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τῶν τε γὰρ μαινομένων: for, as among madmen (part. gen.), followed by τῶν τε μεριμνώντων as a parallel. Notice the ‘concinnity’ of this passage; both the μαινόμενοι and the μεριμνῶντες are divided into three groups, each containing two contrasts.

δεδιέναι: see on δοξάζειν in 13.

τὰ μὴ φοβερά: μή instead of οὐ, since τὰ φοβερά is indefinite. G. 1613; H. 1026. Distinguish between δεδιέναι and φοβεῖσθαι.

ὁτιοῦν: -οῦν, like Lat. -cunque, is equivalent to Eng. ‘-ever,’ ‘-soever.’ G. 432; H. 285.

ἐξιτητέον: equivalent to ἐξιτέον. G. 808; H. 477. For the impers. const. of the verbal, see G. 1597; H. 990.

τὰ τυχόντα: chanced on, hence “common.” The whole phrase is nearly equivalent to Eng. ‘stocks and stones,’ and seems to indicate a sort of fetichism. Breitenbach understands it of grotesque stone or wooden images, and cites τὰ δὲ ἔτι παλαίτερα (in still more remote times) καὶ τοῖς πᾶσιν Ἕλλησι τιμὰς θεῶν (divine honors) ἀντὶ ἀγαλμάτων (statues) εἶχον ἀργοὶ (undressed) λίθοι Paus. vii. 22. 3.

τὸ ὄν: all existence, “the universe,” to be supplied also as subj. for ἄπειρα (εἶναι) τὸ πλῆθος. That the universe was a unit (ἓν μόνον) was the doctrine of the Eleatic philosophers, and esp. of Xenophanes (about 540 B.C.), the founder of that school. Plato discusses this doctrine in the Parmenides. The contrary view (ἄπειρα τὸ πλῆθος) was held by the Atomists, esp. Leucippus (about 500 B.C.) and his pupil Democrĭtus, both of Abdēra in Thrace.

ἄν ποτε κινηθῆναι: equivalent to ἄν ποτε κινηθείη in direct discourse. G. 1494; H. 964. The doctrine was that of the Eleatic Zeno (about 460 B.C.): ‘Motion is impossible,’ said he, ‘for it must take place either where a body is, or where it is not; it cannot move where it is, and it certainly cannot where it is not.’ On the other hand, the ‘perpetual flux’ (ἀεὶ κινεῖσθαι) was maintained by Heraclītus of Ephesus (about 500 B.C.). For an account of these various schools, see Schwegler's, Zeller's, or Ueberweg's Hist. of Philosophy, or Marshall's Hist. of Greek Philosophy.

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