦτο say this at least (say but this) S. El. 415. [*] 2784. ἀλλά opposing Whole Sentences.—ἀλλά well, well but, nay but, however is often used, especially at the beginning of a speech, in opposition either to something said (or supposed to be meant) by another, or to a latent feeling in the mind of the writer or speaker himself. Thus, ἀλλὰ πρῶτον μὲν μνησθήσομαι . . . ὃ τελευταῖον κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ εἶπε well, I will first allude to the charge against me which he mentioned last X. H. 2.3.35, ἀλλ᾽ ὤφελε μὲν Κῦρος ζῆν: ἐπεὶ δὲ τετελεύτηκεν κτλ. well, I would that Cyrus were alive; but since he is dead, etc. X. A. 2.1.4. Often of remonstrance or protest, as ἀλλ᾽ ἀμήχανον nay, it is impossible E. El. 529. ἀλλά is also especially common when a previous train of thought or remark is impatiently interrupted, as ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν τί δεῖ λέγειν; but what is the need of recounting this? S. Ph. 11. Similarly in a. Replies (often in quick, abrupt, or decisive answers): ἤρετο ὅ τι εἴη τὸ σύνθημα: ὁ δ᾽ ἀπεκρἱ_νατο: Ζεὺς σωτὴρ καὶ νἱ_κη: ὁ δὲ Κῦρος ἀκούσα_ς Ἀλλὰ δέχομαί τε, ἔφη, καὶ τοῦτο ἔστω he asked what the watchword was; and he replied: “Zeus the saviour and Victory;” and Cyrus, on hearing this, said, “Well, I accept it and so let it be” X. A. 1.8.17. b. Assent, with an adversative sense implied (cp. oh, well): ἀλλ᾽ ει᾽ δοκεῖ, χωρῶμεν well, if it pleases thee, let us be going S. Ph. 645. c. Appeals, exhortations, proposals, and commands: ““ἀλλ᾽ ἴωμεν” but let us go” P. Pr. 311a, ἀλλ᾽ ἐμοὶ πείθου καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποίει nay, take my advice and don't refuse P. Cr. 45a. The tone here is often impatient. d. Wishes and imprecations: ἀλλ᾽ εὐτυχοίης well, my blessings on thee! S. O. T. 1478. e. Questions, to mark surprise: πῶς εἶπας; ἀλλ᾽ ἦ καὶ σοφὸς λέληθας ὤν; what dost thou mean? can it really be that thou art subtle too and without my knowing it? E. Alc. 58. [*] 2785.